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Patterns of World Historyoffers a distinct framework for understanding the global past through the study of origins, interactions, and adaptations. Authors Peter von Sivers, Charles A. Desnoyers, and George Stow--each specialists in their respective fields--examine the full range of human ingenuity over time and space in a comprehensive, even-handed, and critical fashion. The book helps students to see and understand patterns through: ORIGINS - INTERACTIONS - ADAPTATIONS These key features show the O-A-I framework in action: *Seeing Patterns, a list of key questions at the beginning of each chapter, focuses students on the 3-5 over-arching patterns, which are revisited, considered, and synthesized at the end of the chapter inThinking Through Patterns. * Each chapter includes aPatterns Up Closecase study that brings into sharp relief the O-I-A pattern using a specific idea or thing that has developed in human history (and helped, in turn, develop human history), like the innovation of the Chinese writing system or religious syncretism in India. Each case study clearly shows how an innovation originated either in one geographical center or independently in several different centers. It demonstrates how, as people in the centers interacted with their neighbors, the neighbors adapted to--and in many cases were transformed by--the idea, object, or event. Adaptations include the entire spectrum of human responses, ranging from outright rejection to creative borrowing and, at times, forced acceptance. *Concept Mapsat the end of each chapter use compelling graphical representations of ideas and information to help students remember and relate the big patterns of the chapter.
Peter von Sivers is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Utah.
Charles A. Desnoyers is an Associate Professor of History at La Salle University
George B. Stow is a Professor of History and the Director of the Graduate Program in History at La Salle University.
Table of Contents
Each chapter contains Patterns Up Close, Concept Maps, Putting it All Together, Review and Respond, and Further Resources.
Part 1: From Human Origins to Early Agricultural Centers, Prehistory-10,000 B.C.E.
1. The African Origins of Humanity, Prehistory to 10,000 B.C.E.
The Origins of Humanity
Hominins: No Longer Apes but not yet Human
Human Adaptations: From Africa to Eurasia and Australia
The African Origins of Human Culture
Migration from South Asia to Australia
Migration from South Asia to Europe
The Ice Age Crisis and Human Migration to the Americas
The Ice Age
2. Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean, 11,500-600 B.C.E
Agrarian Origins in the Fertile Crescent, c. 11,500-1,500 B.C.E
Sedentary Foragers and Foraging Farmers
The Origins of Urban Centers in Mesopotamia and Egypt
Kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete
Interactions Among Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Religious Empires, c. 1500-600 B.C.E.
The Hittite and Assyrian Empires, 1600-600 B.C.E.
Small Kingdoms on the Imperial Margins, 1600-600 B.C.E.
Religious Experience and Cultural Achievements
3. Shifting Agrarian Centers in India, 3000-600 B.C.E.
The Vanished Origins of Harappa 3000 to 1500 B.C.E
The Region and People
Adapting to Urban Life in the Indus Valley
The Collapse of the Cities
Interactions in Northern India 1500 to 600 B.C.E.
The Vedic World, 1750 to 800 B.C.E.
Statecraft and the Ideology of Power, 800 to 600 B.C.E.
Indian Society, Culture, and Religion 1500 to 600 B.C.E.
Society and Family in Ancient India
Cultural Interactions to 600 B.C.E.
4. Agrarian Patterns and the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China, 5000-481 B.C.E.
The Origins of Yellow River Cultures, 5000 to 1766 B.C.E.
Geography and Climate
The Origins of Neolithic Cultures
The Age of Myth and the Xia Dynasty, 2852 to 1766 B.C.E.
The Interactions of Shang and Zhou History and Politics, 1766 to 481 B.C.E.
The Shang Dynasty, 1766 to 1122 B.C.E.
The Mandate of Heaven: The Zhou Dynasty to 481 B.C.E.
Economy, Society, and Family Adaptation in Ancient China
Interactions of Zhou Economy and Society
Gender and the Family
Interactions of Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life in Ancient China
Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing
Adaptations of Zhou Religion, Technology, and Culture
5. Origins Apart: The Americas and Oceania, 30,000-600 B.C.E.
The Americas: Hunters and Foragers 30,000 B.C.E. to 600 B.C.E.
Agriculture, Villages, and Urban Life
The Neolithic Revolution in the New World
The Origins of Urban Life
Foraging and Farming Societies outside the Andes and Mesoamerica
The Origins of Pacific Island Migrations 6000 to 600 B.C.E.
Lapita and Cultural Origins
Part 2: The Age of Empires and Visionaries, 600 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.
6. Chiefdoms and Early States in Africa and the Americas, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.
Agriculture and Early African Kingdoms
Saharan Villages, Towns, and Kingdoms
The Kingdom of Aksum
The Spread of Villages in Sub-Saharan Africa
West African Savanna and Rainforest Agriculture
The Spread of Village Life to East and South Africa
Patterns of African History, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.
Early States in Mesoamerica: Maya Kingdoms and Teotihuacán
The Maya Kingdoms in Southern Mesoamerica
The Kingdom of Teotihuacán in the Mexican Basin
The Andes: Moche and Nazca
The Moche in Northern Peru
Paracas and the Nazca in Southern Peru
7. Persia, Greece, and Rome, 550 B.C.E.-600 C.E.
Interactions between Persia and Greece
The Origins of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
Greek City-States in the Persian Shadow
Alexander's Empire and Its Successor Kingdoms
Interactions Between the Persian and Roman Empires
Parthian Persia and Rome
The Sasanian Persian and Late Roman Empires
Adaptations to Monotheism in the Middle East
Challenge to Polytheism: The Origins of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Greek Philosophy
Toward Religious Communities and Philosophical Schools
The Beginnings of Science and the Cultures of Kings and Citizens
The Sciences at the Museum of Alexandria
Royal Persian Culture
Greek and Roman Civic Culture
8. Empires and Visionaries in India, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.
Patterns of State Formation in India: Republics, Kingdoms, and Empires
The Road to Empire: The Mauryas
The Classical Age: The Gupta Empire
The Southern Kingdoms, ca. 300 to 600 C.E.
The Vedic Tradition and Its Visionary Reformers
Reforming the Vedic Tradition
The Maturity of Hinduism: From the Abstract to the Devotional
Stability Amid Disorder: Economics, Family, and Society
Tax and Spend: Economics and Society
Caste, Family Life, and Gender
Strength in Numbers: Art, Literature, and Science
9. Imperial Unification and Perfecting the Moral Order in China, 722 B.C.E.-618 C.E.
Visionaries and Empire
Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism
The Qin Dynasty
The Han Dynasty
The Domestic Economy: Society, Family, and Gender
Industry and Commerce
Intellectual Trends, Aesthetics, Science, and Technology
Confucianism, Education, and History during the Han
Buddhism in China
Part 3: From Regional Empires to Religious Civilizations, 600-1450 C.E.
10. Islamic Civilization and Byzantium, 600-1300
The Rise of Arab Dominance in the Middle East and Mediterranean
From Rome and Persia to the Arab Empire
From the Arab Empire to Islamic Civilization
Byzantium: Survival and Recovery
Islamic Civilization in the Commonwealth of Dynastic States, 900-1300
Islamic and Eastern Christian Civilizations at their Height
State and Society in Mamluk Egypt
Commercial Relations from the Atlantic to the South China Sea
Religion, Sciences, and the Arts in Two Religious Civilizations
Islamic Culture: Intellectual and Scientific Expressions
Artistic Expressions in Islamic Civilization
11. Origins of the Western Christian World, 600-1400 C.E.
The Formation of Christian Europe: 600-1000 C.E.
Frankish Gaul and Latin Christianity
Recovery, Reform, and Innovation: 1000-1300 C.E.
The Political Recovery of Europe
The Economic and Social Recovery of Europe
Religious Reform and Expansion
Intellectual and Cultural Developments
Crisis and Creativity: 1300-1415
The Calamitous Fourteenth Century
Signs of a New Era in the Fifteenth Century
12. Contrasting Patterns in India and China, 600-1600
India: The Clash of Cultures
India after the Guptas
Islam in India, 711-1398
Toward the Mughal Era, 1398-1450
Interactions and Adaptations: From Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China
Creating a Religious Civilization under the Tang
The Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960 to 1368
The Ming to 1450: The Quest for Stability
Society, Family and Gender
Perceptions of Perfection: Intellectual, Scientific and Cultural Life
13. Religious Civilizations Interacting: Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia, 100 C.E.-1400 C.E.
Korea to 1450
People and Place: The Korean Environment
Conquest and Competition: History and Politics to 1598
Economy, Society, and Family
Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
Japan to 1450
The Island Refuge
Adaptation at Arm's Length: History and Politics
Economy, Society, and Family
Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
The Setting and Neolithic Cultures
The "Far South": History and Politics to 1450
Economy, Society, and Family
Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
14. Patterns of State Formation in Africa, 600-1450
Christian Kingdoms in the Northeast
Nubia in the Middle Nile Valley
Ethiopia in the Eastern Highlands
Islamic City-States on the East African Coast and Traditional Kingdoms in South Africa
The Swahili City-States on the East African Coast
Traditional Kingdoms in South and Central Africa
Central African Chiefdoms and Kingdoms
From Traditional to Islamic Kingdoms in West Africa
The Kingdom of Ancient Ghana
The Empire of Mali
15. The Rise of Empires in the Americas, 600-1550
The Legacy of Teotihuacán and the Toltecs in Meso- Militarism in the Mexican Basin
Late Maya Kingdoms in Yucatán
The Legacy of Tiwanaku and Wari in the Andes
The Conquering State of Tiwanaku
The Expanduing Kingdom of Wari
American Empires: The Aztecs and Incas
The Aztec Empire of Meso-America
The Inca Empire of the Andes
Imperial Society and Culture
Imperial Capitals: Tenochtitlán and Cuzco
Power and Its Cultural Expressions
Part 4: Interactions across the Globe, 1450-1750
16. The Ottoman-Hapsburg Struggle and European Overseas Expansion, 1450-1600
The Muslim-Christian Competition in East and West, 1450-1600
Iberian-Christian Expansion, 1415-1498
Rise of the Ottomans and Struggle with the Habsburgs for Dominance, 1300-1609
The Rise of the Centralized Fiscal-Military State
State Transformation, Money, and Firearms
Imperial Courts, Urban Fesivities, and the Arts
The Spanish Habsburg Empire: Popular Festivities and the Arts
The Ottoman Empire: Palaces, Festivities, and the Arts
17. Renaissance, Reformation, and the New Science in Europe, 1450-1700
Fiscal-Military States and Religious Upheavals
The Rise of Fiscal-Military Kingdoms
The Protestant Reformation, State Churches, and Independent Congregations
Religious Wars and Political Restoration
Cultural Transformations: Renaissance, New Science, and Early Enlightenment
The Renaissance and Baroque Arts
The Pioneers of the New Science
The New Science and Its Impact
The Early Enlightenment in Northwestern Europe
18. New Patterns in New Worlds: Colonialism and Indigenous Responses in the Americas, 1500-1800
The Colonial Americas: Europe's Warm Weather Extension
The Conquest of Mexico and Peru
The Establishment of Colonial Institutions
The Making of American Societies: Economic and Social Formation
The Exploitation of the Mineral and Tropical Resources
Shades of Skin Color: Social Strata, Castes, and Ethnic Groups
The Adaptation of European Culture to the Americas
19. African Kingdoms, The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Origins of Black America, 1450-1800
African States and the Slave Trade
The End of Empires in the North and the Rise of States in the Center
Portugal's Explorations along the African Coast and Contacts with Ethiopia
Coastal Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade
American Plantation Slavery and Atlantic Mercantilism
The Special Case of Plantation Slavery in the Americas
The "Peculiar Institution" in British North America
The Fatal Triangle: The Economic Patterns of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Cultural Identity in the African Diaspora
20. The Mughal Empire: Muslim Rulers and Hindu Subjects, 1400-1750
History and Political Life of the Mughals
From Samarkand to Hindustan
The Summer and Autumn of Empire
Administration, Society, and Economics
Mansabdars and Bureaucracy
The Mughals and Early Modern Economics
Society, Family, and Gender
Science, Religion, and the Arts
Science and Technology
Religion: In Search of Balance
Literature and Art
21. Regulating the "Inner" and the "Outer" Domains of China and Japan, 1500-1800
Late Ming and Qing China to 1750
From Expansion to Exclusion
The Spring and Summer of Power: The Qing to 1750
Village and Family Life
Science, Culture, and Intellectual Life
The Long War and Longer Peace: Japan, 1450 to 1750
The Struggle for Unification
The Tokugawa Bakufu to 1750
Growth and Stagnation: Economy and Society
Hothousing "Japaneseness": Culture, Science, and Intellectual Life
Part 5: The Origins of Modernity, 1750-1900
22. Nation-States and Patterns of Culture in Europe and North America, 1750-1871
Constitutional Nation-States: 1750-
The American and French Revolutions
Enlightenment Culture: Radicalism and Moderation
Early and Late Enlightenment
The Other Enlightenment: The Ideology of Ethnic Nationalism
The Growth of the Nation-State, 1815-1871
Restoration Monarchies, 1815-1848
Nation-State Building in Anglo-America, 1783-1865
Romanticism and Realism: Philosophical and Artistic Expression to 1850
23. Industrialization and its Discontents
The Industrialization of Europe and the West: 1760-1914
Early Industrialism: 1750-1870
The Spread of Early Industrialism
Late Industrialism: 1871-1914
The Social and Economic Impact of Industrialism: 1750-1914
Critics of Industrialization
Improved Standards of Living
Improved Urban Living
Intellectual and Cultural Responses in the Age of Industrialism
Scientific and Intellectual Developments
Toward Modernity in Philosophy and Religion
Toward Modernity in Literature and the Arts
24. The Challenge of Modernity: East Asia, 1750 - 1900
China and Japan in the Age of Imperialism
China and Maritime Trade, 1750-1839
The Opium Wars and Treaty Port Era
Toward Revolution: Reform and Reaction to 1900
In Search of Security Through Empire: Japan in the Meiji Era
Economics and Society in Late Qing China
The Seeds of Modernity and the New Economic Order
Culture, Arts, and Science
Zaibatsu and Political Parties: Economics and Society in Meiji Japan
Commerce and Cartels
"Enlightenment and Progress": Science, Culture, and the Arts
25. Adaption and Resistance: The Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1683-1908
Decentralization and Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Imperialism in the 1600s and 1700s
The Western Challenge and Ottoman Responses
Iran's Effort to Cope with the Western Challenge
Westernization, Reforms, and Industrialization in Russia
Russia and Westernization
Russia in the Early Nineteenth Century
The Great Reforms
The Abortive Russian Revolution of 1905
26. The New Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
The British Colonies of India, Australia, and New Zealand
The British East India Company
Direct British Rule
The British Settler Colonies of Australia and New Zealand
European Imperialism in the Middle East and Africa
The Rising Appeal of Imperialism in the West
The Scramble for Africa
Western Imperialism and Colonialism in Southeast Asia
The Dutch in Indonesia
Spain in the Philippines
The French in Vietnam
27. Creoles and Caudillos: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century
Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instability
Independence and Political Development in the North: Haiti and Mexico
Independence and Development in Northern South America
Independence and Development in Southern and Western South America
Brazil: From Kingdom to Republic
Latin American Society and Economy in the Nineteenth Century
Rebuilding Societies and Economies
Women, Family, and Culture
Part 6: Adaptations to Modernity across the Globe, 1900-Present
28. World War and Competing Visions of Modernity to 1945
The Great War and its Aftermath
A Savage War and a Flawed Peace
America First: The Beginnings of a Consumer Culture and the Great Depression
Great Britain and France: Slow Recovery and Empires
Latin America: Independent Democracies and Authoritarian Regimes
New Variations on Modernity: The Soviet Union and Communism
The Communist Party and Regime in the Soviet Union
The Collectivization of Agriculture and Industrialization
New Variations on Modernity: Supremacist Nationalism in Italy, Germany, and Japan
From Fascism in Italy to Nazism in the Third Reich
Japan's "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" and China's Struggle for Unity
29. Reconstruction, the Cold War, and Decolonization 1945-1962
Superpower Confrontation: Capitalist Democracy and Communism
The Cold War Era, 1945-1962
Society and Culture in Post-War North America, Europe, and Japan
Populism and Industrialization in Latin America
Slow Social Change
Populist Guided Democracy
The End of Colonialism and the Rise of New Nations
"China Has Stood Up"
Decolonization, Israel, and Arab Nationalism in the Middle East
Decolonization and the Cold War in Asia
Decolonization and Cold War in Sub-Saharan Africa
30. The End of the Cold War, Western Social Transformation, and the Developing World 1963-1991
The Climax of the Cold War
The Soviet Superpower in Slow Decline
Transforming the West
Civil Rights Movements
From "Underdeveloped" to "Developing" World, 1963-1991
China: Cultural Revolution to Four Modernizations
Vietnam: War and Unification
The Middle East
Africa: From Independence to Development
31. Globalization and Challenges to Modernity, 1991-Present
Capitalist Democracy: The Dominant Pattern of Modernity
A Decade of Global Expansion: The United States and the World in the 1990s
The Communist Holdouts: North Korea, Cuba, China, and Vietnam
A Decade of Global Shifts: Twenty-First Century Currents and Cross-Currents
The Environmental Limits of Modernity