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In The Paradoxes of the American Presidency, two highly esteemed presidential scholars, Thomas E. Cronin and Michael A. Genovese, explore the complex institution of the American presidency by presenting a series of paradoxes that shape and define the office. Revised and updated to reflectrecent political events - including the controversial and consequential presidency of George W. Bush, the vice presidency of Dick Cheney, the presidency of Barack Obama, and the 2010 and 2012 elections - the fourth edition incorporates findings from the latest scholarship, the most recent electionsand court cases, and relevant survey research.
Thomas E. Cronin is McHugh Professor of American Institutions and Leadership at Colorado College and President Emeritus at Whitman College. He is the author of more than 150 articles and author, coauthor, or editor of a dozen books, including Colorado Politics: Governing a Purple State (2012), Leadership Matters (2012), and On the Presidency (2008).
Michael A. Genovese is the Loyola Chair of Leadership Studies, Professor of Political Science, and Director of the Institute for Leadership Studies at Loyola Marymount University. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of more than thirty books, including A Presidential Nation: Causes,Consequences, and Cures (2012), Leadership Matters (2012), and the Encyclopedia of the American Presidency (2009).
Table of Contents
Preface Chapter 1. Presidential Paradoxes Paradox #1 Americans want decisive leadership, yet we distrust authority and fear the abuse of power. Paradox #2 We yearn for the democratic "common person" who also has an uncommon genius, charisma, and star quality. Paradox #3 We want a decent, caring, and compassionate president, yet we admire a cunning, guileful, and, on occasions that warrant it, even a ruthless, manipulative president. Paradox #4 We admire an "above politics," nonpartisan, bipartisan, or "postpartisan" style of leadership, and yet the presidency is perhaps the most political office in the American political system: it requires an entrepreneurial master politician. Similarly, we want presidents who can both unify us and make the necessary bold and unpopular decisions that are likely to upset us. Paradox #5 We want our presidents to provide visionary, innovative, programmatic leadership and at the same time to respond pragmatically to the will of public opinion majorities; that is, presidents must lead and follow, educate and listen. Paradox #6 Americans want resolute, self-confident presidential leadership. Yet we are inherently suspicious of leaders who are arrogant, above criticism, and unwilling to learn from mistakes. We want presidents, in other words, with strong but not swollen egos. Paradox #7 What and who it takes to become president may not be what and who are needed to govern the nation. Paradox #8 Presidents are order affirming, order shattering, and order creating. Paradox #9 Rich states in presidential elections tend to vote for the Democratic candidate, while poor states tend to vote Republican, yet rich voters generally vote Republican and have done so for decades. Conclusion Chapter 2. How We Evaluate Presidents What the Framers Expected? What Was Expected in the Nineteenth Century? Public Expectations toward Presidents in Recent Times Qualities Americans Look For in Presidents Leadership the Public Wants How Americans Judge Incumbent Presidents Why Disapproval Ratings Rise What Can a President Do? How the Public Judges Presidents How Experts Judge Presidents Can We Predict Presidential Effectiveness? What Is Presidential Greatness? Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 3. How We Elect Presidents Who Becomes President? Why Voters Vote the Way They Do The Invisible Primary Presidential Primaries Caucuses National Conventions Incumbency: Advantage or Disadvantage? Incumbency and the Obama Presidency: Lame Duck, Sitting Duck, or Dead Duck? General Elections: What Matters? The Electoral College Debate How the Electoral College Works Today The Case for Retaining the Electoral College The Case against the Electoral College The Case for the Direct Election of Presidents From Election to Governing Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 4. Presidential Power and Leadership The Moods and Cycles of American Politics The Vagaries of Presidential Power Unresolved Questions Persuasion and Power Power-Maximizing Strategies Presidential Leadership The Building Blocks of Presidential Leadership Vision Skill Political Timing The "Conditions" of Power Are We Too Presidency-Centric? Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 5. Presidents in a System of Shared Powers The Presidency as Defined and Debated in 1787 The Presidency as Redefined by Washington and His Successors The Presidency as Redefined by FDR and the Modern Presidents The Job of the Modern President The Foreign Affairs Presidency The Economic Presidency The Domestic Presidency The Multidimensional Presidency Crisis Management Symbolic, Morale-Building, and Shamanistic Leadership Vision, Priority Setting, and Program Design Recruitment Leadership Legislative and Political Coalition Building Policy Implementation and Evaluation Oversight and Early-Warning System Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 6. Presidents and Congress Separate Institutions/Shared Powers The President's Constitutional Place The Politics of Shared Power The President in the Legislative Arena Parties and Presidents: An Awkward Alliance The "No Party" Presidency Presidents and Use of Party Appeal in Congress The Presidential Veto Presidents and Congress in Foreign Affairs Bush, the Congress, and Iraq The "Imperial Presidency" Argument Presidential War-Making Powers Before 1974 The Continuing Debate over War Powers Confirmation Politics Fusing What the Framers Separated The Continuing Struggle For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 7. Presidents as Chief Executives: Challenges and Resources Presidents and the Cabinet Selecting Cabinet Advisers The Job of a Cabinet Member The West Wing Wants Loyalty along with Competence The Role of the Cabinet in Policymaking A Cabinet of Unequals The Inner Cabinet A National Security Cabinet Attorneys General Treasury Secretary The Outer Cabinet Outer-Cabinet Isolation The Rise of the Administrative Presidency The Executive Office of the President, Continued The President's Spouse The White House Staff White House Chief of Staff National Security Adviser The Chief White House Political Counselor White House Press Secretary Advocacy Conflicts Dealing with the Bureaucracy Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 8. The American Vice Presidency Traditional Problems President of the Senate Vice Presidents as "Assistant Presidents" Psychological Problems or the "Throttlebottom Complex" The Mondale Experience The George H. W. Bush Experience The Gore Experience The Dick Cheney Vice Presidency The Biden Vice Presidency Selection Succession Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 9. Presidents and the Court Presidential Nominations to the Court Confirmation Battles Wayward Justices The Temptation to Move beyond The Law The President's Emergency Power Presidential Action in Times of Emergency Court Decisions and Presidential Power Presidential Losses before The Supreme Court Conclusion For Discussion Debate Questions Chapter 10. The Future of the American Presidency Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Holding Presidents to Account The Presidency and Democratic Theory "Votes of No Confidence?" What About a "President's Question Hour in Congress"? A Third Party to the Rescue? Should We Repeal the Twenty-second (Two-term Limit) Amendment? Should Presidents Be Granted an Item Veto? Limiting the President's War Powers The Ultimate Check: Impeachment and Removal Campaign Finance Reform--Again Accountability in an Age of Terrorism The Necessity for Politics and Democratic Accountability For Discussion Debate Questions Internet Links Selected Bibliography Notes Presidential Election Results Index