9780073407043

Panorama: A World History

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780073407043

  • ISBN10:

    0073407046

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1/3/2014
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Summary

Just as a panoramic image provides a broad view, Panorama provides a ground-breaking, broad view of the world’s history by reaching across regional boundaries and highlighting large-scale, global patterns. Panorama’s easily understood chronology, coupled with its innovative, proven digital tools, ensures that learners are always moving forward as they study change and continuity across time, assess knowledge gaps, and mold critical thinking skills. The result is improved course performance through greater understanding of our world’s past, its large-scale global trends, and its impact on and relevance to 21st-century students.

Table of Contents

Introduction

The Earth: World History’s Theater

The Big Land Masses: The Main Stage of History

Moving Land Masses

Seven Continents, or Only Five?

Afroeurasia

The Great Arid Zone

The Tropical Belt

The Northern Latitudes of Temperate Climate

Afroeurasia’s Mountain Spine

The Eleven Seas

Rivers

Australia

North and South America

Connecting the Americas

The Americas’ Long Cordillera

Rivers and Seas

The Oceans

PART ONE: SETTLING THE PLANET

Beginnings to the First Millennium B.C.E.

Chapter 1

The Peopling of the World: 7,000,000-10,000 B.C.E.

Human Ancestors in Africa and Beyond

Early Hominin Evolution

Well-Traveled Hominins

INDIVIDUALS MATTER The Turkana Boy: A Distant Ancestor

Other Traveling Hominins

Modern Humans in Africa: The First 100,000 Years

The Debut of Homo Sapiens

The Power of Language

Colonizing the World

The Roads from Africa

South to Australia

Colonizers of Europe

The American Frontier

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE The Kennewick Man Controversy

Why Did Homo Sapiens People the Earth?

Homo Sapiens: The Last Surviving Hominin

Why People Look Different

Global Culture of the Upper Paleolithic

Dawn of a Multicultural World

Social and Economic Life

Technical Wonders

A World of Symbols

Chapter 2

Farms, Cities, and the New Agrarian Age: 10,000-2000 B.C.E.

The Coming of Farmers: A Peculiar Event

Early Farming and the Big Thaw

The Drift toward Domestication

Neolithic Innovations

The Spread of Agrarian Societies

Sunrise over the Village

Super Villages

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Ötzi: A Neolithic Traveler

Early Complex Societies

Irrigation and Complex Society in Mesopotamia

Complex Society on the Nile

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE A Pharaoh's Warning in Stone

Harappan Society in the Indus Valley

Interregional Communication and Commerce

Complex Societies and the Environment

Chapter 3

Afroeurasia’s Moving Frontiers: Farmers, Herders, and Charioteers: 3000-1000 B.C.E.

Across Afroeurasia: More Farmers, More Cities

The Cavalcade of Inventions

Complex Society and Commerce in the Mediterranean Basin

Developments in Western Europe

The Oxus Civilization of Central Asia

Complex Society in East Asia

Pastoral Peoples Ride into History

Horses, Riders, and Wagons

Pastoral Nomadic Society

Encounters between Agrarian Societies and Migrating Peoples

Indo-European-Speakers in Southwest Asia: The Hittite Empire

States of Mesopotamia and Syria

From Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom in the Nile Valley

Rivalry and Diplomacy among Militarized Kingdoms

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE “Here Is the Situation”: The King of Alashiya Writes to the Pharaoh of Egypt

Early Greeks

Indo-Europeans in Iran and South Asia

Indo-Europeans and Chariots from the Far West to the Far East

INDIVIDUALS MATTER The Beauty of Xiaohe: A Woman of the Steppes

Developments in the Tropical Belt

Herders and Farmers South of the Sahara Desert

Austronesian Farmers in Southeast Asia

Chapter 4

Early Odysseys in the Americas, Australia, and Oceania: 8000 – 500 B.C.E.

Farmers and Platform-Builders in the Americas

American Farmer Power

Platform-Builders of Norte Chico

Andean Societies in the Second Millennium B.C.E.

The Mesoamerican Zone of Intercommunication

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE The Olmec Heads

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Harvester Mountain Lord: A Mesoamerican King

North of Mexico

Change in Australia

Change over the Long Term

A Continent without Farmers

Pioneers on the Pacific Frontier

Colonizers of Near Oceania

Into Remote Oceania

PART TWO: AGRARIAN SOCIETIES AND THEIR INTERCONNECTIONS, 1200 B.C.E-300 C.E.

Chapter 5

Afroeurasia: Centers of Power, Trade, and New Ideas:

1200-600 B.C.E.

The Clang of Iron

The Spread of Iron: The Southwest Asian Epicenter

The Spread of Iron: The Tropical African Epicenter

Iron’s Benefits and Costs

Warfare, Empire-Building, and Trade in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Lands

Twelfth Century Troubles

The Neo-Assyrian Empire

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Adad-Guppi: Babylonian Priestess and Queen Mother

The Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism

Phoenicians and Greeks: Trade and Migration

Woodland Europe and the Mediterranean World

Nubia on the Nile Corridor

South Asia: A New Era of City-Building

New Cities and Kingdoms

The Development of the South Asian Class System

Brahmins and Brahmanism

The East Asian Sphere

The Era of the Western and Eastern Zhou

Destruction and Innovation during the Later Zhou Period

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE The Book of Songs

Chapter 6

Empire-Building and Cultural Exchange from India to the Mediterranean: 600-200 B.C.E.

Persia Ascending

Empire-Building on a New Scale

The Achaemenids as “Universal” Rulers

The Persian Empire as Communications Hub

The Achaemenids and the Teachings of Zoroaster

Achaemenid Multiculturalism

Inventive Greeks

Government and Society in the Greek City-States

The Flowering of Athens

Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Era

Alexander’s Short, Brilliant Career

Foundations of the Hellenistic World

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Queen Arsinoe II, Ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt

Cultural Trends

Buddhism and the Maurya Empire in India

Foundations of Buddhism

The Reign of Ashoka Maurya

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Rock Edicts of the Emperor Ashoka

Cavalry and Caravans in Inner Eurasia

Nomad Power

Early Times on the Silk Roads

Chapter 7

An Age of Giant Empires: 300 B.C.E. - 300 C.E.

Rome and Mediterranean Unification

Rome the Republic

Rome the Empire

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Boudicca, British Rebel Leader

The Era of the Han Empire in East Asia

The Qin Dynasty and the First Emperor

The Han State and the Ascendance of Confucianism

States between Rome and China

The Xiongnu and Their Relations with Han China

The Parthian and Kushana Empires

The African Kingdoms of Kush and Axum

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Trade in the African Port of Adulis

Bridges across Afroeurasia

East-West Interregional Trade

The First Missionary Religions

Chapter 8

American Complexities: 900 B.C.E – 900 C.E.

The Spread of Complex Societies in North America

Empire Builders of Teotihuacán

Zapotec Civilization in the Oaxaca Valley

The Innovative Maya

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Lady Xoc, An Aristocrat Woman in Maya Politics

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE A Maya Bible: An Account of Creation in the Popol Vuh

Developments in Upper North America

South America: Complex Societies along the Andean Spine

Andes Urbanization: The Example of Chavín de Huantar

Back to the Coast: The Moche Society

The Nazca

Troubles in the Sixth Century

PART THREE: SHIFTING POWER, THICKENING WEBS, 200-1000 C.E.

Chapter 9

Turbulent Centuries: 200-600 C.E.

The Shifting Map of Empires

Turbulence in Inner Eurasia

China after the Han Empire: Growth without Unity

The Sasanids: A New Power in Persia

Crisis and Recovery in the Roman Empire

The Huns and the Collapse of the Western Empire

The Mediterranean Fractured

A New Empire in South Asia

Religions for Troubled Times

The Buddhist Web

The Christian Web

INDIVIDUALS MATTER St. Augustine of Hippo: Christian Theologian

The Manichean Way

Tropical Africa: Farmers, Towns, and Iron

The Nok Culture

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE The Sculpture of Nok: What Might It Tell Us?

The African East and South

Southeast Asian Contributions to African Society

Chapter 10

Afroeurasia in the Era of Arab Empire: 500-800 C.E.

New Empires of Steppe and Desert

Empires along the Silk Roads

The Arab State and the Emergence of Islam

The Arab Muslim Empire

Christian Societies in Europe and Africa

The Byzantine Empire Holds Its Own

Christian Society in Europe

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Two Views of the Battle of Tours

Dwindling Christian Society in North Africa

East Asia: Return to Unity in China

The Tang State

Migrations to the South

Cultural Integration

INDIVIDUALS MATTER The Empress Wu: Patron of Buddhism

Chapter 11

State Power and Expanding Networks of Exchange: 750-1000 C.E.

Muslim Power and Prosperity

From Damascus to Baghdad: The Abbasid Empire

Rival Centers of Muslim Power

The Byzantine Resurgence

Islam on New Frontiers

A "Green Revolution" in Muslim Lands

Muslim Urban Society

The Stream of Ideas

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Abu Bakr al-Razi, Muslim Physician

Cities, Merchants, and Kingdoms along the Chain of Seas

Trade of the Arabian Sea

The Maritime Empire of Srivijaya

Chinese Trade and the Fate of the Tang Dynasty

Japan and Korea at the Eastern End of the Chain of Seas

The Sahara Rim: A New Zone of Intercommunication

Gold and Slaves, Copper and Salt

The Empire of Ghana

Europe’s Struggle for Stability

Muslims and Magyars

The Viking Adventure

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Bjarni Herjolfsson and the Viking Discovery of America

The Changing Shape of Western Europe

PART FOUR: INTERCONNECTIONS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES, 900-1500

Chapter 12

Dynamic Centuries across Afroeurasia: 1000-1250

The East Asian Powerhouse in the Song Era

The Elements of China's Prosperity

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Dining Out in Hangzhou

Governing China in an Era of Change

China and Its Near Neighbors

Japan within and without the Chinese Sphere

China in the Hemisphere

Conquerors and Migrants in the Muslim Lands

Turkic Horse Power

Muslim Ships on the Mediterranean

New Empires in the Western Mediterranean

Cultural Trends in the Muslim Lands

Foundations of Urban Civilization in Europe

Warm Weather, Better Plows

New Order in Political Life

INDIVIDUALS MATTER King Philip II: phrase to come

The Expansion of Western Christendom

European commercial power in the Mediterranean

Western Europe’s Cultural Style

Chapter 13

Afroeurasia in the Era of Mongol Power: 1200-1350

The Ascendance of the Mongol Empires

Chingis Khan’s Path of Conquest

Explaining Mongol Power

Mongol Expansion after Chingis

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Sorghaghtani Beki: Descriptive TK

Mongol Murderers: A Deserved Reputation?

The Ambiguous Mongol Peace

Silk Road Traffic

Slaves, Diplomats, and Career-Seekers

Cross-Fertilization in Science and Technology

The Changing Religious Map

Profit and Power in the Southern Seas

Trade and State-Building in Southeast Asia

The South Asian Pivot

East and Southern Africa in the Indian Ocean World

Urban Society in Europe

Many Governments and Languages

Private Groups and Charters

The Flow of Ideas

Trans-Saharan Connections

North Africa between the Mediterranean and the Sahara

The Mali Empire

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Ibn Battuta Assesses the Mali Empire

Other West African Kingdoms

Chapter 14

Cities and Empires in the Americas: 900-1500

American Societies in an Age of Environmental Change

The Mound Builders of Cahokia

Ancestral Puebloans on the Colorado Plateau

Maya, Mixtec, and Toltec

The Coming of the Nahuas

The Caribbean and Amazonia

States of the Andes

American Empires in the Fifteenth Century

The Aztec Empire

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Nezahualcoyotl: Political Strategist, Survivor, and Poet

The Incas

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Chastity and Marriage in Inca Society

Chapter 15

Calamities and Recoveries across Afroeurasia: 1300-1500

Environmental Crises of the Fourteenth Century

Downpour and Drought

The Great Pestilence

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Perspectives on the Black Death

Crises in the Political and Social Realms

China: The Collapse of Mongol Rule

Political and Economic Troubles in the Central Muslim Lands

The Conquests of Timur

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Ibn Khaldun: A Thinker for Modern Times

Europe in the Aftermath of the Black Death

Fifteenth-Century Recuperation

Technologies for the Future

Ming China: New Prosperity and a Maritime Thrust

South Asia: A Steadier Course of Change

Astronomy and Empire-Building in the Central Muslim Lands

The Meaning of Recovery in Europe

PART FIVE: THE GREAT WORLD CONVERGENCE, 1450-1750

Chapter 16

Oceans Crossed, Worlds Connected: 1450-1550

On the Eve of the Great World Convergence

Changes in the Afroeurasian Trade Network

The Eastern Atlantic Rim

States in the Americas

The Birth of the Atlantic World

Changing Maritime Technology

Europeans and West Africans: Early Encounters

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Martin Behaim’s Fifteenth-Century Globe

Columbus’s Atlantic Crossing

American Catastrophes

American Death and the Columbian Exchange

The End of the Aztec Empire

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Malinche and Cortés: Descriptive Phrase tk

Assault on the Inca Empire

Spanish Empire-Building

Portuguese Stakes in Brazil

New Power Relations in the Southern Seas

To Capture the Spice Trade

The Trans-Pacific Link

Chapter 17

Afroeurasia and Its Powerful States: 1500-1600

Afroeurasia’s Political Panorama

The Ottoman Empire’s Dramatic Expansion

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE A European Ambassador Compares Armies

The Safavid Empire of Persia

Mughal Power in South Asia

Russia: From Principality to Empire

Japan and the Tokugawa

Strong Monarchies in Southeast Asia

The European States

The Songhay Empire

The New Era of Guns

New and Deadly Armies

The Military Revolution

The Limits of Central Power

Trends in Religion, Language, and Culture

Intellectual and Moral Ferment in China

Tension between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims

Religious Crisis in Europe

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Gracia Luna Mendez Nasi: A Sixteenth-Century Business Woman

Vernacular Languages and the State

Languages of Cultural Prestige

Chapter 18

The Expanding Global Economy: Expectations and Inequalities: 1550-1700

The Global Network Takes Shape

Technology and Organization for Global Exchange

The Continuing Columbian Exchange

Afroeurasia and the Expanding World Economy

Western Europe’s Economic Surge

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Louis De Geer: A Capitalist Success Story

Centuries of Silver in East Asia

Asians and Europeans in the Southern Seas

Overland Trade on the Silk Roads

The Atlantic Economy: Land, Capital, and Slave Labor

The Atlantic Economy and African Slavery

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Servants and Slaves on a Barbabos Sugar Plantation

Change in Atlantic Africa

Chapter 19

The Changing Balance of Wealth and Power: 1650-1750

Empires and Big States

Chinese Prosperity and Imperialism

Russia from the Pacific to Poland

The Spanish Empire in America

Europe: Successes and Failures of Absolutism

European Settlement and the Fate of Indigenous Peoples

Early European Settlers in North America

Russian Settlement of Siberia

European and Khoisan in South Africa

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE The Journal of a Dutch Commander at the Cape of Good Hope

Alternative Visions of God, Nature, and the Universe

The Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment: Rethinking Human Nature and Society

The Continuing Growth of Islam and Christianity

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita: A Visionary Christian of the Kongo

PART SIX: THE MODERN WORLD TAKES SHAPE, 1750-1914

Chapter 20

Waves of Revolution: 1720-1830

World Economy and Politics, 1720-1763

A Commercializing World

Troubled Empires in Asia

Global Sea Trade and the Eighteenth-Century “World War”

Revolutions on the North Atlantic Rim

The Global Context of Popular Revolt

The War of Independence in North America

The French Revolution

The Idea of Nationalism

The Birth of Haiti

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Toussaint Louverture Writes to the French Directory

The Second Wave: Revolutions in Latin America

Colonial Society on the Eve of Rebellion

The Wars of Independence

INDIVIDUALS MATTER José de San Martín: Descriptive Phrase tk

Many Young States

Chapter 21

Energy and Industrialization: 1750-1850

The Energy Revolution

The Fuel that Lies Beneath

The End of the Biological Old Regime

Industry on a New Scale

Cotton and the Drift to Industrialization

Mines and Machines

Working in Factories

Was There Something Special about Britain?

Social and Environmental Consequences of Early Industrialization

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Ned Ludd: Legendary Foe of Industry

Industrialization and Global Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century

The Energy Revolution Takes Hold

The Threads of Commerce

Free Trade and the New Doctrine of Liberalism

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE On Legalizing Opium in China

Chapter 22

Coping with Change in the New Industrial Era: 1830-1870

Waves of Migrants

The End of the Atlantic Slave Trade

The Outpouring from Europe

Neo-Europes and the Fates of Indigenous Peoples

Migrations of Asians and Africans

Oceania Connected

Groundswells of Political and Social Reform

Nationalism and the Power of the People

Varieties of Socialism

Movements for Women’s Rights

Movements for Political Reform and Unification in Europe

Modernizing Reforms in Muslim Lands

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE A Moroccan Diplomat in France

The Limits of Liberalism in Latin America

Religion and Reform

Global Trends and Religious Change

Christian Evangelism

Jewish Reform

Religious Reform and Revolution in the Muslim World

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Ram Mohan Roy: Hindu Reformer

Global Change and the Calamitous Wars of Mid-Century

The Crimean War and the Industrialization of Violence

Paraguay: A War of Annihilation

The Taiping Rebellion in China

The Indian Rebellion

The American Civil War

Chapter 23

Capital, Technology, and the Changing Balance of Global Power: 1860-1914

The Spread of Steam-Powered Industry

Wealthy Britain

Industrial Hubs in Europe and the United States

Smokestacks in Russia

The Meiji Restoration and Japanese Industry

Industrialization on Smaller Scales: Gains and Disappointments

Capitalism’s Global Reach

The World-Wide Communications Grid

Feeding Industrial Societies

Rich Regions, Poor Regions

The Lot of the Urban Working Classes

Globalizing Business, Technology, and Science

European Imperialism and Popular Resistance

The Road to Colonialism in Africa and Southeast Asia

Why did European Invasions Succeed?

Resistance Movements and Their Consequences

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Contrasting Perspectives on War in East Africa

States that Survived

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Chulalongkorn: Descriptive Phrase TK

PART SEVEN: THE PROMISE AND PERILS OF ACCELERATING CHANGE, 1890-PRESENT

Chapter 24

Innovation, Revolution, and Global Crisis: 1890-1920

Turn-of-the-Century Prosperity, 1890-1914

Commerce and Gold

Urbanization and Migration

Scientific and Technical Advances

Global Inequities and Their Consequences

Drought and Plague

Africa and Southeast Asia under New Colonial Rulers

Worker Protest and Nationalist Ferment in Europe

Five Revolutions

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Qiu Jin: Social Reformer

The Great War, 1914-1918

Lighting the Fuse

A World at War

Total War

Russia: From War to Revolution

Peace and Consequences

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Arab Independence that Was Not to Be

Chapter 25

Turbulent Decades: 1918-1935

Postwar Trends in Society and Culture

Population Trends

New Ways of Living in the Industrialized World

Scientific Challenges to the Knowable Universe

Modernity and Modernism

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Diego Rivera: Mexican Modernist

Clashing Ideologies in the Political Arena

Democratic Hopes

The Soviet Union: Communist Authoritarianism

Nationalists and Communists in China

New Governments on the Political Right

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Turkish Views on Dress and National Identity

Left and Right in Latin America

Colonial Rule and its Opponents in Africa and Asia

Economy and Society in the Colonial Empires

Ways of Ruling

Foreign Immigrants in Colonized Lands

Colonial Rule Contested

The Great Depression and its Consequences

The Steep Descent

Depression and the Continuing Trend toward Authoritarian Leaders

Chapter 26

World War II and Its Aftermath: 1933-1950

Empire-Building And Global Crisis

Empire of the Sun

The Nazi State

Italy’s Foreign Exploits

Fascist Dictatorship in Spain

The Greatest War

The Years of Axis Victory, 1939-1942

The Years of Counteroffensive, 1942-1945

The Second Total War

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Olga Lisikova: Soviet Combat Pilot

The War beyond the Theaters of War

The War and the Global Environment

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Propaganda for Wartime Conservation

In The Wake Of War, 1945-1950

Restoring Stability, Enforcing Justice

The Two New Empires

World War II and the Challenge to Colonial Empires

Communist Victory in China

Chapter 27

The Global Boom and Its Contradictions: 1945-1975

Population And Economy: An Era Of Spectacular Growth

Global Population at Its Crest

The Postwar Economic Boom

Economic Growth in Communist States

The Worldwide Lure of Industrialization

Cities, Suburbs, and Shantytowns

Postwar Consumer Society

The Biosphere Disturbed

The Cold War Wears On

The Era of MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)

The Cold War Goes Global

Fights For Freedom And Justice

Paths to Independence: Politics and Protest

Paths to Independence: Insurgency and Revolution

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE Frantz Fanon on the Shortcomings of the National Bourgeoisie

Struggles for Stability in Young States

High Expectations and Social Protest

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Alexander Dubček: Descriptive Phrase TK

Chapter 28

Countercurrents of Change:1970 to the Present

An Electrified World

The Era of the Integrated Circuit

The Electronics of Transport

Computers and the Body

Unintended Consequences of Electronic Innovation

Countercurrents in the Global Economy

The 1970s: An Economic Turning Point

Conflicting Capitalist Doctrines

Shifting Centers of Economic Power

WEIGHING THE EVIDENCE An Artist's Comment on Capitalism in China

The Persistence of Poverty

Migration and the Global Economy

Countercurrents in the Search for Global Order

The World State System since 1970

A World of Organizations

Disorder and Breakdown in an Era of Global Integration

Palestinians and Israelis

Into the Anthropocene

Environment and Environmentalism

INDIVIDUALS MATTER Wangari Maathai: Environmental Activist and Nobel Laureate

The Perils of Climate Change

Conclusion

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