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People of the Earth : An Introduction to World Prehistory

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Edition:
13th
ISBN13:

9780132274081

ISBN10:
0132274086
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

This internationally renowned text provides the only truly global account of human prehistory from the earliest times through the earliest civilizations. Written in an accessible way,People of the Earthshows how today's diverse humanity developed biologically and culturally over millions of years against a background of constant climatic change.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
Author's Note xxiii
About the Author xxv
Introducing World Prehistory
2(23)
Archaeology and Prehistory
5(3)
Site: The Amesbury Archer
7(1)
The Beginnings of World Prehistory
8(1)
Who Needs the Past?
9(5)
Science: Dating the Past
10(1)
Cyclical and Linear Time
11(2)
Written Records, Oral Traditions, and Archaeology
13(1)
Studying Culture and Culture Change
14(1)
Primary Cultural Processes
15(1)
Theoretical Approaches: Culture as Adaptation
15(3)
Climatic Change
15(1)
Culture as Adaptation
16(1)
Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology
16(1)
Multilinear Evolution: Prestate and State-Organized Societies
17(1)
Theoretical Approaches: Evolutionary Ecology and Hunter-Gatherers
18(1)
Theoretical Approaches: People as Agents of Change
19(5)
External and Internal Constraints
20(1)
Interactions
21(1)
Gender: Men and Women
21(1)
Trade and Exchange
22(1)
Ideologies and Beliefs
23(1)
Summary
24(1)
PART I BEGINNINGS
25(86)
Human Origins
26(40)
The Great Ice Age
26(3)
The Origins of the Human Line
29(5)
Aegyptopithecus
30(1)
Miocene Primates
31(3)
Molecular Biology and Human Evolution
34(1)
The Ecological Problems Faced by Early Hominins
35(2)
Adaptive Problems
35(2)
Fossil Evidence: 7 to 3 MYA
37(5)
Dating the Past: Potassium-Argon Dating
38(1)
Toumai: Sahelanthropus tchadensis
38(2)
Ardipithecus ramidus
40(1)
Australopithecus anamensis
41(1)
Australopithecus afarensis
41(1)
Laetoli: Footprints of A. afarensis
42(1)
Fossil Evidence: 3 to 2.5 Mya
42(2)
Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus
43(1)
Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus
43(1)
Australopithecus garhi
43(1)
Early Homo: 2.5 to 2.0 MYA
44(1)
Homo habilis
44(1)
A Burst of Rapid Change?
45(1)
Who Was the First Human?
45(4)
Special Feature Early Hominin Evolution: 7 to 1 MYA
46(3)
Archaeological Evidence for Early Human Behavior
49(6)
Evidence for ``Central Places''?
49(1)
Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, East Africa
50(3)
Hunting and Scavenging
53(2)
Plant Foraging and ``Grandmothering''
55(2)
Toolmaking
57(4)
The Oldowan Industry
58(3)
The Mind of the Earliest Humans
61(1)
The Development of Language
62(2)
Social Organization
64(1)
Summary
65(1)
Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens
66(45)
Pleistocene Background
68(3)
Lower Pleistocene (1.6 Million to c. 780,000 Years Ago)
68(2)
Middle Pleistocene (c. 780,000 to 128,000 Years Ago)
70(1)
Homo ergaster in Africa
71(2)
The Radiation of Homo ergaster
73(6)
Special Feature The Archaic World
76(2)
Fire
78(1)
Homo erectus in Asia
79(3)
Southeast Asia
79(1)
China
80(1)
Early Asian Technology
81(1)
The Settlement of Temperate Latitudes
82(1)
Earliest Human Settlement in Southwest Asia and Europe
82(1)
Southwest Asia
83(1)
Europe
83(1)
Archaic Human Technology
83(5)
Hand Axes and Other Tools
84(1)
Hand Axes and the Evolution of the Human Mind
85(3)
Evidence for Behavior: Boxgrove, Schoningen, and Torralba
88(3)
Site: A 400,000-Year-Old Hunt at Schoningen, Germany
90(1)
Language
91(1)
Archaic Homo sapiens in Europe: The Neanderthals
92(5)
Dating the Past: Radiocarbon Dating
94(3)
A More Complex Technology
97(3)
Levallois and Disk-Core-Reduction Strategies
99(1)
Tool Forms and Variability
99(1)
The Origins of Burial and Religious Belief
100(1)
The Origins of Modern Humans
101(7)
Continuity or Replacement?
102(1)
Homo sapiens in Africa
103(2)
Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens
105(1)
Ecology and Homo sapiens
106(2)
The Spread of Homo sapiens
108(1)
The Issue of Cognitive Ability
108(1)
Homo sapiens in East Asia
108(2)
Summary
110(1)
PART II THE GREAT DIASPORA: THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS
111(100)
Europe and Eurasia
112(30)
Special Feature The Spread of Modern Humans to 12,000 Years Ago
114(3)
The Upper Pleistocene (c. 126,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.)
117(1)
Modern Humans in Southwest Asia
117(2)
The Upper Paleolithic Transition
119(2)
A Cultural Explosion?
120(1)
Modern Humans in Europe
121(2)
European Hunter-Gatherers (45,000 Years Ago to 8000 B.C.)
123(4)
Settlement Strategies and Lifeways
123(3)
Social Life and Group Size
126(1)
Upper Paleolithic Art
127(6)
Site: Grotte de Chauvet, France
128(1)
Paintings and Engravings
129(2)
Explaining Upper Paleolithic Art
131(2)
Human Settlement in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)
133(4)
Siberia (?33,000 to 13,000 Years Ago)
137(2)
The Settlement of Far Northeast Asia
138(1)
Bifaces, Microblades, and the First Americans
139(2)
Summary
141(1)
The First Americans
142(30)
The First Settlement of the Americas
142(4)
Ice Sheets and the Bering Land Bridge
146(2)
The First Settlement of Alaska
148(1)
Biological and Linguistic Evidence for the First Americans
149(2)
The Earliest Sites South of the Ice Sheets
151(3)
Settlement Routes: Ice-Free Corridors and Seacoasts
151(1)
Late Wisconsin Settlement in North America?
152(1)
Central and South America?
153(1)
A Scenario for First Settlement
154(1)
The Paleo-Indians: Clovis and Others
154(3)
Big-Game Extinctions
157(1)
Later Hunters and Gatherers
158(1)
Plains Hunters
159(2)
The Desert West
161(2)
Eastern North America
163(5)
Site: Koster, Illinois
166(2)
Specialized Foraging Societies in Central and South America
168(1)
Aleuts and Inuit (Eskimo)
169(2)
Summary
171(1)
Africans and Australians
172(18)
African Hunter-Gatherers, Past and Present
172(7)
Sunda and Sahul: The First Settlement of Island Southeast Asia
179(2)
Site: Exotic Islanders: Homo floresiensis
180(1)
New Guinea and Adjacent Islands
181(2)
Australia
183(6)
Ice Age Wallaby Hunters in Tasmania
186(1)
Later Australian Cultures
187(2)
Summary
189(1)
Intensification and Complexity
190(21)
The Holocene (After 10,000 B.C.)
192(3)
Coping with Environmental Variation
195(5)
Mesolithic Hunter-Gatherers in Europe
200(4)
Site: Star Carr, England
202(2)
Mesolithic Complexity in Scandinavia
204(2)
The Maglemose Period (7500 to 5700 B.C.)
204(1)
The Kongemose Period (5700 to 4600 B.C.)
204(1)
The Ertebolle Period (4600 to 3200 B.C.)
204(2)
Hunter-Gatherer Complexity
206(1)
Conditions for Greater Complexity
206(1)
Attributes of Greater Complexity
206(1)
Debates About Social Complexity
207(1)
Hunter-Gatherer Societies in Southwest Asia
207(3)
Summary
210(1)
PART III FIRST FARMERS
211(120)
A Plenteous Harvest
212(22)
Theories About the Origins of Food Production
212(6)
Early Hypotheses
214(1)
Multivariate Theories
214(2)
Site: Guila Naquitz, Mexico
216(2)
Differing Dates for Food Production
218(1)
Studying Early Food Production
219(2)
Dating the Past: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Dating
220(1)
Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late?
221(1)
Consequences of Food Production
221(2)
Nutrition and Early Food Production
223(1)
Herding: Domestication of Animals
224(1)
Plant Cultivation
225(2)
Technology and Domestication
227(6)
Special Feature Early Food Production
230(3)
Summary
233(1)
The Origins of Food Production in Southwest Asia
234(16)
A Scenario for Early Agriculture
236(2)
The First Farmers: Netiv Hagdud, Abu Hureyra, and Jericho
238(4)
Netiv Hagdud
238(1)
Abu Hureyra
238(2)
Jericho
240(2)
Diverse Farming Economies and Trade
242(1)
The Zagros and Mesopotamia
242(2)
Zawi Chemi Shanidar
243(1)
Ganj Dareh
243(1)
Jarmo
243(1)
Ali Kosh and the Lowlands
243(1)
Site: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey
244(1)
Early Farmers in Anatolia
244(4)
Hacilar and Catalhoyuk
246(2)
Two Stages of Farming Development
248(1)
Summary
249(1)
The First European Farmers
250(18)
Mesolithic Prelude
250(3)
The Transition to Farming in Europe
253(1)
Farming in Greece and Southern Europe
254(1)
The Spread of Agriculture into Temperate Europe
255(3)
The Balkans
257(1)
Bandkeramik Cultures
257(1)
Frontiers and Transitions
258(1)
Social Changes, Lineages, and the Individual
259(2)
The Introduction of the Plow
261(1)
Plains Farmers: Tripolye
261(1)
Mediterranean and Western Europe
262(1)
The Megaliths
263(3)
Site: Easton Down and the Avebury Landscape
266(1)
Summary
266(2)
First Farmers in Egypt and Tropical Africa
268(10)
Hunter-Gatherers on the Nile
270(2)
Agricultural Origins Along the Nile
272(2)
Saharan Pastoralists
274(1)
Early Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa
275(2)
Summary
277(1)
Asia and the Pacific
278(20)
The Origins of Rice Cultivation
278(2)
Early Farming in China
280(4)
Southern and Eastern China
281(1)
Northern China
282(2)
Jomon and Early Agriculture in Japan
284(2)
Early Agriculture in Southeast Asia
286(2)
Site: The Princess of Khok Phanom Di, Thailand
287(1)
Rice and Root Cultivation in Island Southeast Asia
288(2)
Agriculture in the Pacific Islands
290(1)
The Lapita Cultural Complex and the Settlement of Melanesia and Western Polynesia
290(2)
Long-Distance Voyaging in the Pacific
292(5)
Science: Indigenous Pacific Navigation
293(1)
The Settlement of Micronesia and Eastern Polynesia
293(2)
The Settlement of New Zealand
295(2)
Summary
297(1)
The Story of Maize
298(33)
The First Plant Domestication
301(4)
The Origins of Maize Agriculture
301(4)
Beans and Squash
305(1)
Early Food Production in the Andes
305(4)
The Highlands
305(1)
The Peruvian Coast
306(3)
Early Farmers in Southwestern North America
309(7)
Hohokam
310(1)
Mogollon
311(1)
Ancestral Pueblo
311(1)
Site: The Chaco Phenomenon
312(4)
Preagricultural and Agricultural Societies in Eastern North America
316(1)
Moundbuilder Cultures
316(11)
Adena
317(1)
Hopewell
318(3)
Mississippian
321(6)
Human Settlement in the Caribbean
327(3)
First Settlement (Preceramic Cultures)
327(1)
Saladoid Migrations
328(1)
Taino Chiefdoms
328(2)
Summary
330(1)
PART IV OLD WORLD CIVILIZATIONS
331(140)
The Development of Civilization
332(20)
Civilization
332(2)
Cities
334(2)
Six Classic Theories of the Emergence of States
336(7)
V. Gordon Childe and the ``Urban Revolution''
336(1)
Ecology and Irrigation
337(2)
Technology and Trade
339(2)
Warfare
341(1)
Cultural Systems and Civilization
341(1)
Environmental Change
342(1)
Social Theories
343(7)
Power in Three Domains
344(1)
Site: The Lord of Sican at Huaca Loro, Peru
345(1)
Chiefly Cycling: Processes and Agents
346(2)
Special Feature Old World Civilizations
348(2)
The Collapse of Civilizations
350(1)
Summary
351(1)
Early Civilizations in Southwest Asia
352(20)
Upland Villages
355(2)
Settlement of the Lowlands
357(3)
Environmental Change
358(1)
Archaeological Evidence
358(1)
Site: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq
359(1)
Uruk: The Mesopotamian City
360(3)
Sumerian Civilization
363(2)
Exchange on the Iranian Plateau
365(2)
The Widening of Political Authority
367(1)
The Akkadians
368(1)
Babylon
369(1)
The Assyrians
369(2)
Summary
371(1)
Egypt, Nubia, and Africa
372(34)
The Origins of the Egyptian State
372(8)
Ancient Monopoly?
372(3)
Naqada, Nekhen, and Maadi
375(3)
Writing
378(1)
A Scenario for Unification
379(1)
Intensification of Agriculture and Irrigation
379(1)
Archaic Egypt and the Creation of the Great Culture (2920 to 2575 B.C.)
380(2)
The Old Kingdom and the Pyramids (c. 2575 to 2180 B.C.)
382(3)
Site: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt
384(1)
The Egyptian State
385(2)
The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom (2180 to 1640 B.C.)
387(1)
The Second Intermediate Period (1640 to 1530 B.C.)
388(1)
The New Kingdom (1530 to 1070 B.C.)
388(6)
The ``Estate of Amun''
389(1)
Amarna and Akhenaten
390(1)
Mummies and Mummification
391(1)
The Restoration of Amun
392(2)
The Late Period (1070 to 332 B.C.)
394(1)
Egypt and Africa
394(1)
Nubia: The Land of Kush
394(2)
Meroe and Aksum
396(2)
North Africa
398(1)
Jenne-jeno and the Rise of African States
399(2)
Ghana
400(1)
Mali
400(1)
Songhay
401(1)
Farmers and Traders in Eastern and Southern Africa
401(3)
Towns and Trade on the East African Coast
401(1)
Great Zimbabwe
402(2)
Europe and Africa
404(1)
Summary
405(1)
Early States in South and Southeast Asia
406(22)
The Roots of South Asian Civilization
408(2)
Highlands and Lowlands: The Kulli Complex
410(1)
A Rapid Transition
411(1)
Mature Harappan Civilization
412(4)
Who Were the Harappans?
414(2)
Harappan Beliefs
416(1)
South Asia After the Harappans
416(2)
Southeast Asian States
418(5)
Dong Son
421(1)
Trade and Kingdoms
421(2)
The Rise of the God-Kings
423(1)
The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430)
423(4)
Site: Angkor Wat, Cambodia
424(3)
Summary
427(1)
Early Chinese Civilization
428(10)
The Origins of Chinese Civilization
428(5)
Longshan and Liangzhu
430(2)
Shoulder Blades and Oracles
432(1)
Xia and Shang
433(2)
Capitals and Sepulchers
433(1)
The Shang Royal Burials
434(1)
The Bronze Smiths
434(1)
The Warlords
435(2)
Site: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China
436(1)
Summary
437(1)
Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans
438(18)
Early Towns in Anatolia
440(1)
Balance of Power: The Hittites
441(3)
The Sea Peoples and the Rise of Israel
444(1)
The Phoenicians
444(1)
The Aegean and Greece
445(1)
The Minoans
446(3)
The Mycenaeans
449(3)
Site: The Mycenaean Shrine at Phylakopi, Melos Island, Greece
451(1)
Greek City-States After Mycenae
452(1)
The Etruscans and the Romans
453(2)
The Etruscans
453(1)
The Romans
454(1)
Summary
455(1)
Europe Before the Romans
456(15)
Early Copper Working
458(1)
Battle Axes and Beakers
459(3)
Site: Otzi the Iceman, Similaun Glacier, Italian Alps
461(1)
The European Bronze Age
462(3)
Bronze Age Warriors
465(2)
The Scythians and Other Steppe Peoples
467(1)
The First Ironworking
467(1)
The Hallstatt Culture
468(1)
La Tene Culture
469(1)
Summary
470(1)
PART V NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS
471(69)
Mesoamerican Civilizations
472(38)
Village Farming
472(6)
Special Feature Native American Civilizations
474(4)
Preclassic Peoples in Mesoamerica
478(3)
Early Preclassic
478(1)
Middle Preclassic: The Olmec
478(2)
Late Preclassic
480(1)
The Rise of Complex Society in Oaxaca
481(1)
Monte Alban
482(1)
Teotihuacan
483(4)
Maya Civilization
487(13)
Maya Origins
487(2)
Water Management
489(1)
Kingship: Sacred Space and Time
490(3)
Political Organization
493(1)
Classic and Late Classic Maya Political History
494(5)
Site: Architecture as a Political Statement: The Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copan, Honduras
499(1)
The Ninth-Century Collapse
500(2)
The Toltecs
502(1)
Aztec Civilization and the Spanish Conquest
503(6)
Summary
509(1)
South American Chiefdoms and States
510(30)
The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization
514(1)
Coastal Foundations: The Initial Period
515(4)
Caral
515(1)
El Paraiso and Huaca Florida
516(3)
Chavin de Huantar
519(3)
Paracas: Textiles and Coastal Prehistory
522(1)
Complex Society in the Southern Highlands: Chiripa and Pukara
523(1)
The Early Intermediate Period
524(1)
The Moche State
524(5)
Site: The Lords of Sipan, Peru
525(4)
The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari
529(2)
Tiwanaku
529(1)
Wari
529(2)
The Late Intermediate Period: Sican and Chimor
531(2)
The Late Horizon: The Inca State
533(3)
Amazonia
536(1)
The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534)
537(2)
Summary
539(1)
Glossary of Cultures and Sites 540(8)
Glossary of Technical Terms 548(6)
Bibliography of World Prehistory 554(24)
Credits 578(3)
Index 581


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