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Penguin Handbook, The (cloth)



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Written by the leading handbook expert, The Penguin Handbookoffers students an opportunity to truly excel in their Composition classes.#xA0; There are over 100 pages on#xA0;the writing process alone, and with in-text Staying on track boxes offering concrete advice with examples and Writing Smart boxes giving practical tips, including advice on using computers, The Penguin Handbookwas written with students in mind.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Planning, Drafting, and Revising


1 Think as a Writer 

            a Think About What College Readers Expect 

            b Think About How to Persuade Others 

            c Think About Your Audience 

            d Think About Your Credibility 

            e Think About Your Purpose 

            f Think About the Complex Demands of Writing Today 


2 Plan and Draft 

            a Establish Your Goals 

            b Explore Your Topic 

            c Write a Working Thesis   

            d Plan a Strategy 

            e Compose a Draft 

            f Write as a Member of a Team 


3 Compose Paragraphs 

            a Focus Your Paragraphs 

            b Organize Your Paragraphs 

            c Make Your Paragraphs Coherent 

            d Consider Paragraph Length 

            e Write Effective Beginning and Ending Paragraphs 


4 Rewrite, Edit, and Proofread 

            a Switch from Writer to Reader 

            b Learn Strategies for Rewriting 

            c Respond to Other Writers’ Drafts 

            d Edit for Particular Goals 

            e Proofread Carefully 

            f Learn to Edit the Writing of Others 


PART 2 Analyzing, Reflecting, Informing, Arguing


5 Read and View with a Critical Eye 

            a Become a Critical Reader 

            b Read Actively 

            c Write Summaries 

            d Recognize Verbal Fallacies 

            e Become a Critical Viewer 

            f Recognize Visual Fallacies 


6 Write an Analysis 

            a Understand the Goal of a Rhetorical Analysis 

            b Analyze the Context and the Text 

            c Organize and Write a Rhetorical Analysis 

            d Sample Rhetorical Analysis 

            e Analyze Images and Other Visual Texts 


7 Write a Reflection 

            a Find a Reflective Topic 

            b Identify a Focus 

            c Organize and Write a Reflection 

            d Sample Reflective Essay 


8 Write an Informative Essay 

            a Find an Informative Topic 

            b Narrow Your Topic and Write a Thesis 

            c Organize and Write an Informative Essay 

            d Sample Informative Essay 


9 Write a Position Argument 

            a Position Arguments and Proposal Arguments 

            b Find an Arguable Topic and Make a Claim 

            c Organize and Write a Position Argument 

            d Sample Position Argument 


10 Write a Proposal Argument 

            a Find an Arguable Topic and Make a Proposal 

            b Organize and Write a Proposal Argument 

            c Two Sample Proposal Arguments 


PART 3 Writing in the Disciplines


11 Write about Literature and the Humanities

            a What Are the Humanities?

            b What Counts as Evidence in the Humanities?

            c Become a Critical Reader of Literature 

            d Develop an Interpretation 

            e Write a Literary Analysis 

            f Sample Literary Analysis 

            g Write a Film Analysis 


12 Write in the Sciences and Social Sciences

         a What are the Social Sciences?

            b What Counts as Evidence in the Sciences and Social Sciences?

            c Write an Observation  

            d Write a Case Study 

            e Write a Lab Report in the Sciences 


13 Write Portfolios and Essay Exams

         a Create a Portfolio 

            b Sample Portfolio Letter and Contents

            c Write an Essay Exam 

            d Sample Essay Examination 


14 Write for Online Courses

         a Use Courseware 

            b Keep Track of Online Coursework 

            c Participate in Online Discussions 

            d Manage Your Writing Projects   


15 Compose for Business and Public Writing

         a What is Business Writing?

            b Write a Letter of Application 

            c Write a Résumé 

            d Write a Memo 

            e Write a Business E-mail  

            f What Is Public Writing?

            g Write a Report  

            h Write a Proposal  


PART 4 Designing and Presenting


16 Communicate in Multimedia 

            a Multimedia Composing 

            b Think About Verbal and Visual Relationships 

            c Design Documents 

            d Choose Type  

            e Compose Images

            f Edit Images

            g Create Tables, Charts, and Graphs 


17 Compose in Online Genres

         a Tips for Online Writing

            b Create a Blog Entry or a Discussion Post 

            c Compose Wikis 

            d Create a Web Page 

            e Create a Podcast 

            f Create a Video 

            g Create a Professional Social Media Site 


18 Design Presentations 

            a Plan a Presentation 

            b Design Visuals for a Presentation 

            c Deliver an Effective Presentation 

            d Convert a Written Text into a Presentation 


PART 5 Planning Research and Finding Sources


Research Map I: Conducting Research


19 Plan Your Research 

            a Analyze the Research Task 

            b Set a Schedule 

            c Find and Narrow a Topic 

            d Determine What Kind of Research You Need 

            e Draft a Working Thesis 

            f Create a Working Bibliography 

            g Create an Annotated Bibliography 


20 Find Sources 

            a Develop Strategies for Finding Sources 

            b Find Sources in Databases 

            c Find Sources on the Web 

            d Find Multimedia Sources 

            e Find Print Sources 

            f Keep Track of Sources 


21 Evaluate Sources 

            a Determine the Relevance of Sources 

            b Determine the Quality of Sources 

            c Evaluate Database and Print Sources 

            d Evaluate Web Sources 


22 Plan Field Research 

            a Know What You Can Obtain from Field Research 

            b Conduct Interviews 

            c Administer Surveys 

            d Make Observations 

            e Gather Data from Other Sources 

            f Sample Project Using Field Research


PART 6 Incorporating and Documenting Sources


Research Map II: Working With Sources


23 Understand and Avoid Plagiarism 

            a Understand the Purposes of Sources 

            b What is Plagiarism? 

            c Avoid Plagiarism When Taking Notes 

            d Avoid Plagiarism When Quoting Sources 

            e Avoid Plagiarism When Summarizing and Paraphrasing 


24 Use Sources Effectively 

            a Use Sources to Provide Evidence 

            b Use Sources as Points of Departure 

            c Decide When to Quote and When to Paraphrase 

            d Integrate Quotations 

            e Integrate Summaries and Paraphrases 

            f Integrate Visuals 


25 Write and Revise the Research Project 

            a Revisit Your Research 

            b Plan Your Organization 

            c Write a Draft 

            d Review and Revise 


26 MLA Documentation

MLA Documentation Map

            a Writer at Work: Citing Sources in a MLA-Style Project 

            b Writer at Work: Creating the List of Works Cited 

            c In-Text Citations in MLA Style  

            d Illustrated Samples and Index of Works Cited in MLA Style 

            e Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, and Other Print Sources 

            f Books 

            g Library Database Sources 

            h Web Sources and Other Online Sources 

            i Visual Sources 

            j Multimedia Sources 

            k Informational Notes

            l  Two Sample Research Papers with MLA Documentation 


27 APA Documentation 

APA Documentation Map

            a In-text Citations in APA Style 

            b Illustrated Samples and Index of References in APA Style 

            c Periodical Sources 

            d Books and Nonperiodical Sources  

            e Online Sources 

            f Visual, Computer, and Multimedia Sources 

            g Sample Paper with APA Documentation 


28 CMS Documentation 

            a In-text Citations in CMS Style

            b Books and Nonperiodical Sources

            c Periodical Sources

            d Online Sources

            e Multimedia Sources

            f Sample Pages with CMS Documentation


29 CSE Documentation 

            a In-text References in CSE Style 

            b Books and Nonperiodical Sources

            c Periodical Sources

            d Online and Multimedia Sources

            e Sample Pages with CSE Documentation 


PART 7 Effective Style and Language


30 Write with Power 

            a Pay Attention to Verbs 

            b Stay Active 

            c Find Agents 

            d Vary Your Sentences 

            e Give Your Writing Personality 


31 Write Concisely 

            a Eliminate Unnecessary Words 

            b Reduce Wordy Phrases 

            c Simplify Tangled Sentences 


32 Write with Emphasis 

            a Manage Emphasis in Sentences 

            b Forge Links Across Sentences 

            c Use Parallel Structure with Parallel Ideas 

            d Use Parallel Structure with Lists 

            e Use Parallel Structure in Paragraphs 


33 Find the Right Words 

            a Be Aware of Levels of Formality 

            b Be Aware of Denotation and Connotation 

            c Use Specific Language 

            d Use Effective Figurative Language 


34 Write to Be Inclusive 

            a Be Aware of Stereotypes 

            b Be Inclusive About Gender 

            c Be Inclusive About Race and Ethnicity 

            d Be Inclusive About Other Differences 

            e Recognize International Varieties of English 


PART 8 Understanding Grammar


35 Grammar Basics 

            a Sentence Basics 

            b Word Classes 

            c Clauses 

            d Phrases 

            e Sentence Types 


36 Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices 

            a Fragments 

            b Run-on Sentences 

            c Comma Splices 


37 Subject-Verb Agreement 

            a Agreement in the Present Tense 

            b Singular and Plural Subjects 

            c Indefinite Pronouns as Subjects 

            d Collective Nouns as Subjects 

            e Inverted Word Order 

            f Amounts, Numbers, and Pairs 


38 Verbs 

            a Basic Verb Forms 

            b Irregular Verbs 

            c Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 

            d Shifts in Tense 

            e Shifts in Mood 


39 Pronouns 

            a Pronoun Case 

            b Pronoun Agreement 

            c Problems with Pronouns and Gender 

            d Vague Reference 


40 Modifiers 

            a Choose the Correct Modifier 

            b Place Adjectives Carefully 

            c Place Adverbs Carefully 

            d Revise Disruptive Modifiers 

            e Revise Dangling Modifiers  


PART 9 Understanding Punctuation and Mechanics


41 Commas 

            a Commas with Introductory Elements 

            b Commas with Compound Clauses 

            c Commas with Nonrestrictive Modifiers 

            d Commas with Items in a Series 

            e Commas with Coordinate Adjectives 

            f Commas with Quotations 

            g Commas with Dates, Numbers, Titles, and Addresses 

            h Commas to Avoid Confusion 

            i Unnecessary Commas 


42 Semicolons and Colons 

            a Semicolons with Closely Related Main Clauses 

            b Semicolons Together with Commas 

            c Colons in Sentences 

            d Colons with Lists 


43 Hyphens 

            a Hyphens with Compound Modifiers 

            b Hyphens with Compound Nouns 

            c Hyphens That Divide Words at the Ends of Lines 

            d Hyphens for Clarity 


44 Dashes and Parentheses 

            a Dashes and Parentheses vs. Commas 

            b Dashes and Parentheses to Set Off Information 

            c Other Punctuation with Parentheses 

            d Other Punctuation with Dashes 


45 Apostrophes 

            a Possessives 

            b Contractions and Omitted Letters 

            c Plurals of Letters, Symbols, and Words Referred to as Words 


46 Quotation Marks 

            a Direct Quotations 

            b Titles of Short Works 

            c Other Uses of Quotation Marks 

            d Misuses of Quotation Marks 

            e Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks 


47 Other Punctuation Marks 

            a Periods 

            b Question Marks 

            c Exclamation Points 

            d Brackets 

            e Ellipses 

            f Slashes 


48 Write with Accurate Spelling 

            a Know the Limitations of Spelling Checkers 

            b Distinguish Homonyms 

            c Learn spelling rules


49 Capitalization and Italics 

            a Capital Letters 

            b Italics 


50 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Numbers 

            a Abbreviations 

            b Acronyms 

            c Numbers 


PART 10 If English Is Not Your First Language


51 Write in a Second Language 

            a Understand the Demands of Writing in a Second Language 

            b Use Your Native Language as a Resource 

            c Use Dictionaries 

            d Understand English Idioms 

            e Understand and Avoid Plagiarism in English


52 Nouns, Articles, and Prepositions 

            a Kinds of Nouns 

            b Count and Noncount Nouns 

            c Singular and Plural Forms 

            d Articles 

            e Prepositions 


53 Verbs 

            a Types of Verbs 

            b Be Verbs 

            c Modal Auxiliary Verbs 

            d Verbs and Infinitives 

            e Verbs and -ing Verbals 

            f Conditional Sentences 

            g Participial Adjectives 

            h Phrasal Verbs 


54 English Sentence Structure 

            a Subjects 

            b English Word Order 

            c Placement of Modifiers 


Glossary of Grammatical Terms and Usage 

Answers to Selected Exercises  



Staying on Track Guide

Revision Guide (inside rear cover)

List of Common Errors boxes (inside rear cover)

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