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Based on the award-winning six-volume work by Richard Taruskin,The Oxford History of Western Music,College Edition, offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive history of Western music available. Distinctive Features * Offers aunique focus on thepeoplebehind music history * Places musical works within their larger cultural, social, and political contexts, providing atruly complete narrativeof music history * Givesfull coverage of the music of all erasalong with a special emphasis on the most studied works of the past 200 years >Improves students' critical thinkingby offering differing perspectives on how the Western musical canon developed >Buildslistening and analysis skillsthrough comprehensive discussion of key works >Includes helpfullearning and study tools(timelines, maps, musical examples and diagrams, chapter summaries, key terms, study questions, and a glossary) Offering a complete package for building your understanding and appreciation of the classical canon, this groundbreaking text is supplemented by the following resources: >Three score anthologiescontaining introductory essays by noted scholars (sold separately) >A three-volume CD set(in MP3 format) (sold separately) >A freecompanion website(www.oup.com/us/taruskin) with chapter outlines, key terms and definitions, and suggested links
Richard Taruskin is Class of 1955 Professor of Music at the University of California, Berkeley. He is coeditor (with Piero Weiss) of Music in the Western World: A History in Documents (Second Edition, 2007), as well as the author of Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the WorksThrough Mavra (1996) and Text and Act: Essays on Music and Performance (OUP, 1995).
Christopher H. Gibbs is James H. Ottaway Jr. Professor of Music at Bard College, Co-Artistic Director of the Bard Music Festival, and Associate Editor of The Musical Quarterly. He edited The Cambridge Companion to Schubert (1997), coedited Franz Liszt and His World (2006), and is the author of TheLife of Schubert (2000). Gibbs is a recipient of the ASCAP Deems Taylor Award and was a fellow of the American Council of Learned Societies. Since 2000, Gibbs has served as program annotator and consulting musicologist for The Philadelphia Orchestra, where he frequently gives lectures. Gibbs also gives lectures at other orchestras, Carnegie Hall, "Great Performers" at Lincoln Center, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Table of Contents
Each chapter begins with a timeline and ends with a summary, study questions, and a list of key terms. Chapter 1: The First Literate Repertory in Western Music: Gregorian Chant Theories of Music Historical Imagination Christian Beginnings, As Far As We Know Them The Legend of St. Gregory The Development of the Liturgy: The Offices The Mass Writing It Down: Neumes Guido of Arezzo Modal Theory Psalmody in Practice: The Office and the Mass The Mass Frankish Additions to the Chant Repertory Hymns, Tropes, and Liturgical Drama Marian Antiphons How to Do Polyphony Symphonia and Its Modifications Organum and Discant Literate Music and the Persistence of Oral Traditions Chapter 2: Secular and Cathedral Music in the High Middle Ages Troubadours Performance and Oral Culture Music for Elites: Trobar Clus Trouvčres Adam de La Halle and the Formes Fixes Geographical Diffusion A Note on Instruments Polyphony in Aquitanian Monastic Centers The Cathedral-University Complex Piecing the Evidence Together Measured Music Organum with Another Voice Conductus at Notre Dame The Motet: Music for an Intellectual and Political Elite "Franconian" Notation A New Trobar Clus? The "Petronian" Motet Chapter 3: The Ars Nova: Musical Developments in the Fourteenth Century Music from Mathematics Music about Music Establishing the Prototype: The Roman de Fauvel Isorhythm Machaut: Poet and Musician Musica Ficta Machaut and the Art of Courtly Song The Top-Down Style Machaut's La Messe de Nostre Dame Canons Subtilitas "A Pleasant Place": Trecento Vernacular Music The "Wild Bird" Madrigals Landini and Ballata Culture The Motet As Political Show Du Fay's Nuper rosarum flores Periodization Chapter 4: Island and Mainland: Toward a Pan-European Style Fragmentary Remains Kings and the Fortunes of War Dunstable and the Contenance Angloise Du Fay and Fauxbourdon Du Fay and Binchois The Internationalism of the Upper Crust The Cyclic Mass "Caput" and the Beginnings of Four-Part Harmony Patterns of Emulation The Man at Arms "Pervading Imitation" High, Middle, and Low The English Keep Things High The Milanese Go Lower Still Love Songs Instrumental Music Is Printed Chapter 5: A Perfected Art: Church Polyphony in the Late Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries A Poet Born, Not Made Josquin's Career A Model Masterpiece Imitations Facts and Myths All Is Known The "Post-Josquin" Generation Adrian Willaert The New Instrumental Music Palestrina and the Ecumenical Tradition Continuing the Tradition Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli and the Bishops Freedom and Constraint "Stairway to Parnassus" Alternatives to Perfection The Recusant William Byrd The First English Cosmopolite The Music of Defiance The Peak (and Limit) of Stylistic Refinement Chapter 6: After Perfection: Pressures for Change The Protestant Reformation The Lutheran Chorale The Catholic Response: The Counter-Reformation Polychoral and "Concerted" Music The Art of Orchestration Is Born Music Printers and Their Audiences Vernacular Song in Italy The "Parisian" Chanson and the Music of Description Lasso: The Cosmopolite Supreme The Literary Revolution and the Return of the Madrigal Paradox and Contradiction: Late Italian Madrigalists Music for the Eyes Back over the Mountains: The English Madrigal Chapter 7: Humanism and the Birth of Opera The Pressure of Humanism The Representational Style Intermedii The Monodic Revolution Madrigals and Arias Revisited Favola in Musica Operatic Conventions: Heard and Unheard Music Monteverdi: From Court to Commerce L'Orfeo: The Quintessential Princely Spectacle Monteverdi in Venice Opera and Its Politics The Carnival Show: L'incoronazione Di Poppea Chapter 8: Music Travels: Trends in Italy, Germany, France, and England Master Organists: Frescobaldi, Sweelinck, and Others Lutheran Adaptations: The Chorale Partita and Chorale Concerto Ruin: Germany, the Thirty Years War, and Heinrich Schütz The "Luxuriant Style" Back to Germany at War Giacomo Carissimi: Oratorio and Cantata Barbara Strozzi: Performer and Composer The French Taste: Sense and Sensuousness Tragédie Lyrique: The Politics of Patronage Drama as Court Ritual Lully's Atys, the King's Opera Jean-Philippe Rameau Jacobean England: Masques and Consort Music Henry Purcell's Dido and Aeneas and the Question of "English Opera" Chapter 9: The Height of Italian Dominance: Opera Seria and the Italian Concerto Style Opera Seria and Its Makers Opera and Its Many Reforms: Neoclassicism Metastasio Metastasio's Musicians Operatic Culture and Politics Arcangelo Corelli and New Tonal Practices Antonio Vivaldi's Five Hundred Music Imitating Nature: Vivaldi's The Four Seasons Chapter 10: Class of 1685 (I): The Instrumental Music of Bach and Handel Careers and Lifestyles: Handel First Bach's Career The Chorale Prelude The Fugue The Well-Tempered Keyboard Bach's Imported Roots: Froberger and Others Bach's Suites "Agréments" and "Doubles": The Art of Ornamentation Stylistic Hybrids: The "Brandenburg" Concertos The Fifth Brandenburg Concerto Handel's Instrumental Music Chapter 11: Class of 1685 (II): The Vocal Music of Handel and Bach Lofty Entertainments Handel's Messiah "Borrowing" Bach's Cantatas Death Set to Music What Music Is For Bach's "Testaments" Cursed Questions Domenico Scarlatti, at Last Chapter 12: Mid-Eighteenth-Century Stylistic Changes: From Bach's Sons to the Comic Style The Younger Bachs Empfindsamkeit: C. P. E. Bach Transcending Words--And Putting Them Back The London Bach: Johann Christian Sociability in Music Intermission Plays The "War Of The Buffoons"--Giovanni Battista Pergolesi Novels Sung on Stage-Niccolň Piccinni Noble Simplicity--Christoph Willibald Gluck What Was the Enlightenment? Chapter 13: Concert Life Lifts Off: Haydn Modern Concert Life Is Born The Mannheim Orchestra: "An Army of Generals" Haydn: The Perfect Career Haydn's Years with the Esterházy Family Expectations and Deviations: Creating Musical Meaning String Quartets and Concertos The Symphony Composer Sonata Form The "London" Symphony No. 104 The Culminating Work: The Creation Chapter 14: The Composer's Voice: Mozart The Early Operas The "Da Ponte" Operas Mozart's Two Last Operas Art for Art's Sake?--Mozart's Symphonies The "Symphonic" Concerto Is Born Mozart in the Marketplace: The Piano Concertos The Piano Concerto in G Major, K. 453 Public and Private Genres Chapter 15: The Emergence of Romanticism The Beautiful and the Sublime The Coming of Museum Culture Beethoven versus "Beethoven" The Sacralization of Music The Music Century Nationalism: I, We, and They German Musical Values as Universal Values Chapter 16: Beethoven Life and Works, Periods and Styles Early Beethoven Disaster The Eroica Fidelio The Fifth Symphony and Fate "More Expression of Feeling Than Tone Painting": The Pastoral Symphony Concert Life in Beethoven's Vienna Struggle and Victory Rising Fame and Decreasing Productivity Late Beethoven The Ninth Symphony Inwardness: The Late String Quartets Chapter 17: Opera in the Age of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Weber The Popularity of Rossini Rossinian Conventions: The Overture Imbroglio: The Comic Finale Heart Throbs: The Serious Aria Vincenzo Bellini and Bel Canto Gaetano Donizetti German Romantic Opera: Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz Chapter 18: Private Art: Schubert and Inwardness The Lied Grows Up Herder, Language, and the Nation Folk Song, Folklore, and Folk Tales Lyric and Ballad Schubert and Goethe Salon Culture and Schubertiades Schubert: A Life in Art Disaster What Contemporaries Knew of Schubert's Music Crossing the Edge Schubert's "Unfinished" Symphony After Beethoven Schubert's Last Two Songs Chapter 19: Romantic Spectacles: From Virtuosos to Grand Opera The Devil's Violinist: Niccolň Paganini "The Paganini of the Piano": Franz Liszt Transforming Music Through Arrangements The Lisztian Concert Spectacle on the Parisian Stage Auber's Mute Opera and Revolution Bourgeois Kings Vagaries of Reception Chapter 20: Literary Musicians Berlioz's Literary Trinity Berlioz's Fantastic First Symphony Following the Idée Fixe Discriminating Romanticisms The Prodigious Mendelssohn Mendelssohn's Paulus and Civic Nationalism Nationalism Takes a Racial Turn Schumann and Literature Music of Letters Schumann's Fantasie, Op. 17 Schumann's "Year of Song" Schumann's Last Years Genius Restrained: Fanny Mendelssohn and Clara Wieck Schumann Chapter 21: Music Imported and Exported Chopin's Career: From Warsaw to Paris The Pinnacle of Salon Music The Chopinesque Miniature Nationalism as a Medium America Joins In Art and Democracy Russia: The Newcomer National Markings and Folk Tunes Mikhail Glinka Acquiring Brains and Beauty How the Acorn Took Root Chapter 22: Musical Politics at Midcentury: Historicism and the New German School Historicism and the Hegelian Dialectic The New German School "The Music of the Future" Absolute Music Liszt's Symphonic Poems But What Does It Really Mean? The Concerto Transformed Genre Trouble: Berlioz Again Chapter 23: Class of 1813: Wagner and Verdi Art and Revolution: Wagner's Early Career The Artwork of the Future, Modeled on the Imagined Past From Theory into Practice: The Ring of the Nibelung Wagnerian Leitmotifs Words, Orchestra, and Theater The Ultimate Experience: Tristan und Isolde How Far Can You Stretch a Dominant? Life and Art: Beyond Good and Evil The Last Opera: Parsifal Verdi: Upholding the Italian Tradition Early Verdi: The Galley Years "Viva Verdi!": Risorgimento Politics The Popular Style: "Va, Pensiero" Tragicomedy in the Shakespearean Manner Il Trovatore and La Traviata Rigoletto: Opera as Modern Drama A Job Becomes a Calling Masterly Amusement: Falstaff Chapter 24: Slavic Harmony and Disharmony A Czech Abroad Má Vlast The Fate of a Tune: From Folk Song to Anthem Competing Reputations at Home and Abroad Slavic Disharmony Kuchka Music Musorgsky's Realism Art and Autocracy The Coronation Scene in Boris Godunov Revising Boris Godunov Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Russian Symphonies Autobiography in Music? Chapter 25: The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony New Halls and New Orchestras The Triumph of Museum Culture New Paths: Johannes Brahms Symphonic Attempts Brahm's Chamber Music and "Developing Variation" Choral Fame Inventing Tradition Victory Through Critique Reconciliation and Backlash The Symphony as Sacrament Antonín Dvorák Dvorák in the New World An American Response War Brings Symphonies to France Chapter 26: Dramatic Alternatives: Exoticism, Operetta, and Verismo Stereotyping the Other: "Orientalism" Bizet's Carmen Russian Orientalism Gounod's Opéra Lyrique Jacques Offenbach and Opera about Opera Johann Strauss II--The Waltz King and Viennese Operetta England's Gilbert and Sullivan Italian Verismo Innovation and Popularity--"Canon" versus "Repertory" Giacomo Puccini's Ascent Chapter 27: Early Austro-German Modernism: Mahler, Strauss, and Schoenberg The Modern Condition Maximalism Gustav Mahler: Conductor and Composer Mahler's Lieder From Symphonic Poem to First Symphony Maximalizing the Symphony "Down with Programs!" The Late Works Richard Strauss Maximalizing Opera Schoenberg A New Synthesis Expression Becomes and "ism" "Emancipation of Dissonance" Atonality: "The Air of Another Planet" Erwartung At the Opposite Extreme: Atonal Miniatures Chapter 28: Modernism in France Wagnerian Hommages and Exorcisms Getting Rid of the Glue: Erik Satie Claude Debussy's Early Years Voiles: Sales and/or Veils Impressionism and Symbolism Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande "Essentially French": Fauré and Mélodie Maurice Ravel New Possibilities for Women Ballet: A Missing Genre Ballet Finds Its Theorist Stravinsky's The Firebird and Petrushka The Rite of Spring Scandalized Reactions Chapter 29: National Monuments Jean Sibelius England Spain Folk and Modernist Synthesis: Béla Bartók Folk Ways Karol Szymanowski and George Enescu The Oldest Modernist: Leos Janácek Speech Tunelets Alexander Scriabin: From Expression to Revelation Mysterium and the Ultimate Aggregate Harmonies Charles Ives Terms of Reception "Manner" and "Substance": The Concord Sonata Nostalgia Societal Commitments Chapter 30: Neoclassicism and Twelve-Tone Music Neoclassicism Igor Stravinsky's Neoclassical Path The Music of Stravinsky's Octet Some Ideas about the Octet The Ivory Tower In Search of Utopia: Schoenberg and Twelve-Tone Technique Giving Music New Rules Back Again to Bach Alban Berg's Twelve-Tone Romanticism Epitome: Anton Webern Chapter 31: Interwar Currents: The Roaring Twenties European "Jazz": Parisians in America In Search of the "Real" America: Americans in Paris Tin Pan Alley and Musicals Gershwin's "Experiment in Modern Music" Surrealism: Satie's Parade New Fashions: Les Six From Subject to Style: Surrealist "Classicism" American Surrealism Music in the Weimar Republic Alban Berg's Wozzeck Music for Political Action From Vienna to Hollywood: The Death of Opera? Chapter 32: Music and Totalitarianism in the Soviet Union and Western Europe The Rise of the Soviet Union Music in the Soviet Union The Doctrine of Socialist Realism Dmitry Shostakovich Contested Readings: The Fifth Symphony Back in the USSR: Sergey Prokofiev Italian Fascism Toscanini and Music-Making in the New Italy Music in Nazi Germany Varieties of Emigration Youth Culture Shades of Gray: Hartmann, Webern, and Strauss Chapter 33: Music and Politics in America and Allied Europe Edgard Varčse Microtones: Splitting the Semitone New Sounds, New Instruments, New Tunings Ferment on the American Left Copland and Politics American Patriotic Works The Great American Symphony Accessible Alternatives Opera in Mid-Century Benjamin Britten A Modern Anti-Hero: Britten's Peter Grimes "The Composer's Duty" Olivier Messiaen: "The Charm of Impossibilities" Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time Faith, Nature, Color, and Rhythm Chapter 34: Starting from Scratch: Music in the Aftermath of World War II Zero Hour: The Impact on the Arts Total Serialism: Messiaen's Mode de valeurs et d'intensités Darmstadt Indeterminacy: John Cage and the "New York School" Music for Prepared Piano Silence "Permission": Cage's Influence Preserving the Sacrosanct: Morton Feldman Conversions Academicism, American Style Electronics: An Old Dream Comes True Musique Concrčte, Versus Elektronische Musik The New Technology Spreads Electronics and Live Music Music in History: Elliott Carter Carter's Later Career "Who Cares if You Listen?" Chapter 35: Changes in the Sixties and Seventies The Music of Youth: Rock 'n' Roll The British Invasion: The Beatles A New Challenge Rock 'n' Roll Becomes Rock The Rise of Minimalism La Monte Young Riley's In C "Classical" Minimalism: Steve Reich Phase Music Reich's Music for 18 Musicians Philip Glass Einstein on the Beach Game Changer The Holy Minimalists Chapter 36: "Many Streams": Millennium's End Competing Visions The Cold War Ends The Postmodern Condition Collage and Pastiche Aesthetics of Pastiche Across Time and Space: George Crumb Conversions in Reverse The End of Soviet Music Senior Statesmen The Digital Revolution Performance Art The Alleged Death of Classical Music John Adams and Nixon in China A New Spirituality Notes For Further Reading Glossary Index