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Of the People: A Concise History of the United States not only tells the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals--but it also unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges. This comprehensive survey focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world. The Concise Edition tells the same great story, but with fewer words and images. Maintaining the structure, the features, and maps of the comprehensive edition, this concise version has been thoughtfully condensed--paragraphs now contain trimmed sentences and a reduced number of examples--thus leaving the book's core content and compelling narrative unchanged
James Oakes is Distinguished Professor of History and Graduate School Humanities Professor at the City University of New York Graduate Center.
Michael McGerr is Paul V. McNutt Professor of History in the College of Arts and Sciences at Indiana University-Bloomington.
Jan Ellen Lewis is Professor of History and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Rutgers University, Newark. She also teaches in the history PhD program at Rutgers, New Brunswick, and was a visiting professor of history at Princeton.
Nick Cullather is a historian of U.S. foreign relations at Indiana University-Bloomington.
The late Jeanne Boydston was Robinson-Edwards Professor of American History at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Table of Contents
Map Features Preface Acknowledgments Supplements About the Authors Dedication
Chapter 1: Worlds in Motion, 1450-1550 American Portrait: Malinche, Cultural Translator The World of the Indian Peoples The Archaic Indians The Indians of the Eastern Woodlands The Indians of the Plains The Indians of the Deserts The Indians of the Pacific Coast The Great Civilizations of the Americas The Worlds of Christopher Columbus European Nations in the Age of Discovery The Political Economy of Europe The World of the West African Peoples Slavery Before 1500 The Golden Age of Spain Worlds in Collision Christopher Columbus Finds a Patron Columbus Finds a New World Tainos and Caribs The Origins of a New World Political Economy The Requerimiento and the Morality of Conquest America and the World: Debating the Morality of Conquest The Biological Consequences of Conquest Demographic Decline The Columbian Exchange Onto the Mainland The First Florida Ventures The Conquest of Mexico American Landscape: Tenochtitlan The Establishment of a Spanish Empire Gender and Conquest The Return to Florida Coronado and the Pueblo Indians Conclusion
Chapter 2: Colonial Outposts, 1550-1650 American Portrait: Don Luis de Velasco Finds His Way Home Pursuing Wealth and Glory Along the North American Shore European Objectives The Huge Geographical Barrier Spanish Outposts New France: An Outpost in the Global Political Economy The Indian Background to French Settlement Champlain Encounters the Hurons American Landscape: Huronia Creating a Middle Ground in New France An Outpost in a Global Political Economy New Netherland: The Empire of a Trading Nation Colonization by a Private Company Slavery and Freedom in New Netherland The Dutch-Indian Trading Partnership The Beaver Wars England Attempts an Empire The Origins of English Nationalism Raiding Other Empires America and the World: The English on the Periphery of Empire Rehearsal in Ireland The Roanoke Venture The Abandoned Colony Conclusion
Chapter 3: The English Come to Stay, 1600-1660 American Portrait: The Adventures of John Rolfe The First Chesapeake Colonies Planning Virginia Starving Times Troubled Relations With the Powhatans Toward a New Political Economy Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans A New Colony in Maryland The Political Economy of Slavery Emerges The Problem of a Labor Supply The Origins of Slavery in the Chesapeake America and the World: Christian Slaves in Muslim Africa Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness The English Origins of the Puritan Movement What Did the Puritans Believe? The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay The New England Way Changing the Land to Fit the Political Economy American Landscape: New England Settlements The Puritan Family Dissension in the Puritan Ranks Roger Williams and Toleration Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers Puritan Indian Policy and the Pequot War Conclusion
Chapter 4: Continental Empires, 1660-1720 American Portrait: Tituba Shapes Her World and Saves Herself The Plan of Empire Turmoil in England The Political Economy of Mercantilism New Colonies, New Patterns New Netherland Becomes New York American Landscape: New Amsterdam/New York Diversity and Prosperity in Pennsylvania Indians and Africans in the Political Economy of Carolina The Barbados Connection The Transformation of Virginia Social Change in Virginia Bacon's Rebellion and the Abandonment of the Middle Ground Virginia Becomes a Slave Society New England Under Assault Social Prosperity and the Fear of Religious Decline King Philip's War Indians and the Empire The Empire Strikes The Dominion of New England The Glorious Revolution in Britain and America The Rights of Englishmen Conflict in the Empire Massachusetts in Crisis The Social and Cultural Contexts of Witchcraft Witchcraft at Salem America and the World: Witchcraft in Global Perspective The End of Witchcraft Empires in Collision France Attempts an Empire The Spanish Outpost in Florida Conquest, Revolt, and Reconquest in New Mexico Native Americans and the Country Between Conclusion
Chapter 5: The Eighteenth-Century World, 1700-1775 American Portrait: George Whitefield: Evangelist for a Consumer Society The Population Explosion of the Eighteenth Century The Dimensions of Population Growth Bound for America: European Immigrants Bound for America: African Slaves American Landscape: The Slave Ship "The Great Increase of Offspring" The Transatlantic Political Economy: Producing and Consuming The Nature of Colonial Economic Growth The Transformation of the Family Economy Sources of Regional Prosperity Merchants and Dependent Laborers in the Transatlantic Economy Consumer Choices and the Creation of Gentility America and the World: Consumer Tastes in Global Perspective The Varieties of Colonial Experience Creating an Urban Public Sphere The Diversity of Urban Life The Maturing of Rural Society The World That Slavery Made Georgia: From Frontier Outpost to Plantation Society The Head and the Heart in America: The Enlightenment and Religious Awakening The Ideas of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment and the Study of Political Economy Enlightened Institutions Origins of the Great Awakening The Grand Itinerant Cultural Conflict and Challenges to Authority What the Awakening Wrought Conclusion
Chapter 6: Conflict on the Edge of Empire, 1713-1774 American Portrait: Susannah Willard Johnson Experiences the Empire The Victory of the British Empire New War, Old Pattern The Local Impact of Global War The French Empire Crumbles From Within The Virginians Ignite a War From Local to Imperial War Problems With British-Colonial Cooperation The British Gain the Advantage Enforcing the Empire Pontiac's Rebellion and Its Aftermath Paying for the Empire: Sugar and Stamps America and the World: Paying for War Rejecting the Empire An Argument About Rights and Obligations The Imperial Crisis in Local Context Contesting the Townshend Duties A Revolution in the Empire "Massacre" in Boston American Landscape: Occupied Boston The Empire Comes Apart The First Continental Congress Conclusion
Chapter 7: Creating a New Nation, 1774-1788 American Portrait: James Madison Helps Make a Nation The War Begins The First Battles Congress Takes the Lead Military Ardor Declaring Independence Creating a National Government Creating State Governments Winning the Revolution Competing Strategies The British on the Offensive: 1776 American Landscape: The Winter at Jockey Hollow A Slow War: 1777-1781 America and the World: Mercenaries in Global Perspective Securing a Place in the World The Challenge of the Revolution The Departure of the Loyalists The Challenge of the Economy Contesting the New Economy Can Women Be Citizens? The Challenge of Slavery A New Policy in the West The Indians' Revolution The End of the Middle Ground Settling the West Creating a New National Government A Crippled Congress Writing a New Constitution Ratifying the Constitution: Politics Ratifying the Constitution: Ideas Postscript: The Legacy of the Revolution Conclusion
Chapter 8: Contested Republic, 1789-1800 American Portrait: William Maclay Goes to the Senate The United States in 1789 Lands and People Ways of Living The First Emancipation Movements American Landscape: Philadelphia Conflicting Visions of Republican Society America and the World: Transatlantic talk about the Rights of Women The Culture of the Early Republic The Struggle to Form a Government The States and the Bill of Rights Congress Begins Its Work Political Economy and Political Parties Controlling the Borderlands America in the Transatlantic Community Other Revolutions Between France and England To the Brink of War The Administration of John Adams Conclusion
Chapter 9: A Republic in Transition, 1800-1819 American Portrait: Washington Irving's America A Politics of Transition Democratic Republicans in Office The Louisiana Purchase Embargo The War of 1812 Madison and the War The Federalist Response An Economy in Transition International Markets America and the World: The United States in China Crossing the Appalachian Mountains Invention and Exploration Early Industrial Society in New England The Rule of Law and Lawyers Ways of Life in Flux Indian Resistance to the Yeoman's Republic Winners and Losers in the Market Revolution American Landscape: Religion in the Backcountry: Cane Ridge, Kentucky The Problem of Trust in a Changing Society The Panic of 1819 Conclusion
Chapter 10: Slavery and the Nation, 1790-1828 American Portrait: Lucretia Coffin Mott and the Free Produce Movement Southern Slavery "Property in Man" The Domestic Slave Trade Plantation Slavery American Landscape: Profit and Loss on an American Plantation Other Varieties of Slavery America and the World: The Demand for Raw Cotton Resistance and Creation among Southern Slaves Slavery and National Development Slavery and Industrialization in the Northeast Slavery and the West Slavery and the Laws of the Nation Free Black People in a Republic of Slavery The Politics of Slavery The Missouri Compromise Antislavery in the 1820s Conclusion
Chapter 11: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820-1840 American Portrait: Harriet Noble Common People and the Political Economy of Democracy Settlers The Political Economy of Free Labor Suffrage Reform Opposition to Special Privilege and Secret Societies Jackson and the National Republicans Changes in the Democratic Republican Party James Monroe and National Republicanism America and the World: The Monroe Doctrine The Election of 1824 and the "Corrupt Bargain" The Adams Presidency and the Gathering forces of Democracy The Election of 1828 A Policy of Removing Indigenous People Jackson and Native Peoples The Removal Act American Landscape: Liberty and the Land: Cherokee Removal History, Destiny, and the Disappearing Indian The Bank War Jackson's Opposition to the National Bank Dismembering the Bank The Specie Act The Growth of Sectional Tension The Political Economy of Southern Discontent South Carolina's Protest The Nullification Crisis Conclusion
Chapter 12: Reform and Conflict, 1825-1840 American Portrait: Nat Turner Perfectionism and the Theology of Human Striving Millennialism and Communitarians Urban Revivals The Benevolent Empire America and the World: The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mission Reform and the Urban Classes Wage Dependency and Labor Protest American Landscape: Freedom and Wage Labor A New Urban Middle Class Immigration and Nativism Internal Migration Self-Reform and Social Regulation A Culture of Self-Improvement Temperance The Common School Movement Penal Reform Electoral Politics and Moral Reform Abolition and Women's Rights Antislavery Becomes Abolition Abolitionism and Antiabolition Violence The Gender Limits of Antebellum Activism Conclusion
Chapter 13: Manifest Destiny, 1836-1848 American Portrait: Mah-i-ti-wo-nee-ni Remembers Life on the Great Plains The Decline of Jacksonianism Political Parties in Crisis Van Buren and the Legacy of Jackson The Political Economy of the Trans-Mississippi West Manifest Destiny in Antebellum Culture Texas American Landscape: Culture and Politics in Manifest Destiny: Tejanos in Texas Pacific Bound Nations of the Trans-Mississippi West Slavery and the Political Economy of Expansion Log Cabins and Hard Cider: The Election of 1840 And Tyler, too Occupy Oregon, Annex Texas War with Mexico America and the World: Lt. Dilworth in the War with Mexico Conclusion
Chapter 14: The Politics of Slavery, 1848-1860 American Portrait: Frederick Douglass The Political Economy of Freedom and Slavery A Changing Economy in the North The Slave Economy The Importance of the West Slavery Becomes a Political Issue Wilmot Introduces His Proviso A Compromise Without Compromises The Fugitive Slave Act Provokes a Crisis The Election of 1852 and the Decline of the Whig Party Nativism and the Origins of the Republican Party The Nativist Attack on Immigration The Kansas-Nebraska Act Revives the Slavery Issue The Expansion of Slavery as a Foreign Policy America and the World: Slavery as a Foreign Policy Kansas Begins to Bleed American Landscape: The Sack of Lawrence, Kansas A New Political Party Takes Shape The First Sectional Election The Labor Problem and the Politics of Slavery An "Irrepressible" Conflict? The Lecompton Constitution Splits the Democratic Party Lincoln and Douglas Debate The Retreat From Union John Brown's War Against Slavery Northerners Elect a President Conclusion
Chapter 15: A War for Union and Emancipation, 1861-1865 American Portrait: Edmund Ruffin From Union to Emancipation The South Secedes Civilians Demand a Total War Slaves Take Advantage of the War Military Strategy and the Shift in War Aims Mobilizing for War The Confederate States of America Union Naval Supremacy Southern Military Advantages The Slave Economy in Wartime What Were Soldiers Fighting For? The Civil War Becomes a Social Revolution Union Victories in the West Southern Military Strength in the East Emancipation as a Military Necessity America and the World: The Diplomacy of Emancipation Emancipation in Practice: Contraband Camps and Black Troops American Landscape: Freedman's Village, Arlington, Virginia The War at Home The Care of Casualties Northern Reverses and Antiwar Sentiment Gettysburg and the Justification for War Discontent in the Confederacy The War Comes to a Bloody End Grant Takes Command The Theory and Practice of Hard War Sherman Marches and Lee Surrenders The Meaning of the Civil War Conclusion
Chapter 16: Reconstructing a Nation, 1865-1877 American Portrait: John Dennett Visits a Freedmen's Bureau Court Wartime Reconstruction Experiments with Free Labor in the Lower Mississippi Valley Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan Versus the Wade-Davis Bill The Freed People's Dream of Owning Land Presidential Reconstruction, 1865-1867 The Political Economy of Contract Labor Resistance to Presidential Reconstruction Congress Clashes with the President Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment American Landscape: Race Riots in Memphis and New Orleans Congressional Reconstruction Origins of the Black Vote Radical Reconstruction in the South Achievements and Failures of Radical Government The Political Economy of Sharecropping The Retreat from Republican Radicalism The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson Republican Become the Party of Moderation America and the World: Reconstructing America's Foreign Policy Reconstructing the North The Fifteenth Amendment and Nationwide African American Suffrage Women and Suffrage The Rise and Fall of the National Labor Union The End of Reconstruction Corruption as a National Problem Liberal Republicans Revolt A Depression and a Deal "Redeem" the South Conclusion
Chapter 17: The Triumph of Industrial Capitalism, 1850-1890 American Portrait: Rosa Cassettari The Political Economy of Global Capitalism The "Great Depression" of the Late Nineteenth Century America and the World: The Global Migration of Labor America Moves to the City The Rise of Big Business The Rise of Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Becomes a Financier Carnegie Dominates the Steel Industry Big Business Consolidates A New Social Order Lifestyles of the Very Rich The Consolidation of the New Middle Class The Industrial Working Class Comes of Age Sharecropping Becomes Wage Labor American Landscape: Mining Camps in the West Clearing the West for Capitalism The Overland Trail The Origins of Indian Reservations The Destruction of Indian Subsistence The Economic Transformation of the West Cattlemen: From Drovers to Ranchers Commercial Farmers Subdue the Plains Changes in the Land Conclusion
Chapter 18: Cultural Struggles of Industrial America, 1850-1895 American Portrait: Anthony Comstock's Crusade Against Vice The Varieties of Urban Culture Minstrel Shows as Cultural Nostalgia The Origins of Vaudeville Sports Become Professional America and the World: World's Fairs The Elusive Boundaries of Male and Female The Victorian Construction of Male and Female Victorians Who Questioned Traditional Sexual Boundaries Immigration as a Cultural Problem Josiah Strong Attacks Immigration From Immigrants to Ethnic Americans The Catholic Church and Its Limits in Immigrant Culture Immigrant Cultures The Creation of High Culture High Culture Becomes Sacred The Emergence of a Cultural Establishment American Landscape: The Modern University Social Darwinism and the Growth of Scientific Racism Artistic Realism Embraces Urban and Industrial America The Triumph of Literary Realism Painting Reality Is Photography Art? Conclusion
Chapter 19: The Politics of Industrial America, 1870-1892 American Portrait: Luna Kellie and the Farmers' Alliance Two Political Styles The Triumph of Party Politics Masculine Partisanship and Feminine Voluntarism Critics of Popular Politics Economic Issues Dominate National Politics Weak Presidents Oversee a Strong Federal Government Government Activism and its Limits Greenbacks and Greenbackers America and the World: Foreign Policy and Commercial Expansion Growth of the Central Government States Regulate; Municipalities Reform Middle-Class Radicalism Henry George and the Limits of Producers' Ideology Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Clubs American Landscape: The "Crusade" Against Alcohol The Woman's Christian Temperance Union Discontent Among Workers The Knights of Labor and the Haymarket Disaster Agrarian Revolt The Rise of the Populists Conclusion
Chapter 20: Industry and Empire, 1890-1900 American Portrait: J. P. Morgan The Crisis of the 1890s Hard Times The Overseas Frontier America and the World: Singer Sewing Machine Company The Drive for Efficiency American Landscape: Pullman, Illinois Progress and Force Corporate Consolidation A Modern Economy Currency and the Tariff The Cross of Gold The Battle of the Standards The Retreat from Politics The Lure of the Cities Inventing Jim Crow The Atlanta Compromise Disfranchisement and the Decline of Popular Politics Organized Labor Retreats from Politics American Diplomacy Enters the Modern World Sea Power and the Imperial Urge The Scramble for Empire War With Spain The Anti-Imperialists The Philippine-American War The Open Door Conclusion
Chapter 21: A United Body of Action, 1900-1916 American Portrait: Alice Hamilton Toward a New Politics The Insecurity of Modern Life The Decline of Partisan Politics Social Housekeeping Evolution or Revolution? The Progressives Social Workers and Muckrakers Dictatorship of the Experts America and the World: The Calorie Progressives on the Color Line Progressives in State and Local Politics Redesigning the City Reform Mayors and City Services Progressivism and the States The Presidency Becomes "The Administration" The Executive Branch Against the Trusts The Square Deal Conserving Water, Land, and Forests American Landscape: The Hetch Hetchy Valley TR and Big Stick Diplomacy Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Rival Visions of the Industrial Future The New Nationalism The 1912 Election The New Freedom Conclusion
Chapter 22: A Global Power, 1914-1919 American Portrait: Walter Lippmann The Challenge of Revolution The Mexican Revolution Bringing Order to the Caribbean A One-Sided Neutrality The Lusitania's Last Voyage The Drift to War American Landscape: Plattsburg Training Camp The Election of 1916 The Last Attempts at Peace War Aims The Fight in Congress Mobilizing the Nation and the Economy Enforcing Patriotism Regimenting the Economy The Great Migration Reforms Become "War Measures" Over There Citizens into Soldiers The Fourteen Points The Final Offensive Revolutionary Anxieties Wilson in Paris The Senate Rejects the League America and the World: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 Red Scare Conclusion
Chapter 23: A Modern Nation, 1920-1928 American Portrait: "The Queen of the Waves" A Dynamic Economy The Development of Industry The Trend toward Large-Scale Organization The Transformation of Work and the Workforce The Defeat of Organized Labor The Decline of Agriculture The Urban Nation A Modern Culture The Spread of Consumerism New Pleasures A Sexual Revolution Changing Gender Ideals The Family and Youth American Landscape: "Flaming Youth" on Campus The Celebration of the Individual The Limits of the Modern Culture The "Lost Generation" of Intellectuals Fundamentalist Christians and "Old-Time Religion" Nativists and Immigration Restriction The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan Mexican Americans African Americans and the "New Negro" A "New Era" in Politics and Government The Modern Political System The Republican Ascendancy The Politics of Individualism Republican Foreign Policy America and the World: "Jazz-band partout!" Extending the "New Era" Conclusion
Chapter 24: Great Depression and a New Deal, 1929-1940 American Portrait: Margaret Mitchell The Great Depression Causes Descending into Depression Hoover Responds The First New Deal The Election of 1932 FDR Takes Command Federal Relief The Farm Crisis The Blue Eagle The Second New Deal Critics Attack from All Sides The Second Hundred Days American Landscape: Angola, Louisiana Social Security for Some Labor and the New Deal The New Deal Coalition Crisis of the New Deal Conservatives Counterattack The Liberal Crisis of Confidence America and the World: The Global Depression Conclusion
Chapter 25: The Second World War, 1941-1945 American Portrait: A. Philip Randolph Island in a Totalitarian Sea A World of Hostile Blocs The Good Neighbor America First? Means Short of War Turning the Tide Midway and Coral Sea Gone with the Draft The Winning Weapons The Second Front Organizing for Production A Mixed Economy Industry Moves South and West New Jobs in New Places Women in Industry Between Idealism and Fear Japanese Internment American Landscape: Manzanar No Shelter from the Holocaust Closing with the Enemy Taking the War to Europe Island Hopping in the Pacific Building a New World America and the World: Bretton Woods The Fruits of Victory Conclusion
Chapter 26: The Cold War, 1945-1952 American Portrait: Esther and Stephen Brunauer Origins of the Cold War Ideological Adversaries Uneasy Allies From Allies to Enemies National Security The Truman Doctrine Containment American Landscape: Dhahran Taking Risks Global Revolutions America and the World: Underdevelopment Korea NSC-68 The Reconversion of American Society The Postwar Economy The Challenge of Organized Labor Opportunities for Women Civil Rights for African Americans The Frustrations of Liberalism The Democrats' Troubles Truman's Comeback Fighting the Cold War at Home Doubts and Fears in the Atomic Age The Anti-Communist Crusade The Hunt for Spies The Rise of McCarthyism Conclusion
Chapter 27: The Consumer Society, 1945-1961 American Portrait: Gene Ferkauf Living the Good Life Economic Prosperity The Suburban Dream American Landscape: Levittown, New York The Pursuit of Pleasure A Homogeneous Society? The Discovery of Conformity The Decline of Class and Ethnicity The Resurgence of Religion and Family Maintaining Gender Roles Persisting Racial Differences The Survival of Diversity The Eisenhower Era at Home and Abroad "Ike" and 1950s America Modern Republicanism An Aggressive Cold War Strategy Avoiding War with the Communist Powers America and the World: Popular Music as a Cold War Weapon Crises in the Third World Challenges to the Consumer Society Rebellious Youth The Beat Movement The Rebirth of Environmentalism The Struggle for Civil Rights An Uneasy Mood Conclusion
Chapter 28: The Rise and Fall of the New Liberalism, 1960-1968 American Portrait: Lt. Fred Downs New Ideas, New Leaders Grassroots Activism for Civil Rights The New Liberalism The New Conservatism The New Left The Presidential Election of 1960 The New Frontier Style and Substance Civil Rights Flexible Response and the Third World Two Confrontations with the Soviets Kennedy and Vietnam The Great Society Lyndon Johnson's Mandate "Success Without Squalor" Preserving Personal Freedom The Death of Jim Crow American Landscape: The Long Cool Summer" of Greenville, Mississippi The American War in Vietnam Johnson's Decision for War Fighting a Limited War The War at Home The Great Society Comes Apart The Emergence of Black Power The Youth Rebellion The Rebirth of the Women's Movement Conservative Backlash 1968: A Tumultuous Year America and the World: International Student Protest, 1968 Conclusion
Chapter 29: Living with Less: 1968-1980 American Portrait: "Fighting Shirley Chisholm" A New Crisis: Economic Decline Weakness at Home The Energy Crisis Competition Abroad The Multinationals America and the World: Carl Gerstacker's Dream The Impact of Decline American Landscape: Youngstown, Ohio Confronting Decline: Nixon's Strategy A New Foreign Policy Ending the Vietnam War Chile and the Middle East Taming Big Government An Uncertain Economic Policy Refusing to Settle for Less: Struggles for Rights African Americans' Struggle for Racial Justice Women's Liberation Mexican Americans and "Brown Power" Asian American Activism The Struggle for Native American Rights Homosexuals and "Gay Power" Backlash: From Radical Action to Conservative Reaction "The Movement" and the "Me-Decade" The Plight of the White Ethnics The Republican Counterattack Political Crisis: Three Troubled Presidencies Watergate: The Fall of Richard Nixon Gerald Ford and a Skeptical Nation "Why Not the Best?": Jimmy Carter Conclusion
Chapter 30: The Triumph of Conservatism: 1980-1991 American Portrait: Linda Chavez Creating a Conservative Majority The New Economy The Rehabilitation of Business The Rise of the Religious Right The 1980 Presidential Election The Reagan Revolution at Home The Reagan Style Shrinking Government Reaganomics The 1984 Presidential Election The Reagan Revolution Abroad Restoring American Power Confronting the "Evil Empire" The Reagan Doctrine in the Third World The Middle East and Terrorism The United States and the World Economy America and the World: Japanese Management, American Workers The Battle over Conservative Social Values Attacking the Legacy of the 1960s Women's Rights and Abortion Gays and the AIDS Crisis African Americans and Racial Inequality "The Decade of the Hispanic" American Landscape: San Antonio From Scandal to Triumph Business and Religious Scandals Political Scandals Setbacks for the Conservative Agenda A Vulnerable Economy Reagan's Comeback Conclusion
Chapter 31: "A Nation Transformed," 1989-2008 American Portrait: Tiger Woods The Age of Globalization The Cold War and Globalization New Communications Technologies Multinationals and NGOs Expanding Trade Moving People America and the World: Globalization's Final Frontier The Politics of A New economy The Information Economy A Second Economic Revolution? Boom and Insecurity The Return of Inequality The Power of Conservatism Contesting Globalization A Changing People A Diverse Society of Color African Americans in the Post-Civil Rights Era Culture Wars Women in the Post-Feminist Era Winning Gay and Lesbian Rights America in the Post-Cold War World The New World Order The Persian Gulf War Retreating from the New World Order Al Qaeda and 9/11 American Landscape: Gitmo, "The Least Worst Place" The War on Terror The Iraq War America in Crisis Iraq and Afghanistan in Turmoil The Economy in Jeopardy The Presidential Election of 2008 Conclusion
Appendixes Appendix A: Historical Documents Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution Lincoln's Gettysburg Address Appendix B: Historical Facts, Data U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents Admission of States into the Union Glossary Photo Credits Index