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Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780721693842

ISBN10:
0721693849
Pub. Date:
1/29/2002
Publisher(s):
Saunders
List Price: $62.95
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Summary

Pathophysiology for the Health Professions is a fundamental pathophysiology text designed specifically for students in any health professions field. It emphasizes the basic principles of disease processes in a clinical context, supported by concrete examples. The first two sections cover basic concepts of pathophysiologic processes such as inflammation and infections, as well as conditions that may alter a patient's health status by mimicking pathophysiological processes or affecting the process of disease. The last section on disorders of the body systems highlights commonly occurring problems and selected topics relevant to each system. Chapters in this section follow a consistent format, including a review of anatomy and physiology, concepts of disease, and specific disorders.

Table of Contents

Section I Basic Concepts of Disease Processes 1(130)
Introduction to Pathophysiology
2(10)
Health and Disease
4(7)
Terms Used in Pathophysiology
4(2)
Cellular Adaptations
6(1)
Cell Damage and Necrosis
7(2)
The Study of Pathophysiology
9(2)
Chapter Summary
11(1)
Study Questions
11(1)
Additional Resources
11(1)
Inflammation and Healing
12(22)
Review of Normal Defenses in the Body
14(1)
Review of Normal Capillary Exchange
14(1)
Inflammation
15(1)
Definition
15(1)
Causes
15(1)
Acute Inflammation
15(5)
Pathophysiology
15(2)
Local Effects
17(1)
Systemic Effects
18(1)
Diagnostic Tests
19(1)
Course of the Inflammatory Response
19(1)
Potential Complications
19(1)
Chronic Inflammation
20(1)
Pathophysiology
20(1)
Treatment of Inflammation
20(2)
Drugs
20(2)
Other Therapies
22(1)
Healing
22(4)
Types of Healing
22(2)
The Healing Process
24(1)
Factors Affecting Healing
24(1)
Complications of Healing by Scar Formation
25(1)
Example of Inflammation and Healing
26(5)
Burns
26(5)
Case Study
31(1)
Chapter Summary
31(1)
Study Questions
32(1)
Additional Resources
33(1)
Immunity and Abnormal Responses
34(26)
Review of the Immune System
36(6)
Purpose of the Immune System
36(1)
The Immune Response
36(1)
Components of the Immune System
36(4)
Diagnostic Tests
40(1)
The Process of Acquiring Immunity
40(2)
Tissue and Organ Transplant Rejection
42(1)
Hypersensitivity Reactions
43(7)
Type I Hypersensitivity---Allergy
43(5)
Type II---Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
48(1)
Type III---Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
48(1)
Type IV---Cell-Mediated or Delayed Hypersensitivity
48(2)
Autoimmune Disorders
50(2)
Mechanism
50(1)
Example: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
50(2)
Immunodeficiency
52(6)
Causes of Immunodeficiency
52(1)
Effects of Immunodeficiency
53(1)
Treatment
53(1)
Example: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
54(4)
Case Study
58(1)
Chapter Summary
58(1)
Study Questions
58(1)
Additional Resources
59(1)
Infection
60(22)
Review of Microbiology
62(10)
Microorganisms
62(1)
Types of Microorganisms
63(8)
Other Parasites---Helminths
71(1)
Resident Flora (Indigenous or Normal Flora)
72(1)
Principles of Infection
72(4)
Transmission of Infectious Agents
72(1)
Host Resistance
72(2)
Virulence and Pathogenicity of Microorganisms
74(1)
Control of Transmission and Infection
74(2)
Development of Infection
76(4)
Onset and Course
76(1)
Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Infection
77(1)
Diagnostic Tests
78(1)
Antimicrobial Drugs
78(2)
Example of Infection: Influenza (Flu)
80(1)
Chapter Summary
80(1)
Study Questions
81(1)
Additional Resources
81(1)
Neoplasms
82(22)
Review of Normal Cells
84(1)
Benign and Malignant Tumors
84(2)
Nomenclature
84(1)
Characteristics of Benign and Malignant Tumors
85(1)
Malignant Tumors---Cancer
86(13)
Pathophysiology
86(6)
Etiology
92(2)
Treatment
94(5)
Prognosis
99(1)
Examples of Malignant Tumors
99(2)
Skin Cancer
99(1)
Ovarian Cancer
100(1)
Brain Tumors
101(1)
Case Study
101(1)
Chapter Summary
102(1)
Study Questions
102(1)
Additional Resources
103(1)
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances
104(27)
Fluid Imbalance
106(6)
Review of Fluid Balance
106(2)
Fluid Excess---Edema
108(3)
Fluid Deficit---Dehydration
111(1)
Third-Spacing: Fluid Deficit and Fluid Excess
112(1)
Electrolyte Imbalances
112(8)
Sodium Imbalance
112(3)
Potassium Imbalance
115(2)
Calcium Imbalance
117(2)
Other Electrolytes
119(1)
Acid-Base Imbalance
120(7)
Review of Acid-Base Balance
120(1)
Control of Serum pH
121(2)
Acid-Base Imbalances
123(4)
Case Studies
127(1)
Chapter Summary
128(1)
Study Questions
129(1)
Additional Resource
130(1)
Section II The Effects of Altered Status/Growth and Development on Disease Processes 131(100)
Congenital and Genetic Disorders
132(14)
Review of Genetic Control
134(1)
Congenital Defects
135(3)
Genetic Disorders
138(2)
Single-Gene Disorders
138(1)
Chromosomal Disorders
139(1)
Multifactorial Disorders
139(1)
Developmental Disorders
140(1)
Diagnostic Tools
141(1)
Genetic Engineering and Gene Therapy
142(1)
Example: Down's Syndrome
142(2)
Chapter Summary
144(1)
Study Questions
144(1)
Additional Resources
145(1)
Diseases Associated with Adolescence
146(10)
Review of Normal Changes in Adolescence
148(1)
Musculoskeletal Abnormalities
148(4)
Kyphosis and Lordosis
149(1)
Scoliosis
149(1)
Osteomyelitis
150(1)
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (Still's Disease)
151(1)
Eating Disorders
152(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
152(1)
Bulimia Nervosa
153(1)
Skin Disorders
153(1)
Acne Vulgaris
153(1)
Infection
154(1)
Infectious Mononucleosis
154(1)
Disorders Affecting Sexual Development
154(1)
Chromosomal Disorders
154(1)
Tumors
154(1)
Menstrual Abnormalities
154(1)
Chapter Summary
155(1)
Study Questions
155(1)
Additional Resource
155(1)
The Relationship Between Pregnancy and Disease
156(10)
Fetal Development
158(1)
Significant Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy
158(3)
Diagnosis of Pregnancy
158(1)
Physiologic Changes and Their Implications
159(2)
Potential Complications of Pregnancy
161(3)
Ectopic Pregnancy
161(1)
Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: Preeclampsia and Eclampsia
161(1)
Placental Problems
162(1)
Blood Clotting Problems
162(1)
Rh Incompatibility
162(1)
Infection
163(1)
Adolescent Pregnancy
164(1)
Chapter Summary
164(1)
Study Questions
165(1)
Aging and Disease Processes
166(10)
The Aging Process
168(1)
Significant Physiologic Changes with Aging
168(5)
Hormonal Changes
168(1)
Reproductive System Changes
168(1)
Cardiovascular Changes
169(1)
Musculoskeletal Changes
170(1)
Respiratory Changes
171(1)
Neurologic Changes
172(1)
Gastrointestinal Changes and Nutrition
173(1)
Urinary System Changes
173(1)
Other Factors
173(1)
Chapter Summary
174(1)
Study Questions
174(1)
Additional Resources
175(1)
Effects of Immobility
176(6)
Musculoskeletal Effects
178(1)
Cutaneous Effects
178(1)
Cardiovascular Effects
179(1)
Respiratory Effects
179(1)
Gastrointestinal Effects
180(1)
Urinary Effects
180(1)
Effects of Immobility on Children
180(1)
Chapter Summary
180(1)
Study Questions
181(1)
The Influence of Stress
182(8)
Review of the Stress Response
184(2)
Stress and Disease
186(1)
Potential Effects of Prolonged or Severe Stress
186(1)
Coping with Stress
187(1)
Chapter Summary
187(1)
Study Questions
188(2)
Pain
190(12)
Causes of Pain
192(1)
Pain Pathways
192(2)
Theory of Pain and Pain Control
194(1)
Characteristics of Pain
194(2)
Signs and Symptoms
194(2)
Young Children and Pain
196(1)
Referred Pain
196(1)
Phantom Pain
196(1)
Factors Affecting Pain Perception and Response
196(1)
Acute Pain
196(2)
Chronic Pain
198(1)
Headache
198(1)
Pain Control
199(1)
Methods of Managing Pain
199(1)
Anesthesia
200(1)
Chapter Summary
200(1)
Study Questions
201(1)
Additional Resources
201(1)
Substance Abuse
202(8)
Terminology
204(1)
Predisposing Factors
205(1)
Recognition of Abuse
205(1)
Potential Complications of Substance Abuse
206(1)
Overdose
206(1)
Withdrawal
206(1)
Pregnancy
206(1)
Cardiovascular Problems
206(1)
Psychedelic Experiences
207(1)
Infection
207(1)
Alcohol
207(1)
Assistance with Substance Abuse
207(1)
Chapter Summary
207(1)
Study Questions
208(1)
Additional Resources
208(2)
Environmental Hazards
210(8)
Chemicals
212(2)
Heavy Metals
212(1)
Inhalants
213(1)
Physical Agents
214(1)
Hyperthermia
214(1)
Hypothermia
214(1)
Radiation
215(1)
Noise
215(1)
Biologic Agents
215(1)
Bites and Stings
215(1)
Food Poisoning
216(1)
Chapter Summary
216(1)
Study Questions
216(1)
Additional Resources
217(1)
Introduction to Basic Pharmacology and Selected Therapies
218(13)
Pharmacology
220(6)
Basic Principles
220(1)
Drug Effects
220(1)
Administration and Distribution of Drugs
221(1)
Drugs and Receptors
222(2)
Prescriptions and Medication Orders
224(2)
Other Common Traditional Forms of Therapy
226(1)
Physiotherapist
226(1)
Occupational Therapist
226(1)
Speech/Language Pathologist
226(1)
Nutritionist/Dietitian
226(1)
Complementary or Alternative Therapies
226(3)
Osteopathy
227(1)
Chiropractic
227(1)
Swedish or Western Massage
227(1)
Therapeutic Touch (TT) or Healing Touch
227(1)
Naturopathy
227(1)
Homeopathy
227(1)
Herbal Medicine
227(1)
Aromatherapy
227(1)
Asian Concepts of Disease and Healing
228(1)
Emergency Assessment
229(1)
Chapter Summary
229(1)
Study Questions
230(1)
Additional Resources
230(1)
Section III Pathophysiology of the Systems 231(402)
Blood and Lymphatic Disorders
232(26)
Review of the Blood
234(6)
Blood
234(6)
Review of the Lymphatic System
240(1)
Blood Dyscrasias
240(15)
The Anemias
240(5)
Hemolytic Anemias
245(3)
Polycythemia
248(1)
Blood Clotting Disorders
249(3)
The Leukemias
252(3)
Lymphatic Disorders
255(1)
Lymphomas
255(1)
Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Myeloma
256(1)
Case Study
256(1)
Chapter Summary
257(1)
Study Questions
257(1)
Additional Resources
257(1)
Cardiovascular Disorders
258(52)
Review of the Normal Cardiovascular System
260(9)
Heart
260(5)
Blood Vessels
265(2)
Blood Pressure
267(2)
Heart Disorders
269(26)
Diagnostic Tests for Cardiovascular Function
269(1)
General Treatment Measures for Cardiac Disorders
270(1)
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) or Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)
271(10)
Cardiac Arrhythmias (Dysrhythmias)
281(3)
Congestive Heart Failure
284(4)
Congenital Heart Defects
288(3)
Inflammation and Infection in the Heart
291(4)
Vascular Disorders
295(6)
Arterial Diseases
295(5)
Venous Disorders
300(1)
Shock
301(5)
Case Studies
306(1)
Chapter Summary
307(1)
Study Questions
308(1)
Additional Resources
308(2)
Respiratory Disorders
310(52)
Review of Normal Structures in the Respiratory System
312(7)
Purpose and General Organization
312(1)
Structures in the Respiratory System
312(2)
Ventilation
314(3)
Gas Exchange
317(2)
Diagnostic Tests
319(1)
General Manifestations of Respiratory Disease
319(2)
Infectious Diseases
321(9)
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
321(3)
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
324(6)
Obstructive Lung Diseases
330(8)
Cystic Fibrosis
330(2)
Lung Cancer
332(2)
Aspiration
334(2)
Asthma
336(2)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
338(6)
Emphysema
338(5)
Chronic Bronchitis
343(1)
Bronchiectasis
343(1)
Restrictive Lung Disorders
344(1)
Pneumoconioses
344(1)
Vascular Disorders
345(3)
Pulmonary Edema
345(1)
Pulmonary Embolus
345(3)
Expansion Disorders
348(9)
Atelectasis
348(1)
Pleural Effusion
348(2)
Pneumothorax
350(1)
Flail Chest
351(3)
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
354(1)
Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
355(1)
Acute Respiratory Failure
356(1)
Case Studies
357(1)
Chapter Summary
358(1)
Study Questions
359(1)
Additional Resources
360(2)
Digestive System Disorders
362(58)
Review of the Digestive System
364(7)
Structures and Their Functions
364(5)
Neural and Hormonal Controls
369(1)
Digestion and Absorption
370(1)
Common Manifestations of Digestive System Disorders
371(3)
Anorexia, Nausea, and Vomiting
371(1)
Diarrhea
372(1)
Constipation
373(1)
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances
373(1)
Pain
374(1)
Malnutrition
374(1)
Basic Diagnostic Tests
374(1)
Common Therapies
375(1)
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
376(14)
Disorders of the Oral Cavity
376(5)
Dysphagia
381(1)
Esophageal Cancer
381(2)
Hiatal Hernia
383(1)
Gastritis
383(2)
Peptic Ulcer
385(3)
Gastric Cancer
388(1)
Dumping Syndrome
389(1)
Pyloric Stenosis
389(1)
Disorders of the Liver and Pancreas
390(13)
Gallbladder Disorders
390(2)
Jaundice
392(1)
Hepatitis
393(5)
Cirrhosis
398(3)
Liver Cancer
401(1)
Acute Pancreatitis
402(1)
Pancreatic Cancer
403(1)
Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
403(12)
Celiac Disease
403(1)
Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease
404(3)
Appendicitis
407(1)
Diverticular Disease
408(1)
Colorectal Cancer
409(3)
Intestinal Obstruction
412(2)
Peritonitis
414(1)
Case Studies
415(1)
Chapter Summary
416(1)
Study Questions
417(2)
Additional Resources
419(1)
Urinary System Disorders
420(26)
Review of the Urinary System
422(5)
Incontinence and Retention
427(1)
Diagnostic Tests
427(1)
Urinalysis
427(1)
Blood Tests
428(1)
Other Tests
428(1)
Diuretic Drugs
428(1)
Dialysis
428(1)
Disorders of the Urinary System
429(6)
Urinary Tract Infections
429(4)
Inflammatory Disorders
433(2)
Urinary Tract Obstructions
435(2)
Urolithiasis (Calculi, or Kidney Stones)
435(2)
Hydronephrosis
437(1)
Tumors
437(1)
Vascular Disorders
437(1)
Nephrosclerosis
437(1)
Congenital Disorders
438(1)
Adult Polycystic Kidney
438(1)
Wilms' Tumor
439(1)
Renal Failure
439(4)
Acute Renal Failure
439(2)
Chronic Renal Failure
441(2)
Case Studies
443(1)
Chapter Summary
444(1)
Study Questions
444(1)
Additional Resource
445(1)
Acute Neurologic Disorders
446(42)
Review of the Nervous System
448(11)
Brain
448(4)
Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves
452(3)
Neurons and Conduction of Impulses
455(2)
Autonomic Nervous System
457(2)
General Effects of Neurologic Dysfunction
459(6)
Local (Focal) Effects
459(1)
Supratentorial and Infratentorial Lesions
459(1)
Left and Right Hemispheres
459(1)
Level of Consciousness
459(1)
Motor Dysfunction
460(1)
Sensory Deficits
460(1)
Visual Loss: Hemianopia
461(1)
Language Disorders
461(1)
Seizures
462(1)
Increased Intracranial Pressure
462(3)
Herniation
465(1)
Diagnostic Tests
465(1)
Acute Neurologic Problems
465(20)
Brain Tumors
465(2)
Vascular Disorders
467(4)
Infections
471(4)
Head Injuries
475(5)
Spinal Cord Injury
480(5)
Case Studies
485(1)
Chapter Summary
486(1)
Study Questions
486(1)
Additional Resources
487(1)
Chronic Neurologic Disorders
488(20)
Congenital Neurologic Disorders
490(4)
Hydrocephalus
490(1)
Spina Bifida
491(1)
Cerebral Palsy
492(2)
Seizure Disorders
494(3)
Pathophysiology
494(1)
Etiology
494(1)
Signs and Symptoms
495(1)
Treatment
496(1)
Chronic Degenerative Disorders
497(4)
Multiple Sclerosis
497(2)
Parkinson's Disease (Paralysis Agitans)
499(1)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
500(1)
Myasthenia Gravis
500(1)
Huntington's Disease
501(1)
Dementia
501(2)
Alzheimer's Disease
501(1)
Other Forms of Dementia
502(1)
Mental Disorders
503(2)
Schizophrenia
503(1)
Depression
504(1)
Panic Disorder
504(1)
Spinal Cord Problem
505(1)
Herniated Intervertebral Disc
505(1)
Case Study
506(1)
Chapter Summary
506(1)
Study Questions
507(1)
Additional Resources
507(1)
Disorders of the Eye and Ear
508(16)
The Eye
510(7)
Review of Normal Structure and Function
510(2)
Diagnostic Tests
512(1)
Structural Defects
512(1)
Infections and Trauma
512(2)
Glaucoma
514(2)
Cataracts
516(1)
Detached Retina
516(1)
Macular Degeneration
516(1)
The Ear
517(3)
Review of Normal Structure and Function
517(1)
Hearing Loss
518(1)
Ear Infections
519(1)
Chronic Disorders of the Ear
520(1)
Case Studies
520(1)
Chapter Summary
521(1)
Study Questions
522(1)
Additional Resources
522(2)
Endocrine Disorders
524(26)
Review of the Endocrine System
526(2)
Endocrine Disorders
528(1)
Diagnostic Tests
529(1)
Treatment
529(1)
Insulin and Diabetes Mellitus
529(8)
Comparison of Type I (IDDM) and Type II (NIDDM) Diabetes
529(1)
Pathophysiology
530(1)
Signs and Symptoms
530(1)
Diagnostic Tests
530(1)
Treatment
531(1)
Complications
532(5)
Parathyroid Hormone and Calcium
537(2)
Pituitary Hormones
539(1)
Growth Hormone
539(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
540(1)
Diabetes Insipidus
540(1)
Inappropriate ADH Syndrome
540(1)
Thyroid Disorders
540(4)
Goiter
541(1)
Hyperthyroidism (Graves' Disease)
541(2)
Hypothyroidism
543(1)
Adrenal Glands
544(1)
Adrenal Medulla
544(1)
Adrenal Cortex
544(1)
Case Studies
544(2)
Chapter Summary
546(1)
Study Questions
547(1)
Additional Resources
548(2)
Musculoskeletal Disorders
550(22)
Review of the Musculoskeletal System
552(5)
Bone
552(1)
Skeletal Muscle
552(3)
Joints
555(2)
Diagnostic Tests
557(1)
Trauma
557(5)
Fractures
557(4)
Dislocations
561(1)
Sprains and Strains
561(1)
Other Injuries
561(1)
Bone Disorders
562(2)
Osteoporosis
562(1)
Rickets and Osteomalacia
563(1)
Paget's Disease (Osteitis Deformans)
563(1)
Bone Tumors
563(1)
Disorders of Muscle, Tendons, and Ligaments
564(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
564(1)
Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome
564(1)
Joint Disorders
565(5)
Osteoarthritis
565(1)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
566(2)
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
568(1)
Infectious (Septic) Arthritis
568(1)
Gout (Gouty Arthritis)
569(1)
Ankylosing Spondylitis
569(1)
Case Studies
570(1)
Chapter Summary
570(1)
Study Questions
571(1)
Additional Resources
571(1)
Skin Disorders
572(20)
Review of the Normal Skin
574(1)
Skin Lesions
575(3)
Diagnostic Tests
577(1)
General Treatment Measures
577(1)
Inflammatory Disorders
578(4)
Contact Dermatitis
578(1)
Urticaria (Hives)
578(1)
Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
578(1)
Psoriasis
579(2)
Lichen Planus
581(1)
Discoid (Cutaneous) Lupus Erythematosus
581(1)
Pemphigus
581(1)
Scleroderma
581(1)
Skin Infections
582(4)
Bacterial Infections
582(1)
Viral Infections
583(2)
Fungal Infections (Mycoses)
585(1)
Other Infections
586(1)
Skin Tumors
586(3)
Keratoses
588(1)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
588(1)
Malignant Melanoma
589(1)
Kaposi's Sarcoma
589(1)
Case Studies
589(1)
Chapter Summary
590(1)
Study Questions
590(1)
Additional Resources
591(1)
Reproductive System Disorders
592(41)
Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
594(7)
Review of the Normal Male Reproductive System
594(1)
Infertility
595(1)
Congenital Abnormalities of the Penis
595(1)
Disorders of the Testes and Scrotum
595(1)
Inflammation and Infections
596(2)
Tumors
598(3)
Disorders of the Female Reproductive System
601(14)
Review of the Normal Female Reproductive System
601(3)
Infertility
604(1)
Structural Abnormalities
605(1)
Menstrual Disorders
606(2)
Infections
608(2)
Benign Tumors
610(2)
Malignant Tumors
612(3)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
615(5)
Bacterial Infections
616(2)
Viral Infections
618(2)
Protozoan Infection
620(1)
Case Studies
620(1)
Chapter Summary
621(1)
Study Questions
621(1)
Additional Resources
622(1)
Appendices
Ready Reference 1 Anatomic Terms
623(1)
Ready Reference 2 Common Pharmaceutical Abbreviations
624(1)
Ready Reference 3 Common Abbreviations and Acronyms
624(3)
Ready Reference 4 Common Diagnostic Tests
627(6)
Glossary 633(8)
Additional Resources 641(2)
Index 643


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