9780814774953

Outside the Lines : African Americans and the Integration of the National Football League

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780814774953

  • ISBN10:

    0814774954

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-11-01
  • Publisher: New York University Press

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Summary

Outside the Linestraces how sports laid a foundation for social change long before the judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration.Watching a football game on a Sunday evening, most sports fans do not realize the profound impact the National Football League had on the civil rights movement. Similarly, in a sport where seven out of ten players are black, few are fully aware of the history and contributions of their athletic forebears. Among the touchdowns and tackles lies a rich history of African American life and the struggle to achieve equal rights.Although the Supreme Court did not reverse their 1896 decision of "separate but equal" in thePlessy v Fergusoncase until more than fifty years later, sports laid a foundation for social change long before our judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration.In this chronicle of black NFL athletes, Charles K. Ross has given us the story of the Jackie Robinsons of American football.

Author Biography

Charles K. Ross is an assistant professor of Afro-American studies and history at the University of Mississippi.

Table of Contents

Introduction 1(2)
Kickoff: The First Black Pro
3(18)
Early Black Pioneers: From Fritz Pollard to Joe Lillard
21(28)
Invisible Men: The NFL Color Barrier
49(32)
Reintegration: Washington, Strode, Willis, and Motley
81(18)
First and Ten: The Early Years of Reintegration
99(20)
A New League with Old Rules: ``The Golden Decade of the 1950s''
119(24)
Touchdown: The Integration of the Washington Redskins
143(16)
Epilogue: The State of the Game 159(6)
Appendix: African Americans in Pro Football, 1904--1962 165(14)
Notes 179(12)
Bibliography 191(6)
Index 197(4)
About the Author 201

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