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In The Paradoxes of the American Presidency, two highly esteemed presidential scholars, Thomas E. Cronin and Michael A. Genovese, explore the complex institution of the American presidency by presenting a series of paradoxes that shape and define the office. Revised and updated to reflectrecent political events - including the controversial and consequential presidency of George W. Bush, the vice presidency of Dick Cheney, the presidency of Barack Obama, and the 2010 and 2012 elections - the fourth edition incorporates findings from the latest scholarship, the most recent electionsand court cases, and relevant survey research.
Thomas E. Cronin is McHugh Professor of American Institutions and Leadership at Colorado College and President Emeritus at Whitman College. He is the author of more than 150 articles and author, coauthor, or editor of a dozen books, including Colorado Politics: Governing a Purple State (2012), Leadership Matters (2012), and On the Presidency (2008).
Michael A. Genovese is the Loyola Chair of Leadership Studies, Professor of Political Science, and Director of the Institute for Leadership Studies at Loyola Marymount University. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of more than thirty books, including A Presidential Nation: Causes, Consequences, and Cures (2012), Leadership Matters (2012), and the Encyclopedia of the American Presidency (2009).
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Presidential Paradoxes
Americans want decisive leadership, yet we distrust authority and fear the abuse of power.
We yearn for the democratic "common person" who also has an uncommon genius, charisma, and star quality.
We want a decent, caring, and compassionate president, yet we admire a cunning, guileful, and, on occasions that warrant it, even a ruthless, manipulative president.
We admire an "above politics," nonpartisan, bipartisan, or "postpartisan" style of leadership, and yet the presidency is perhaps the most political office in the American political system: it requires an entrepreneurial master politician. Similarly, we want presidents who can both unify us and make the necessary bold and unpopular decisions that are likely to upset us.
We want our presidents to provide visionary, innovative, programmatic leadership and at the same time to respond pragmatically to the will of public opinion majorities; that is, presidents must lead and follow, educate and listen.
Americans want resolute, self-confident presidential leadership. Yet we are inherently suspicious of leaders who are arrogant, above criticism, and unwilling to learn from mistakes. We want presidents, in other words, with strong but not swollen egos.
What and who it takes to become president may not be what and who are needed to govern the nation.
Presidents are order affirming, order shattering, and order creating.
Rich states in presidential elections tend to vote for the Democratic candidate, while poor states tend to vote Republican, yet rich voters generally vote Republican and have done so for decades.
Chapter 2. How We Evaluate Presidents
What the Framers Expected?
What Was Expected in the Nineteenth Century?
Public Expectations toward Presidents in Recent Times
Qualities Americans Look For in Presidents
Leadership the Public Wants
How Americans Judge Incumbent Presidents
Why Disapproval Ratings Rise
What Can a President Do?
How the Public Judges Presidents
How Experts Judge Presidents
Can We Predict Presidential Effectiveness?
What Is Presidential Greatness?
Chapter 3. How We Elect Presidents
Who Becomes President?
Why Voters Vote the Way They Do
The Invisible Primary
Incumbency: Advantage or Disadvantage?
Incumbency and the Obama Presidency: Lame Duck, Sitting Duck, or Dead Duck?
General Elections: What Matters?
The Electoral College Debate
How the Electoral College Works Today
The Case for Retaining the Electoral College
The Case against the Electoral College
The Case for the Direct Election of Presidents
From Election to Governing
Chapter 4. Presidential Power and Leadership
The Moods and Cycles of American Politics
The Vagaries of Presidential Power
Persuasion and Power
The Building Blocks of Presidential Leadership
The "Conditions" of Power
Are We Too Presidency-Centric?
Chapter 5. Presidents in a System of Shared Powers
The Presidency as Defined and Debated in 1787
The Presidency as Redefined by Washington and His Successors
The Presidency as Redefined by FDR and the Modern Presidents
The Job of the Modern President
The Foreign Affairs Presidency
The Economic Presidency
The Domestic Presidency
The Multidimensional Presidency
Symbolic, Morale-Building, and Shamanistic Leadership
Vision, Priority Setting, and Program Design
Legislative and Political Coalition Building
Policy Implementation and Evaluation
Oversight and Early-Warning System
Chapter 6. Presidents and Congress
Separate Institutions/Shared Powers
The President's Constitutional Place
The Politics of Shared Power
The President in the Legislative Arena
Parties and Presidents: An Awkward Alliance
The "No Party" Presidency
Presidents and Use of Party Appeal in Congress
The Presidential Veto
Presidents and Congress in Foreign Affairs
Bush, the Congress, and Iraq
The "Imperial Presidency" Argument
Presidential War-Making Powers Before 1974
The Continuing Debate over War Powers
Fusing What the Framers Separated
The Continuing Struggle
Chapter 7. Presidents as Chief Executives: Challenges and Resources
Presidents and the Cabinet
Selecting Cabinet Advisers
The Job of a Cabinet Member
The West Wing Wants Loyalty along with Competence
The Role of the Cabinet in Policymaking
A Cabinet of Unequals
The Inner Cabinet
A National Security Cabinet
The Outer Cabinet
The Rise of the Administrative Presidency
The Executive Office of the President, Continued
The President's Spouse
The White House Staff
White House Chief of Staff
National Security Adviser
The Chief White House Political Counselor
White House Press Secretary
Dealing with the Bureaucracy
Chapter 8. The American Vice Presidency
President of the Senate
Vice Presidents as "Assistant Presidents"
Psychological Problems or the "Throttlebottom Complex"
The Mondale Experience
The George H. W. Bush Experience
The Gore Experience
The Dick Cheney Vice Presidency
The Biden Vice Presidency
Chapter 9. Presidents and the Court
Presidential Nominations to the Court
The Temptation to Move beyond The Law
The President's Emergency Power
Presidential Action in Times of Emergency Court Decisions and Presidential Power
Presidential Losses before The Supreme Court
Chapter 10. The Future of the American Presidency
Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
Holding Presidents to Account
The Presidency and Democratic Theory
"Votes of No Confidence?"
What About a "President's Question Hour in Congress"?
A Third Party to the Rescue?
Should We Repeal the Twenty-second (Two-term Limit) Amendment?
Should Presidents Be Granted an Item Veto?
Limiting the President's War Powers
The Ultimate Check: Impeachment and Removal
Campaign Finance Reform--Again
Accountability in an Age of Terrorism
The Necessity for Politics and Democratic Accountability
Presidential Election Results