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Patterns of World Historyoffers a distinct framework for understanding the global past through the study of origins, interactions, and adaptations. Authors Peter von Sivers, Charles A. Desnoyers, and George Stow--each specialists in their respective fields--examine the full range of human ingenuity over time and space in a comprehensive, even-handed, and critical fashion. The book helps students to see and understand patterns through: ORIGINS - INTERACTIONS - ADAPTATIONS These key features show the O-A-I framework in action: *Seeing Patterns, a list of key questions at the beginning of each chapter, focuses students on the 3-5 over-arching patterns, which are revisited, considered, and synthesized at the end of the chapter inThinking Through Patterns. * Each chapter includes aPatterns Up Closecase study that brings into sharp relief the O-I-A pattern using a specific idea or thing that has developed in human history (and helped, in turn, develop human history), like the innovation of the Chinese writing system or religious syncretism in India. Each case study clearly shows how an innovation originated either in one geographical center or independently in several different centers. It demonstrates how, as people in the centers interacted with their neighbors, the neighbors adapted to--and in many cases were transformed by--the idea, object, or event. Adaptations include the entire spectrum of human responses, ranging from outright rejection to creative borrowing and, at times, forced acceptance. *Concept Mapsat the end of each chapter use compelling graphical representations of ideas and information to help students remember and relate the big patterns of the chapter.
Peter von Sivers is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Utah.
Charles A. Desnoyers is an Associate Professor of History at La Salle University
George B. Stow is a Professor of History and the Director of the Graduate Program in History at La Salle University.
Table of Contents
Each chapter contains Patterns Up Close, Concept Maps, Putting it All Together, Review and Respond, and Further Resources.
Part 1: From Human Origins to Early Agricultural Centers, Prehistory-10,000 B.C.E.
1. The African Origins of Humanity, Prehistory to 10,000 B.C.E. The Origins of Humanity Hominins: No Longer Apes but not yet Human Human Adaptations: From Africa to Eurasia and Australia The African Origins of Human Culture Migration from South Asia to Australia Migration from South Asia to Europe The Ice Age Crisis and Human Migration to the Americas The Ice Age
2. Agrarian-Urban Centers of the Middle East and Eastern Mediterranean, 11,500-600 B.C.E Agrarian Origins in the Fertile Crescent, c. 11,500-1,500 B.C.E Sedentary Foragers and Foraging Farmers The Origins of Urban Centers in Mesopotamia and Egypt Kingdoms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Crete Interactions Among Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Religious Empires, c. 1500-600 B.C.E. The Hittite and Assyrian Empires, 1600-600 B.C.E. Small Kingdoms on the Imperial Margins, 1600-600 B.C.E. Religious Experience and Cultural Achievements
3. Shifting Agrarian Centers in India, 3000-600 B.C.E. The Vanished Origins of Harappa 3000 to 1500 B.C.E The Region and People Adapting to Urban Life in the Indus Valley The Collapse of the Cities Interactions in Northern India 1500 to 600 B.C.E. The Vedic World, 1750 to 800 B.C.E. Statecraft and the Ideology of Power, 800 to 600 B.C.E. Indian Society, Culture, and Religion 1500 to 600 B.C.E. Society and Family in Ancient India Cultural Interactions to 600 B.C.E.
4. Agrarian Patterns and the Mandate of Heaven in Ancient China, 5000-481 B.C.E. The Origins of Yellow River Cultures, 5000 to 1766 B.C.E. Geography and Climate The Origins of Neolithic Cultures The Age of Myth and the Xia Dynasty, 2852 to 1766 B.C.E. The Interactions of Shang and Zhou History and Politics, 1766 to 481 B.C.E. The Shang Dynasty, 1766 to 1122 B.C.E. The Mandate of Heaven: The Zhou Dynasty to 481 B.C.E. Economy, Society, and Family Adaptation in Ancient China Shang Society Interactions of Zhou Economy and Society Gender and the Family Interactions of Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life in Ancient China Oracle Bones and Early Chinese Writing Adaptations of Zhou Religion, Technology, and Culture
5. Origins Apart: The Americas and Oceania, 30,000-600 B.C.E. The Americas: Hunters and Foragers 30,000 B.C.E. to 600 B.C.E. The Environment Human Migrations Agriculture, Villages, and Urban Life The Neolithic Revolution in the New World The Origins of Urban Life Foraging and Farming Societies outside the Andes and Mesoamerica The Origins of Pacific Island Migrations 6000 to 600 B.C.E. Lapita and Cultural Origins Creating Polynesia
Part 2: The Age of Empires and Visionaries, 600 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.
6. Chiefdoms and Early States in Africa and the Americas, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Agriculture and Early African Kingdoms Saharan Villages, Towns, and Kingdoms The Kingdom of Aksum The Spread of Villages in Sub-Saharan Africa West African Savanna and Rainforest Agriculture The Spread of Village Life to East and South Africa Patterns of African History, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Early States in Mesoamerica: Maya Kingdoms and Teotihuacán The Maya Kingdoms in Southern Mesoamerica The Kingdom of Teotihuacán in the Mexican Basin The Andes: Moche and Nazca The Moche in Northern Peru Paracas and the Nazca in Southern Peru
7. Persia, Greece, and Rome, 550 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Interactions between Persia and Greece The Origins of the Achaemenid Persian Empire Greek City-States in the Persian Shadow Alexander's Empire and Its Successor Kingdoms Interactions Between the Persian and Roman Empires Parthian Persia and Rome The Sasanian Persian and Late Roman Empires Adaptations to Monotheism in the Middle East Challenge to Polytheism: The Origins of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and Greek Philosophy Toward Religious Communities and Philosophical Schools The Beginnings of Science and the Cultures of Kings and Citizens The Sciences at the Museum of Alexandria Royal Persian Culture Greek and Roman Civic Culture
8. Empires and Visionaries in India, 600 B.C.E.-600 C.E. Patterns of State Formation in India: Republics, Kingdoms, and Empires The Road to Empire: The Mauryas The Classical Age: The Gupta Empire The Southern Kingdoms, ca. 300 to 600 C.E. The Vedic Tradition and Its Visionary Reformers Reforming the Vedic Tradition The Maturity of Hinduism: From the Abstract to the Devotional Stability Amid Disorder: Economics, Family, and Society Tax and Spend: Economics and Society Caste, Family Life, and Gender Strength in Numbers: Art, Literature, and Science
9. Imperial Unification and Perfecting the Moral Order in China, 722 B.C.E.-618 C.E. Visionaries and Empire Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism The Qin Dynasty The Han Dynasty The Domestic Economy: Society, Family, and Gender Industry and Commerce Gender Roles Intellectual Trends, Aesthetics, Science, and Technology Confucianism, Education, and History during the Han Buddhism in China Intellectual Life
Part 3: From Regional Empires to Religious Civilizations, 600-1450 C.E.
10. Islamic Civilization and Byzantium, 600-1300 The Rise of Arab Dominance in the Middle East and Mediterranean From Rome and Persia to the Arab Empire From the Arab Empire to Islamic Civilization Byzantium: Survival and Recovery Islamic Civilization in the Commonwealth of Dynastic States, 900-1300 Islamic and Eastern Christian Civilizations at their Height State and Society in Mamluk Egypt Commercial Relations from the Atlantic to the South China Sea Religion, Sciences, and the Arts in Two Religious Civilizations Islamic Culture: Intellectual and Scientific Expressions Artistic Expressions in Islamic Civilization
11. Origins of the Western Christian World, 600-1400 C.E. The Formation of Christian Europe: 600-1000 C.E. Frankish Gaul and Latin Christianity Recovery, Reform, and Innovation: 1000-1300 C.E. The Political Recovery of Europe The Economic and Social Recovery of Europe Religious Reform and Expansion Intellectual and Cultural Developments Crisis and Creativity: 1300-1415 The Calamitous Fourteenth Century Signs of a New Era in the Fifteenth Century
12. Contrasting Patterns in India and China, 600-1600 India: The Clash of Cultures India after the Guptas Islam in India, 711-1398 Toward the Mughal Era, 1398-1450 Interactions and Adaptations: From Buddhism to Neo-Confucian Synthesis in China Creating a Religious Civilization under the Tang The Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960 to 1368 The Ming to 1450: The Quest for Stability Society, Family and Gender Perceptions of Perfection: Intellectual, Scientific and Cultural Life
13. Religious Civilizations Interacting: Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia, 100 C.E.-1400 C.E. Korea to 1450 People and Place: The Korean Environment Conquest and Competition: History and Politics to 1598 Economy, Society, and Family Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life Japan to 1450 The Island Refuge Adaptation at Arm's Length: History and Politics Economy, Society, and Family Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life Vietnam The Setting and Neolithic Cultures The "Far South": History and Politics to 1450 Economy, Society, and Family Religion, Culture, and Intellectual Life
14. Patterns of State Formation in Africa, 600-1450 Christian Kingdoms in the Northeast Nubia in the Middle Nile Valley Ethiopia in the Eastern Highlands Islamic City-States on the East African Coast and Traditional Kingdoms in South Africa The Swahili City-States on the East African Coast Traditional Kingdoms in South and Central Africa Central African Chiefdoms and Kingdoms From Traditional to Islamic Kingdoms in West Africa The Kingdom of Ancient Ghana The Empire of Mali Rainforest Kingdoms
15. The Rise of Empires in the Americas, 600-1550 The Legacy of Teotihuacán and the Toltecs in Meso- Militarism in the Mexican Basin Late Maya Kingdoms in Yucatán The Legacy of Tiwanaku and Wari in the Andes The Conquering State of Tiwanaku The Expanduing Kingdom of Wari American Empires: The Aztecs and Incas The Aztec Empire of Meso-America The Inca Empire of the Andes Imperial Society and Culture Imperial Capitals: Tenochtitlán and Cuzco Power and Its Cultural Expressions
Part 4: Interactions across the Globe, 1450-1750
16. The Ottoman-Hapsburg Struggle and European Overseas Expansion, 1450-1600 The Muslim-Christian Competition in East and West, 1450-1600 Iberian-Christian Expansion, 1415-1498 Rise of the Ottomans and Struggle with the Habsburgs for Dominance, 1300-1609 The Rise of the Centralized Fiscal-Military State State Transformation, Money, and Firearms Imperial Courts, Urban Fesivities, and the Arts The Spanish Habsburg Empire: Popular Festivities and the Arts The Ottoman Empire: Palaces, Festivities, and the Arts
17. Renaissance, Reformation, and the New Science in Europe, 1450-1700 Fiscal-Military States and Religious Upheavals The Rise of Fiscal-Military Kingdoms The Protestant Reformation, State Churches, and Independent Congregations Religious Wars and Political Restoration Cultural Transformations: Renaissance, New Science, and Early Enlightenment The Renaissance and Baroque Arts The Pioneers of the New Science The New Science and Its Impact The Early Enlightenment in Northwestern Europe
18. New Patterns in New Worlds: Colonialism and Indigenous Responses in the Americas, 1500-1800 The Colonial Americas: Europe's Warm Weather Extension The Conquest of Mexico and Peru The Establishment of Colonial Institutions The Making of American Societies: Economic and Social Formation The Exploitation of the Mineral and Tropical Resources Shades of Skin Color: Social Strata, Castes, and Ethnic Groups The Adaptation of European Culture to the Americas
19. African Kingdoms, The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Origins of Black America, 1450-1800 African States and the Slave Trade The End of Empires in the North and the Rise of States in the Center Portugal's Explorations along the African Coast and Contacts with Ethiopia Coastal Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade American Plantation Slavery and Atlantic Mercantilism The Special Case of Plantation Slavery in the Americas The "Peculiar Institution" in British North America The Fatal Triangle: The Economic Patterns of the Atlantic Slave Trade Cultural Identity in the African Diaspora
20. The Mughal Empire: Muslim Rulers and Hindu Subjects, 1400-1750 History and Political Life of the Mughals From Samarkand to Hindustan The Summer and Autumn of Empire Administration, Society, and Economics Mansabdars and Bureaucracy The Mughals and Early Modern Economics Society, Family, and Gender Science, Religion, and the Arts Science and Technology Religion: In Search of Balance Literature and Art
21. Regulating the "Inner" and the "Outer" Domains of China and Japan, 1500-1800 Late Ming and Qing China to 1750 From Expansion to Exclusion The Spring and Summer of Power: The Qing to 1750 Village and Family Life Science, Culture, and Intellectual Life The Long War and Longer Peace: Japan, 1450 to 1750 The Struggle for Unification The Tokugawa Bakufu to 1750 Growth and Stagnation: Economy and Society Hothousing "Japaneseness": Culture, Science, and Intellectual Life
Part 5: The Origins of Modernity, 1750-1900
22. Nation-States and Patterns of Culture in Europe and North America, 1750-1871 Constitutional Nation-States: 1750- The American and French Revolutions Enlightenment Culture: Radicalism and Moderation Early and Late Enlightenment The Other Enlightenment: The Ideology of Ethnic Nationalism The Growth of the Nation-State, 1815-1871 Restoration Monarchies, 1815-1848 Nation-State Building in Anglo-America, 1783-1865 Romanticism and Realism: Philosophical and Artistic Expression to 1850 Romanticism Realism
23. Industrialization and its Discontents The Industrialization of Europe and the West: 1760-1914 Early Industrialism: 1750-1870 The Spread of Early Industrialism Late Industrialism: 1871-1914 The Social and Economic Impact of Industrialism: 1750-1914 Demographic Changes Industrial Society Critics of Industrialization Improved Standards of Living Improved Urban Living Big Business Intellectual and Cultural Responses in the Age of Industrialism Scientific and Intellectual Developments Toward Modernity in Philosophy and Religion Toward Modernity in Literature and the Arts
24. The Challenge of Modernity: East Asia, 1750 - 1900 China and Japan in the Age of Imperialism China and Maritime Trade, 1750-1839 The Opium Wars and Treaty Port Era Toward Revolution: Reform and Reaction to 1900 In Search of Security Through Empire: Japan in the Meiji Era Economics and Society in Late Qing China The Seeds of Modernity and the New Economic Order Culture, Arts, and Science Zaibatsu and Political Parties: Economics and Society in Meiji Japan Commerce and Cartels "Enlightenment and Progress": Science, Culture, and the Arts
25. Adaption and Resistance: The Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1683-1908 Decentralization and Reforms in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Imperialism in the 1600s and 1700s The Western Challenge and Ottoman Responses Iran's Effort to Cope with the Western Challenge Westernization, Reforms, and Industrialization in Russia Russia and Westernization Russia in the Early Nineteenth Century The Great Reforms Russian Industrialization The Abortive Russian Revolution of 1905
26. The New Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century The British Colonies of India, Australia, and New Zealand The British East India Company Direct British Rule The British Settler Colonies of Australia and New Zealand European Imperialism in the Middle East and Africa The Rising Appeal of Imperialism in the West The Scramble for Africa Western Imperialism and Colonialism in Southeast Asia The Dutch in Indonesia Spain in the Philippines The French in Vietnam
27. Creoles and Caudillos: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century Independence, Authoritarianism, and Political Instability Independence and Political Development in the North: Haiti and Mexico Independence and Development in Northern South America Independence and Development in Southern and Western South America Brazil: From Kingdom to Republic Latin American Society and Economy in the Nineteenth Century Rebuilding Societies and Economies Export-Led Growth Women, Family, and Culture
Part 6: Adaptations to Modernity across the Globe, 1900-Present
28. World War and Competing Visions of Modernity to 1945 The Great War and its Aftermath A Savage War and a Flawed Peace America First: The Beginnings of a Consumer Culture and the Great Depression Great Britain and France: Slow Recovery and Empires Latin America: Independent Democracies and Authoritarian Regimes New Variations on Modernity: The Soviet Union and Communism The Communist Party and Regime in the Soviet Union The Collectivization of Agriculture and Industrialization New Variations on Modernity: Supremacist Nationalism in Italy, Germany, and Japan From Fascism in Italy to Nazism in the Third Reich Japan's "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" and China's Struggle for Unity
29. Reconstruction, the Cold War, and Decolonization 1945-1962 Superpower Confrontation: Capitalist Democracy and Communism The Cold War Era, 1945-1962 Society and Culture in Post-War North America, Europe, and Japan Populism and Industrialization in Latin America Slow Social Change Populist Guided Democracy The End of Colonialism and the Rise of New Nations "China Has Stood Up" Decolonization, Israel, and Arab Nationalism in the Middle East Decolonization and the Cold War in Asia Decolonization and Cold War in Sub-Saharan Africa
30. The End of the Cold War, Western Social Transformation, and the Developing World 1963-1991 The Climax of the Cold War The Soviet Superpower in Slow Decline Transforming the West Civil Rights Movements From "Underdeveloped" to "Developing" World, 1963-1991 China: Cultural Revolution to Four Modernizations Vietnam: War and Unification The Middle East Africa: From Independence to Development
31. Globalization and Challenges to Modernity, 1991-Present Capitalist Democracy: The Dominant Pattern of Modernity A Decade of Global Expansion: The United States and the World in the 1990s The Communist Holdouts: North Korea, Cuba, China, and Vietnam A Decade of Global Shifts: Twenty-First Century Currents and Cross-Currents The Environmental Limits of Modernity