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Pathophysiology : Functional Alterations in Human Health

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780781762502

ISBN10:
0781762502
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/17/2006
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Willams & Wilkins

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Summary

This pathophysiology text offers a unique conceptual approach that facilitates learning by viewing pathophysiology as health care professionals do. Students will learn about general mechanisms of disease or alterations in human function--such as immune alterations or altered nutrition--and apply these processes to specific conditions. Chapters focus on fifteen core concepts of altered human function, selected by analyzing and clustering health conditions with high prevalence, incidence, and severity. Unlike a traditional systems-based approach, this novel approach shows how most diseases involve multiple body systems. A bound-in CD-ROM includes animations and an interactive game. Faculty resources include lesson plans, PowerPoint slides, additional case studies, and student assignment worksheets. The LiveAdvise Online Student Tutoring and Teaching Advice, powered by Smarthinking(TM), is now available when you adopt this textbook. Visit connection.lww.com/liveadvise for more information on how this service can help you and your students!

Table of Contents

Introduction to Pathophysiology
1(9)
Foundations of Pathophysiology
2(1)
Definition of Pathophysiology
2(1)
Related Sciences
2(1)
Health---Illness Continuum
2(1)
Health
2(1)
Illness
3(1)
Disease
3(1)
Using Pathophysiologic Terminology to Communicate
3(3)
Global Health
6(1)
Human Diversity and Disease
7(1)
Functional Concepts of Altered Health
7(3)
Basic Alterations in Cells and Tissues
10(28)
Introduction
10(1)
Review of Normal Cellular Structure and Function
11(4)
Cellular Components
11(1)
Cellular Function
12(3)
Cellular Adaptation and Response to Stress
15(3)
Atrophy
16(1)
Hypertrophy
17(1)
Hyperplasia
17(1)
Metaplasia
17(1)
Dysplasia
17(1)
Cellular Injury and Death
18(3)
Mechanisms of Cell Death
18(1)
Causes of Cell Injury and Death
19(2)
Clinical Models
21(17)
Menopause
21(3)
Cardiac Hypertrophy
24(2)
Acromegaly
26(3)
Cervical Metaplasia and Dysplasia
29(4)
Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease
33(5)
Inflammation and Tissue Repair
38(28)
Introduction
38(1)
Review of Body Defense Mechanisms
39(1)
Acute Inflammation
40(4)
Vascular Response
40(3)
Cellular Response
43(1)
Resolution of Acute Inflammation
44(1)
General Manifestations of Inflammation
44(1)
Treating Acute Inflammation
45(1)
Healing and Tissue Repair
46(3)
Covering the Wound
46(1)
Clearing the Debris
47(1)
Restoring Structural Integrity
47(1)
Restoring Functional Integrity
48(1)
Conditions That Promote Wound Healing
48(1)
Healing by Intention
49(1)
Chronic Inflammation and Impaired Healing
49(1)
Cells of Chronic Inflammation
50(1)
Granuloma Formation
50(1)
Complications of Healing and Tissue Repair
50(2)
Clinical Models
52(14)
Burns
52(3)
Arthritis
55(3)
Gastritis
58(2)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
60(6)
Alterations in Immunity
66(30)
Introduction
66(1)
Review of Immune Function
67(5)
Cellular Components of Immunity
67(1)
Lymphatics
68(2)
Immune Processes
70(2)
Process of Altering Immune Function
72(9)
Host Defense Failure
73(1)
Hypersensitivity
74(5)
Autcimmunity
79(1)
Alloimmunity
79(2)
Immune Response Manipulation
81(2)
Treatment of Maladaptive Immune Responses
81(1)
Immune Response in Disease Management
82(1)
Immune Response in the Prevention of Disease
82(1)
Clinical Models
83(13)
Immune Maladaptation: AIDS
83(2)
Immune Maladaptation: Anaphylactic Reaction
85(2)
Immune Maladaptation: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
87(2)
Immune Maladaptation: Rh Isoimmunization
89(7)
Infection
96(26)
Introduction
96(1)
Function of Resident Microbes
97(1)
The Chain of Infection
97(9)
Pathogen
97(7)
Reservoir
104(1)
Portal of Exit
105(1)
Mode of Transmission
105(1)
Portal of Entry
106(1)
Host Factors
106(1)
Phases of Acute Infection
106(1)
Complications of Infection
106(1)
Clinical Manifestations
107(1)
Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests
107(1)
Treatment Modalities
108(1)
Clinical Models
108(11)
Influenza
108(1)
Hepatitis
109(1)
The Function of the Liver
109(2)
Viral Hepatitis
111(3)
Urinary Tract Infection
114(1)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
115(1)
Tinea
116(1)
Bacterial Meningitis
117(2)
Infectious Disease Issues
119(3)
Genetic and Developmental Disorders
122(32)
Introduction
122(1)
Components of the Genetic System
123(1)
DNA
123(1)
Genes
123(1)
Genetic Replication
124(2)
Impact of Genetics on Health
126(3)
Patterns of Inheritance
127(2)
Process of Altering Genetic Traits
129(6)
Genetic Inheritance of Disease
129(6)
General Manifestations of Altering Genetic Traits
135(1)
Genetic Screening
135(1)
Counseling
135(1)
Diagnostic Strategies
135(1)
Treating Genetic Alterations
136(1)
Clinical Models
136(18)
Autosomal Recessive Disorder: Sickle Cell Anemia
136(3)
Mitochondrial Gene Disorder: Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy; Lactic Acidosis; Stroke
139(1)
Alteration in Chromosome Number (Autosome): Down Syndrome
140(2)
Alteration in Chromosome Number (Sex Chromosome): Turner Syndrome
142(2)
Sex-Linked Genetic Disorder: Fragile X Syndrome
144(1)
Autosomal Dominant Genetic Disorder: Huntington Disease
145(2)
Multifactorial Inheritance: Cardiovascular Disease
147(1)
Developmental Maladaptation: Neural Tube Defects
148(6)
Alterations in Cellular Proliferation and Differentiation
154(37)
Introduction
154(1)
Cellular Proliferation and Differentiation
155(1)
Altered Cellular Proliferation and Differentiation
156(6)
Carcinogenesis
156(6)
Characteristics of Neoplasms
162(2)
Paraneoplastic Syndromes
163(1)
Benign Versus Malignant
163(1)
Cancer Spread
164(1)
Cancer Nomenclature
165(2)
Cancer Classifications
167(1)
Cancer Prognosis
167(1)
General Manifestations
168(1)
Diagnostic Tests
169(1)
Cancer Treatment
169(1)
Cancer Prevention
170(1)
Children and Cancer
171(1)
Clinical Models
171(20)
Lung Cancer
171(2)
Colorectal Cancer
173(1)
Brain Cancer
174(3)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
177(2)
Prostate Cancer
179(1)
Testicular Cancer
180(1)
Ovarian Cancer
181(2)
Polycythemia Vera
183(1)
Leukemia
183(1)
Acute Lymphocytic and Myelogenous Leukemias
183(1)
Chronic Lymphocytic and Myelogenous Leukemias
184(1)
Lymphomas
185(1)
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
185(2)
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
187(4)
Alterations in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
191(25)
Introduction
192(1)
Review of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
192(6)
Electrolyte Balance
192(2)
Fluid Balance
194(3)
Tonicity
197(1)
Review of Acid-Base Balance
198(2)
Regulation of Acid and Base
198(2)
Altered Fluid Balance
200(3)
Water Content
200(3)
Altered Electrolyte Balance
203(2)
Altered Sodium Balance
203(1)
Altered Potassium Balance
204(1)
Altered Chloride Balance
204(1)
Altered Calcium Balance
204(1)
Altered Magnesium Balance
205(1)
Altered Phosphate Balance
205(1)
Altered Acid-Base Balance
205(2)
Metabolic Acidosis
205(2)
Metabolic Alkalosis
207(1)
Clinical Models
207(9)
Altered Fluid Balance: Cirrhosis
207(2)
Altered Electrolyte Balance: Renal Tubuiopathy
209(2)
Altered Acid-Base Balance: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)-Associated Acidosis
211(1)
Altered Sodium Balance: Dehydration
212(4)
Alterations in Neuronal Transmission
216(37)
Introduction
217(1)
Neural Structures Essential to Impulse Conduction
217(1)
Neurons
217(1)
Supporting Cells
217(1)
Review of Neuronal Transmission
218(2)
Membrane Potential
218(1)
Action Potential
218(1)
Communication Between Neural Cells
219(1)
Organization of the Nervous System
220(9)
Central Nervous System
220(3)
Protective Structures of the Central Nervous System
223(2)
Peripheral Nervous System
225(3)
Reflex Arcs
228(1)
Developmental Considerations
229(1)
Processes of Cell Injury
230(1)
Central Nervous System Cell Injury
230(1)
Parasympathetic Nervous System Cell Injury
230(1)
Mechanisms of Injury
231(6)
Traumatic Injury
231(2)
Ischemic Injury
233(1)
Excitation Injury
233(1)
Pressure Injury
234(2)
Altered Neuronal Transmission
236(1)
Clinical Models
237(16)
Cerebral Palsy
237(3)
Multiple Sclerosis
240(2)
Hydrocephalus
242(3)
Incomplete Spinal Cord Transection
245(2)
Depression
247(6)
Alterations in Sensory Functions and Pain Perception
253(31)
Introduction
254(1)
Somatosensory System
254(3)
Classes of Sensory Receptors
254(1)
Neuronal Organization
254(1)
Somatosensory Neuronal Transmission
255(1)
Somatosensory Processing
256(1)
Vision
257(5)
Visual Structures and Functions
257(1)
Control of Eye Movement
258(1)
Protective Eye Structures
259(1)
Alterations in Visual Function
260(2)
Manifestations and Evaluation of Alterations in Vision
262(1)
Treatment of Alterations in Vision
262(1)
Hearing
262(5)
Structural Components of the Ear
262(2)
Hearing Processes
264(1)
Alterations in Hearing and Balance
264(2)
Treatment of Alterations in Hearing
266(1)
Taste
267(1)
Smell
267(1)
Pain
267(3)
Characterization of Pain
267(1)
Conduction of Pain Sensation
267(1)
Theories of Pain
267(2)
Manifestations and Evaluation of Pain
269(1)
Treatment of Pain
270(1)
Clinical Models
270(14)
Fioromyalgia
271(1)
Migraine Headache
272(2)
Otitis Media
274(1)
Meniere's Disease
275(1)
Macular Degeneration
276(2)
Glaucoma
278(6)
Alterations in Hormonal and Metabolic Regulation
284(26)
Introduction
285(1)
Function and Regulation of Hormones
285(4)
Integrating Endocrine, Neuronal, and Defense Mechanisms in the Body
285(1)
Regulating Hormones
285(3)
Mediating Cell-to-Cell Communication
288(1)
Stress Response
289(3)
Altered Hormone Function
292(3)
Process of Altering Hormone Function
292(2)
General Manifestations of Altered Hormone Function
294(1)
Diagnosing and Treating Altered Hormone Function
294(1)
Clinical Models
295(15)
Female Reproductive Hormone Function
295(3)
Male Reproductive Hormone Function
298(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone Function
299(3)
Thyroid Hormone Function
302(2)
Adrenal Hormone Function
304(6)
Alterations in Ventilation and Diffusion
310(31)
Introduction
310(1)
Pulmonary Structure and Function
311(4)
Ventilation
312(1)
Diffusion
313(2)
Impaired Ventilation
315(1)
Impaired Ventilation-Perfusion Matching
316(1)
Impaired Diffusion
316(1)
The Effects of Impaired Ventilation and Diffusion
316(2)
Hypoxemia and Hypoxia
318(1)
Hypercapnia
318(1)
General Manifestations of Impaired Ventilation and Diffusion
318(2)
Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests
320(1)
Treating Impaired Ventilation and Diffusion
321(1)
Clinical Models
321(20)
Pneumonia
322(3)
Tuberculosis
325(3)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
328(6)
Cystic Fibrosis
334(2)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
336(5)
Alterations in Perfusion
341(33)
Introduction
341(1)
Perfusion
342(8)
From Ventilation to Perfusion
342(1)
Circulation
342(2)
Movement of Blood Through the Circulation
344(6)
Altered Perfusion
350(5)
Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatching
350(1)
Impaired Circulation
350(3)
Inadequate.Cardiac Output
353(2)
Excessive Perfusion Demands
355(1)
General Manifestations of Altered Perfusion
355(1)
Diagnosing and Treating Altered Perfusion
355(1)
Clinical Models
355(19)
Hypertension
357(2)
Shock
359(3)
Myocardial Infarction
362(2)
Heart Failure
364(4)
Stroke
368(2)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
370(4)
Alterations in Nutrition
374(32)
Introduction
374(1)
Nutrition
375(5)
Water
375(1)
Macronutrients: Proteins, Lipids, and Carbohydrates
375(1)
Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals
376(3)
Nutritional Intake Requirements
379(1)
Intake and Storage of Nutrients
380(1)
Digestion
380(7)
Absorption
387(2)
Glucose and Fructose Absorption
387(1)
Amino Acid and Small Peptide Absorption
388(1)
Fatty Acid and Glycerol Absorption
388(1)
Altered Nutrition
389(7)
Inherited Metabolic Disorders
389(1)
Undernutrition
390(5)
Overnutrition
395(1)
Malabsorption
395(1)
General Manifestations of Altered Nutrition
396(1)
Diagnostic and Treatment Strategies Related to Altered Nutrition
396(1)
Clinical Models
396(10)
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
396(2)
Anorexia Nervosa
398(2)
Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)
400(1)
Obesity
401(5)
Alterations in Elimination
406(28)
Introduction
407(1)
Review of the Processes of Elimination
407(7)
Urinary Elimination
407(3)
Bowel Elimination
410(4)
Processes of Altered Elimination
414(4)
Alteration in Motility
414(1)
Altered Neuromuscular Function
415(1)
Altered Perfusion
415(1)
Alteration in Patency
415(3)
General Manifestations of Altered Elimination
418(2)
Urinary Manifestations
418(1)
Gastrointestinal Manifestations
419(1)
Diagnosis of Altered Elimination
420(1)
Diagnosis of Conditions of the Renal and Urinary Systems
420(1)
Diagnosis of Conditions of the Large Colon
421(1)
Treatment of Altered Elimination
421(1)
Treatment of Altered Urinary Elimination
421(1)
Treatment of Altered Gastrointestinal Elimination
421(1)
Clinical Models
422(12)
Urolithiasis
422(2)
Urinary Incontinence
424(1)
Polycystic Kidney Disease
425(4)
Diverticular Disease
429(1)
Encopresis
430(4)
Degenerative Changes in Aging
434(24)
Introduction
434(1)
Review of the Processes of Aging
435(2)
Age-Related Cellular Changes
435(2)
General Manifestations of Aging
437(6)
Cellular Changes in Aging
437(1)
Aging and Appearance
437(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
438(1)
Alterations in Immune Resoonses
438(1)
Age-Related Proliferative Changes
438(1)
Alteration in Neurologic Function in Aging
439(1)
Impaired Mobility
439(1)
Age-Related Changes in Perfusion and Ventilation
440(1)
Age-Related Changes in Metabolic Processes
440(1)
Alterations in Nutrition and Elimination in Aging
441(2)
Treating Degenerative Changes in Aging Populations
443(1)
Clinical Models
443(15)
Osteoporosis
443(4)
Parkinson's Disease
447(4)
Alzheimer's Disease
451(7)
Combining Complex Pathophysiologic Concepts: Diabetes Mellitus
458(19)
Introduction
458(1)
Glucose, Insulin, Energy, and the Pancreas
459(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
460(7)
Insulin Deficit: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
461(3)
Insulin Resistance and Reduction: Type 2 Diabetes
464(3)
Gestational Diabetes
467(1)
Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
467(3)
Hypoglycemia
467(1)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
468(1)
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome
469(1)
The Somogyi Effect and Dawn Phenomenon
469(1)
Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
470(7)
Microvascular Complications
471(1)
Macrovascular Complications
471(1)
Neuropathies
472(1)
Infection
472(5)
Glossary 477(26)
Index 503


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