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Organizational Behavior in Education : Instructional Leadership and School Reform,9780205321988
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Organizational Behavior in Education : Instructional Leadership and School Reform

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205321988

ISBN10:
0205321984
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

The seventh edition of Organizational Behavior in Education relates the study of educational leadership to the challenge of how readers can participate effectively in school reform. Readers are challenged to develop and act upon a game plan for implementing school reform from the first chapter. The seventh edition continues to examine such aspects of organizational behavior as organizational culture, leadership, motivation, change, conflict, and decision-making while maintaining high standards of scholarship and a lucid, readily accessible writing style.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Prospective xvii
Toward a Theory of Practice
1(26)
Learning Objectives
1(1)
About This Chapter
2(2)
Two Principal Sources of Conflict
4(5)
The ``Great Debate'': Traditional versus Progressive Education
4(1)
The Beginnings of the Great Educational Debate
5(2)
The Backlash of the 1950s
7(2)
The Neoprogressives Emerge in the 1960s
9(1)
The Contemporary Debate on Schooling
9(8)
The Central Park East Schools
12(1)
The Debate Continues
13(2)
The National ``Summit Meetings'' on Educational Standards
15(2)
Ways of Understanding Organizations
17(1)
Theory of Action
17(4)
Theory of Practice
21(1)
The Game Plan: A Coaching Metaphor
22(1)
Conclusion
23(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
23(1)
Suggested Reading
24(1)
Notes
25(2)
Mainstreams of Organizational Thought
27(31)
Learning Objectives
27(1)
About This Chapter
28(6)
What Is Organizational Behavior?
29(2)
Why Study Organizational Behavior?
31(1)
Why Study the History of Organizational Behavior?
32(1)
Why Study Theory?
33(1)
Public Administration as a Beginning
34(1)
Impact of the Industrial Revolution
35(4)
Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
35(2)
The Beginning of Modern Organizational Theory
37(1)
Emergence of Bureaucratic Organizational Theory
37(2)
The Rise of Classical Organizational Theory
39(5)
Scientific Management versus Classical Organizational Theory
40(1)
Organizational Concepts of Classical Theory
41(2)
The Ideas of Mary Parker Follett
43(1)
Classical and Neoclassical Administrative Concepts
44(1)
The Human Relations Movement
44(5)
The Western Electric Studies
45(4)
The Organizational Theory Movement
49(6)
Human Relations and Organizational Behavior
52(3)
Conclusion
55(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
55(1)
Suggested Reading
56(1)
Notes
56(2)
Organizational Theory in the Modern Period
58(50)
Learning Objectives
58(1)
About This Chapter
59(1)
Organizational Theory
60(1)
Theory Defined and Described
61(1)
Two Major Perspectives on Educational Organizations
61(6)
Bureaucratic Views
62(4)
Human Resources Development Views
66(1)
Theory X and Theory Y
67(5)
Organizational Structure and People
72(1)
General Systems Theory
72(2)
Basic Concepts of System
73(1)
Social Systems Theory
74(5)
A Contextual Approach
75(4)
Role Theory
79(6)
Functional Roles in the Group
84(1)
Role Related to Social Systems Theory
85(7)
Equilibrium
88(3)
Homeostasis
91(1)
Feedback
91(1)
Sociotechnical Systems Theory
92(4)
Contingency Theory
96(6)
Rational Planning Models
96(2)
Open System Related to Contingency Theory
98(1)
Response to Technological Change
99(1)
Interaction with External Environment
100(1)
Contingency Theory and Organizational Behavior in Schools
101(1)
Conclusion
102(2)
Working on Your Game Plan
104(1)
Suggested Reading
105(1)
Notes
105(3)
The Human Dimension of Organization
108(28)
Learning Objectives
108(1)
About This Chapter
109(1)
Reconceptualizing the Nature of Organizations
110(2)
Collapse of Traditional Organizational Theory
112(1)
Rise in Qualitative Research Methods
113(5)
Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems
115(1)
Educational Organizations as Dual Systems
116(2)
Building Human Capital
118(5)
Human Resources as Assets
120(2)
Organizational Culture as a Bearer of Authority
122(1)
Nontheoretical Influences on Organizational Thought
123(4)
Effective Schools Research
123(1)
Findings of the Effective Schools Research
123(1)
Five Basic Assumptions of Effective Schools
123(2)
Seeking an Effective Schools Formula
125(1)
Emerging Approach to Effective Schools
125(2)
The School Reform Movement
127(2)
The First Wave of School Reform
127(1)
The Second Wave of School Reform
128(1)
Turmoil in School Reform
129(1)
Three Approaches to School Reform
129(1)
Conclusion
130(3)
The Effort to Create an Administrative Science
131(1)
Centrality of the Human Dimension of Organization
131(1)
Where We Are and Where We Are Going
132(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
133(1)
Suggested Reading
134(1)
Notes
134(2)
Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate
136(45)
Learning Objectives
136(1)
About This Chapter
137(1)
Human Resources Development
138(10)
Defining and Describing Organizational Climate and Culture
139(3)
Research on Organizational Culture
142(3)
Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate Compared and Contrasted
145(3)
How Organizational Culture Is Created
148(5)
Symbolism and Culture
148(2)
Organizational Climate
150(1)
The Affective Aspects of Culture and Climate
151(1)
Multiple Cultures
151(2)
How Organizational Climate Is Created
153(6)
Group Norms
154(1)
Person-Environment Interaction
154(2)
Concept of Behavior Settings
156(2)
Describing and Assessing Organizational Culture in Schools
158(1)
Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness
159(5)
Cause and Effect
159(1)
The Problem of Measuring School Effectiveness
160(4)
Describing and Assessing Organizational Climate in Schools
164(5)
Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ)
164(2)
Organizational Climate Index (OCI)
166(3)
Four Management Systems
169(5)
Conclusion
174(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
175(1)
Suggested Reading
176(2)
Notes
178(3)
Organizational Change
181(51)
Learning Objectives
181(2)
About This Chapter
183(1)
School Reform and Change
184(2)
Power Relationships and School Restructuring
185(1)
Aims of Educational Reform
186(1)
The Tradition of Change in American Education
186(3)
Natural Diffusion Processes
187(1)
Sociological Views of Diffusion
188(1)
Planned, Managed Diffusion
188(1)
Three Strategies of Planned Change
189(1)
Empirical-Rational Strategies of Change
189(4)
Research, Development, and Diffusion (R, D, and D)
189(1)
The ``Agricultural Model''
190(2)
Assumptions and Implications of KPU Approaches to Change
192(1)
Other Empirical-Rational Strategies
193(1)
Power-Coercive Strategies of Change
193(1)
A Third Strategy: Organizational Self-Renewal
194(18)
The Rand Study of Federal Programs Supporting Educational Change
194(2)
A Normative-Reeducative Strategy
196(1)
Organizational Health
197(1)
Organization Self-Renewal
198(1)
The Learning Organization
199(8)
A Sociotechnical View
207(1)
Force-Field Analysis
208(4)
Research on the Effectiveness of OD
212(3)
W. Edwards Deming and Total Quality Management
215(9)
Transforming Change
216(1)
Simple Change Different from Transforming Change
217(1)
Brief Background on Deming
218(1)
Lessons from Deming's Work
219(5)
Conclusion
224(2)
Working on Your Game Plan
226(1)
Suggested Reading
227(2)
Notes
229(3)
Leadership
232(31)
Learning Objectives
232(1)
About This Chapter
233(1)
The Power of Leaders
234(4)
Leadership Different from Command
234(2)
Power Defined
236(1)
Leadership Defined
237(1)
Two-Factor Leadership Theory Abandoned
238(1)
Leadership as a Relationship with Followers
239(4)
Your Understanding of Human Nature Is Critical
241(1)
Bureaucratic View of Leadership
242(1)
Transforming Leadership
243(5)
Transforming Leadership Compared and Contrasted with Transactional Leadership
243(1)
Moral Leadership
244(1)
A Progression
244(1)
A Process of Growth and Development
245(1)
Leadership and Vision
246(1)
Whose Vision Is It, Anyway?
247(1)
Manipulation and Empowerment
248(2)
Critical Theory
249(1)
Leadership and Management
250(2)
Empowerment and Leadership
251(1)
A Moral or Ethical Problem
251(1)
A Pragmatic Guide to Leader Behavior
252(3)
A Pragmatic View of Leadership
252(1)
The Scanlon Plan
253(1)
Servant Leadership
254(1)
Leadership and la Difference
255(2)
Conclusion
257(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
258(1)
Suggested Reading
259(2)
Notes
261(2)
Decision Making
263(41)
Learning Objectives
263(1)
About This Chapter
264(2)
Individual versus Organizational Decision Making
266(2)
Rationality in Decision Making
268(3)
Rational Decision-Making Models
269(2)
Limits on Rationality in Decision Making
271(11)
The Gap between Theory and Practice
272(1)
Five Leadership Styles
272(1)
Seven Situation Issues
273(1)
Decision-Process Flowchart
273(2)
The Nature of Managerial and Administrative Work
275(2)
How Administrators Think
277(3)
The Influence of Organizational Culture on Decision Making
280(2)
Closing the Gap between Theory and Practice
282(1)
Theory of Practice
282(2)
Human Resources Development
283(1)
Participative Decision Making
284(3)
Participative Decision Making and Empowerment
285(2)
Participative or Democratic?
287(7)
An Explicit Decision-Making Process
289(1)
Who Identifies the Problem?
290(1)
Emergent and Discrete Problems
290(2)
Who Should Participate?
292(1)
Desire of Individuals to Participate
292(2)
Team Administration
294(2)
Participation Requires High Level of Skills
295(1)
A Paradigm for Decision Making
296(2)
Conclusion
298(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
299(2)
Suggested Reading
301(1)
Notes
302(2)
Conflict in Organizations
304(24)
Learning Objectives
304(1)
About This Chapter
305(1)
The Nature of Conflict in Organizations
306(5)
Definition of Conflict
306(1)
Conflict Different from Attacks
307(1)
Contemporary Views of Conflict
308(1)
Effects of Organizational Conflict
308(1)
The Criterion: Organizational Performance
309(2)
The Dynamics of Organizational Conflict
311(5)
Hostility
311(1)
A Contingency View
312(1)
A Process View of Conflict
312(2)
A Structural View of Conflict
314(1)
An Open-Systems View of Conflict
315(1)
Approaches to Organizational Conflict
316(4)
The Win-Lose Orientation to Conflict
316(2)
A Contingency Approach to Conflict
318(1)
Diagnosing Conflict
318(2)
A Contingency Approach to Diagnosis of Conflict
320(3)
Conclusion
323(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
324(1)
Suggested Reading
325(1)
Notes
326(2)
Motivation
328(41)
Learning Objectives
328(2)
About This Chapter
330(1)
The Meaning and Patterns of Motivation
330(2)
First Pattern: Direction in Making Choices
330(1)
Second Pattern: Persistence
331(1)
Third Pattern: Intensity
331(1)
The Extrinsic-Intrinsic Debate
332(1)
Extrinsic, or Behaviorist, Views
332(1)
Intrinsic Views of Motivation
332(1)
Individual and Group Motivation
333(1)
The Western Electric Studies Revisited
333(4)
The Illumination Studies
334(1)
The Relay Inspection Group Studies
335(1)
Central Findings of the Studies
335(1)
Impact of the Studies
336(1)
Contemporary Views of the Western Electric Studies
337(1)
Individual Differences
337(2)
In Praise of Diversity
338(1)
Archetypes
339(1)
Human Intelligence
339(3)
Gardner's Seven Dimensions of Intelligence
340(2)
Temperament and Organizational Behavior
342(3)
The Four Psychological Types
342(1)
Four Basic Dimensions of Huma Personality
343(1)
Introversion-Extraversion
344(1)
Sensation-Intuition and Thinking-Feeling
344(1)
Perceiving-Judging
345(1)
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
345(2)
Introversion-Extraversion
345(1)
A Dimension, Rather Than Either-Or
346(1)
Intuition-Sensation
346(1)
Intrinsic Motivation
347(1)
Cognitive Views of Motivation
348(4)
Achievement Motivation
348(2)
McClelland and the ``Spirit of Capitalism''
350(1)
Fear of Success
351(1)
The Humanistic Perspective
352(11)
Abraham Maslow: Motivation as a Hierarchy of Needs
353(5)
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
358(5)
Integrating Herzberg's and Maslow's Theories
363(1)
Conclusion: General Principles
364(1)
Working on Your Game Plan
365(1)
Suggested Reading
366(1)
Notes
366(3)
School Reform
369(30)
Learning Objectives
369(1)
About This Chapter
370(1)
Market-Based School Reform
371(10)
Economic Theory and School Reform
374(3)
School Reform as Investment Opportunity
377(1)
Education Management Organizations
378(3)
Contracting versus Privatization
381(1)
Standards-Based School Reform
381(4)
Whole School Reform
385(6)
Increasing School Autonomy
386(2)
Support for School Leaders
388(1)
Coalition of Essential Schools
389(1)
Accelerated Schools
390(1)
Comer School Development Program
390(1)
An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform
391(1)
Teacher Education and School Reform
392(2)
National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER)
393(1)
The American Council on Education Initiative
393(1)
The Flexner Report on Medical Education as Precedent
394(1)
Conclusion
394(1)
Your Game Plan: A Work in Progress
395(1)
Suggested Reading
396(1)
Notes
396(3)
Glossary 399(6)
Author Index 405(8)
Subject Index 413


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