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In 2008 for the first time the majority of the planet's inhabitants lived in cities and towns. Becoming globally urban has been one of mankind's greatest collective achievements over time and raises many questions. How did global city systems evolve and interact in the past? How have historic urban patterns impacted on those of the contemporary world? And what were the key drivers in the roller-coaster of urban change over the millennia - market forces such as trade and industry? rulers and governments? competition and collaboration between cities? or the urban environment and demographic forces? This pioneering comparative work by fifty leading scholars drawn from a range of disciplines offers the first detailed comparative study of urban development from ancient times to the present day.
The Handbook explores not only the main trends in the growth of cities and towns across the world - in Asia and the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and the Americas - and the different types of cities from great metropolitan centres to suburbs, colonial cities, and market towns, but also many of the essential themes in the making and remaking of the urban world: the role of power, economic development, migration, social inequality, environmental challenge and the urban response, religion and representation, cinema, and urban creativity. Split into three parts covering Ancient cities, the medieval and early modern period, and the modern and contemporary era, it begins with an introduction by the editor identifying the importance and challenges of research on cities in world history as well as the crucial outlines of urban development since the earliest cities in ancient Mesopotamia to the present.
Peter Clark was until recently Professor of European Urban History at the University of Helsinki. Educated at Oxford he was the first director (1985) of the Centre for Urban History at the University of Leicester where he remains Visiting Professor. In 1989 he helped found the European Association for Urban History and he has published or edited over 20 books on urban, social, cultural and environmental history. In 2010 he received an honorary degree from Stockholm University.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction, Peter Clark
Part I: Early Cities
2. Mesopotamia, Augusta McMahon
3. Cities of the Ancient Mediterranean, Robin Osborne and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill
4. Africa, David B. Mattingly and Kevin C.McDonald
5. Indus Valley, Cameron A. Petrie
6. China, Nancy Steinhardt
7. Economy, David L. Stone
8. Population and Migration, Luuk de Ligt
9. Power and Citizenship, Mario Liverani
10. Religion and Ritual, J.A. Baird
11. Planning and Environment, Raymond Laurence
Part II: Pre-Modern Cities
12. Medieval Europe, Marc Boone
13. Early Modern Europe: 1500-1800, B. Blonde and Ilja Van Damme
14. Middle East: 7th-15th centuries, Dominique Valerian
15. The Ottoman City, Ebru Boyar
16. China: 600-1300, Hilde de Weerdt
17. China: 1300-1900, William T. Rowe
18. Japan's premodern urbanism, James McClain
19. Port Cities of South-East Asia: 1400-1800, Leonard Blusse
20. Latin America, Felipe Fernandez-Armesto
21. Economy, Bas van Bavel, Eltjo Buringh, Maarten Bosker, and Jan Luiten van Zanden
22. Population and Migration: European and Chinese experiences compared, Anne Winter
23. Power, Wim Blockmans and Marjolein 't Hart
24. Culture: Representations, Peter Burke
Part III: Modern and Contemporary Cities
25. Europe: 1800-2000, Lynn Lees and Andrew Lees
26. Latin America, Alan Gilbert
27. North America, Carl Abbott
28. China: 1900 to the Present, Kristin Stapleton
29. Japan, Paul Waley
30. South Asia, Prashant Kidambi
31. South East Asia and Australia, Howard Dick and Peter J. Rimmer
32. Middle East, Mercedes Volait and Mohammad al-Asad
33. The modern African city and its antecedents 1000-2010, Bill Freund
34. Industrialization and the City: East and West, Ho-fung Hung and Shaohua Zhan
35. Population and Migration, Leo Lucassen
36. Poverty, Inequality, and Social Segregation, Alan Gilbert
37. The Urban Environment, Martin V. Melosi
38. Creative Cities, Marjatta Hietala and Peter Clark
39. Cinema and the City, Hannu Salmi
40. Colonial Cities, Thomas R. Metcalf
41. Contemporary Metropolitan Cities, Xiangming Chen and Henry Fitts
42. Suburbs, Jussi S. Jauhiainen
43. Port Cities, Carola Hein
44. Conclusion: Cities in Time, Penelope J. Corfield