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Organized Organic Ultrathin Films Fundamentals and Applications,9783527327331
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Organized Organic Ultrathin Films Fundamentals and Applications



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This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.

Author Biography

Dr. Katsuhiko Ariga is a director of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS). He received his B.Eng. M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees from the Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT). He was a research associate at TIT, worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Texas at Austin, and then served as a group leader in the Supermolecules Project at JST. Thereafter, he worked as an associate professor in the Nara Institute of Science and Technology, and then entered the ERATO Nanospace Project, JST.
Ariga?s research interests are the fabrication of novel nanostructures based on molecular recognition and thin film technologies, including Langmuir-Blodgett, layer-by-layer, and mesoporous films, and has authored over 200 papers, 7 book chapters (with a further 14 in press) and 1 book. He has experience teaching students as an assistant professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology (1986-1992) and as an associate professor at Nara Institute of Science and Technology (1998-2001).

Table of Contents

Preface IX

List of Contributors XI

1 Introduction 1
Katsuhiko Ariga

2 Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) 7
Toshihiro Kondo, Ryo Yamada, and Kohei Uosaki

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Preparation and Characterization 8

2.2.1 Organothiols on Au 8

2.2.2 Organosilanes on SiOx Surfaces 15

2.2.3 SAMs on Si Surface via Si–C Bonding 17

2.3 Functions and Applications 20

2.3.1 Surface Coating and Patterning 21

2.3.2 Sensor Applications 23

2.3.3 Nanotribology 26

2.3.4 Advanced Applications 28 Electron Transfer 28 Photoinduced Electron Transfer 29 Luminescence 34 Catalytic Activity 34

2.4 Future Perspective 36

References 37

3 Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) Film 43
Ken-ichi Iimura and Teiji Kato

3.1 Concept and Mechanism 43

3.2 Preparation and Characterization 43

3.2.1 Gibbs Monolayers 43

3.2.2 Langmuir Monolayers 45 Basic Measurements of Properties of Langmuir Monolayers 45 A–T isobars 47 π–A isotherms 50 Stability of Langmuir Monolayers 52

3.2.3 In situ Characterization of Monolayers at the Subphase Surface 56 Brewster-Angle Microscopy (BAM) 56 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy 57 X-ray Refl ectometry and Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffractometry 61

3.2.4 Transfer to Solid Supports 63 Instruments for LB Film Deposition 65 Turnover of Amphiphile Molecules during Deposition 67 Horizontal Lifting-Up Deposition 69 Horizontal Scooping-Up 71

3.3 Functions and Applications 73

3.3.1 Molecular Recognition 73 Molecular Recognition by Hydrogen Bonding and Electrostatic Interaction at the Air/Water Interface 73 Chiral Discrimination at the Air/Water Interface 77 Macrocyclic Hosts 79 Dynamic Host Cavity 80

3.3.2 Multilayer Films for Photoelectronic Functions 83 Molecular Photodiode 83 Fullerene C60 Containing LB Film 85 Optical Logic Gate/Photoswitch 87

3.3.3 Biomimetic Functions 88 Biomembrane Models – Langmuir Monolayers of Lipids 89 Lung Surfactants 93 Biomimetic Mineralization 94

3.3.4 Advanced Applications 95 Sensors 95 Photoresponsive Films 98

References 99

4 Layer-by-Layer (LbL) Assembly 107
Katsuhiko Ariga

4.1 Concept and Mechanism 107

4.2 Preparation and Characterization 109

4.2.1 Applicable Materials and Interactions 109

4.2.2 Thin-Film Preparation: Fundamental Procedure and Characterization 114

4.2.3 Various Driving Forces and Techniques 120

4.2.4 Three-Dimensional Assemblies 129

4.3 Functions and Applications 136

4.3.1 Physicochemical Applications of LbL Thin Films 137

4.3.2 Biomedical Applications of LbL Thin Films 143

4.4 Brief Summary and Perspectives 153

Further Reading 154

5 Other Thin Films 157
Mineo Hashizume, Takeshi Serizawa, and Norihiro Yamada

5.1 Bilayer Vesicle and Cast Film 157

5.1.1 Definition of a Bilayer Structure, a Bilayer Membrane, and a Bilayer Vesicle 157

5.1.2 Formation of a Bilayer Structure 159 Bilayer Forming Amphiphiles 159 Properties of Bilayer Membrane and Diagnostics of Bilayer Formation 162 Mechanism and Preparation of Bilayer Formation 164 Future of the Bilayer Vesicle 166

5.1.3 Cast Films Containing a Bilayer Structure 166

5.2 Self-Assembled Fibers, Tubes, and Ribbons 169

5.2.1 Introduction 169

5.2.2 Finding a Helical Superstructure 169

5.2.3 Organogel 172

5.2.4 Control of Aggregate Morphology 173 Composite Structure with Two or More Different Parts 175 Hydrogen Bonding to Immobilize Orderly Molecular Arrangement 175 Hierarchic Interaction and Further Interaction 177

5.3 Polymer Brush Layer 179

5.3.1 Definition of Polymer Brushes 179

5.3.2 Preparation of Polymer Brushes 180

5.3.3 Properties and Applications of Concentrated Polymer Brushes 182

5.4 Organic–Inorganic Hybrids 184

5.5 Colloidal Layers 191

5.6 Newly Appearing Techniques 195

5.6.1 Material-Binding Peptide 195

5.6.2 Block-Copolymer Films 197

5.6.3 Nanoimprint Lithography 200

References 200

Index 205

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