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Of the People: A History of the United States, Third Edition, not only tells the history of America--of its people and places, of its dealings and ideals--but it also unfolds the story of American democracy, carefully marking how this country's evolution has been anything but certain, from its complex beginnings to its modern challenges. This comprehensive survey focuses on the social and political lives of people--some famous, some ordinary--revealing the compelling story of America's democracy from an individual perspective, from across the landscapes of diverse communities, and ultimately from within the larger context of the world.
James Oakes, CUNY Graduate Center Michael McGerr, Indiana University-Bloomington Jan Ellen Lewis, Rutgers University, Newark Nick Cullather, Indiana University-Bloomington Jeanne Boydston, University of Wisconsin-Madison Mark Summers, University of Kentucky Camilla Townsend, Rutgers University Karen Dunak, Muskingum University
Table of Contents
Chapter 16: The Triumph of Industrial Capitalism, 1850-1890 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Rosa Cassettari The Political Economy of Global Capitalism The "Great Depression" of the Late Nineteenth Century AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The Global Migration of Labor America Moves to the City The Rise of Big Business The Rise of Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Dominates the Steel Industry Big Business Consolidates A New Social Order Lifestyles of the Very Rich The Consolidation of the New Middle Class The Industrial Working Class Comes of Age STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: Within the Reach of All Sharecropping Becomes Wage Labor Clearing the West for Capitalism The Overland Trail The Origins of Indian Reservations The Destruction of Indian Subsistence The Economic Transformation of the West Cattlemen: From Drovers to Ranchers Commercial Farmers Subdue the Plains AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Mining Camps in the West Changes in the Land Conclusion
Chapter 16 Primary Sources 1. Chief Joseph Describes His Visit to Washington, D.C. 2. A Steel Mill in the Gilded Age 3. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives 4. A Journalist Visits a Chicago Sweatshop 5. A British Visitor Discovers Wanamaker's Department Store
Chapter 17: Cultural Struggles of Industrial America, 1850-1895 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Anthony Comstock's Crusade Against Vice The Varieties of Urban Culture Minstrel Shows as Cultural Nostalgia The Origins of Vaudeville Sports Become Professional AMERICA AND THE WORLD: World's Fairs The Elusive Boundaries of Male and Female The Victorian Construction of Male and Female Victorians Who Questioned Traditional Sexual Boundaries Immigration as a Cultural Problem Josiah Strong Attacks Immigration From Immigrants to Ethnic Americans STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: "The Chinese Must Go" The Catholic Church and Its Limits in Immigrant Culture Immigrant Cultures The Creation of High Culture High Culture Becomes Moral Crusade Cultural Establishment Versus Mass Culture Social Darwinism and the Growth of Scientific Racism Artistic Realism Finds an American Voice The Advance of Literary Realism Painting Reality Is Photography Art? Conclusion
Chapter 17 Primary Sources 1. Two Songs of the Metropolis 2. "The New Colossus" 3. Josiah Strong on the Superiority of Anglo-Saxons 4. "Acres of Diamonds"
Chapter 18: The Politics of Industrial America, 1870-1892 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Luna Kellie and the Farmers' Alliance Two Political Styles The Triumph of Party Politics Masculine Partisanship and Feminine Voluntarism The Women's Christian Temperance Union STRUGGLES FOR DEMOCRACY: The "Crusade" Against Alcohol The Critics of Popular Politics The Enemy at the Gates Economic Issues Dominate National Politics Greenbacks and Greenbackers Weak Presidents Oversee a Stronger Federal Government Government Activism and Its Limits AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Foreign Policy: The Limited Significance of Commercial Expansion States Discover Activism Cities: Boss Rule and New Responsibilities Middle-Class Radicalism Henry George and the Limits of Producers' Ideology Edward Bellamy and the Nationalist Clubs Discontent Among Workers The Knights of Labor and the Haymarket Disaster Agrarian Revolt The Rise of the Populists Conclusion
Chapter 18 Primary Sources 1. A New York City Boss Gets Out the Vote 2. "Big Tim" Sullivan on New York's Campaign Trail 3. "And Reform Moves On" 4. "That We Might All Be Rich" 5. "Address in the Haymarket Trial"
Chapter 19: Industry and Empire, 1890-1900 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: J.P. Morgan The Crisis of the 1890s Hard Times The Overseas Frontier The Drive for Efficiency Progress and Force Corporate Consolidation A Modern Economy Currency and the Tariff The Cross of Gold The Battle of the Standards The Retreat from Politics The Lure of the Cities AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Galveston, Texas, 1900 Inventing Jim Crow The Atlanta Compromise Disfranchisement and the Decline of Popular Politics DEMOCRACY: The Wilmington Race Riot Organized Labor Retreats from Politics American Diplomacy Enters the Modern World Sea Power and the Imperial Urge The Scramble for Empire War with Spain The Anti-Imperialists The Philippine-American War The Open Door Conclusion
Chapter 19 Primary Sources 1. The Cross of Gold 2. The Atlanta Compromise 3. Theodore Roosevelt, "The Strenuous Life" 4. The Anti-Imperialists
Chapter 20: A United Body of Action, 1900-1916 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Alice Hamilton Toward a New Politics The Insecurity of Modern Life The Decline of Partisan Politics Social Housekeeping Evolution or Revolution? The Progressives Social Workers and Muckrakers DEMOCRACY: Public Response to The Jungle Dictatorship of the Experts Progressives on the Color Line Progressives in State and Local Politics Redesigning the City Reform Mayors and City Services Progressivism and the States The President Becomes "The Administration" The Executive Branch Against the Trusts The Square Deal Conserving Water, Land, and Forests TR and Big Stick Diplomacy AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The Hetch Hetchy Valley Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Rival Visions of the Industrial Future The New Nationalism The 1912 Election The New Freedom Conclusion
Chapter 20 Primary Sources 1. The Progressives and Motivation for Reform 2. The Misconduct of Packingtown 3. Shedding Light on Child Labor 4. The New Freedom
Chapter 21: A Global Power, 1914-1919 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Walter Lippman The Challenge of Revolution The Mexican Revolution Bringing Order to the Caribbean A One-Sided Neutrality The Lusitania's Last Voyage The Drift to War The Election of 1916 The Last Attempts at Peace War Aims The Fight in Congress Mobilizing the Nation and the Economy Enforcing Patriotism DEMOCRACY: Eugene Debs Speaks Out Against the War Regimenting the Economy The Great Migration Reforms Become "War Measures" Over There Citizens into Soldiers The Fourteen Points The Final Offensive Revolutionary Anxieties Wilson in Paris The Senate Rejects the League AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 Red Scare Conclusion
Chapter 21 Primary Sources 1. Challenging the War 2. Selling the War 3. Uncle Sam's Call to Arms 4. The Fourteen Points
Chapter 22: The Modern Nation, 1919-1928 AMERICA PORTRAIT: "America's Sweetheart" A Dynamic Economy The Development of Industry The Trend Toward Large-Scale Organization The Transformation of Work and the Workforce The Defeat of Organized Labor The Decline of Agriculture The Urban Nation A Modern Culture The Spread of Consumerism New Pleasures A Sexual Revolution Changing Gender Ideals DEMOCRACY: Flappers and Feminists The Family and Youth AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: "Flaming Youth" on Campus The Celebration of the Individual The Limits of the Modern Culture The Limits of Prosperity The "Lost Generation" of Intellectuals Fundamentalist Christians and "Old-Time Religion" Nativists and Immigration Restriction The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan Mexican Americans African Americans and the "New Negro" A "New Era" in Politics and Government The Modern Political System The Republican Ascendancy The Politics of Individualism Republican Foreign Policy AMERICA AND THE WORLD: "Jazz-band partout!" Extending the "New Era" Conclusion
Chapter 22 Primary Sources 1. Return to Normalcy 2. Faith and Business 3. The Advertising Age 4. Car Culture
Chapter 23: A Great Depression and a New Deal, 1929-1940 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Dorothea Lange The Great Depression Causes Descending into Depression Hoover Responds The First New Deal The Election of 1932 FDR Takes Command Federal Relief DEMOCRACY: The Civilian Conservation Corps and a New Brand of Environmentalism The Farm Crisis The Blue Eagle The Second New Deal Critics Attack from All Sides The Second Hundred Days Social Security for Some Labor and the New Deal AMERICA AND THE WORLD: The Global Depression The New Deal Coalition Crisis of the New Deal Conservatives Counterattack The Liberal Crisis of Confidence Conclusion
Chapter 23 Primary Sources 1. Descending into Depression 2. The Election of 1932: Restoring Faith in Government 3. Surviving the Depression 4. Dear Mrs. Roosevelt
Chapter 24: The Second World War, 1941-1945 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: A. Philip Randolph Island in a Totalitarian Sea A World of Hostile Blocs The Good Neighbor America First? Means Short of War Turning the Tide Midway and Coral Sea Gone with the Draft AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Carrier The Winning Weapons The Second Front Organizing for Production A Mixed Economy Industry Moves South and West New Jobs in New Places Women in Industry Between Idealism and Fear Japanese Internment DEMOCRACY: Manzanar No Shelter from the Holocaust Closing with the Enemy Taking the War to Europe Island Hopping in the Pacific Building a New World The Fruits of Victory Conclusion
Chapter 24 Primary Sources 1. The Four Freedoms 2. Illustrating American Freedoms 3. Victory Abroad and at Home 4. Women in Industry: Changes on the Home Front
Chapter 25: The Cold War, 1945-1952 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Matt Cvetic Origins of the Cold War Ideological Competition Uneasy Allies From Allies to Enemies National Security The Truman Doctrine Containment AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: The Nevada Test Site Taking Risks Global Revolutions Korea NSC-68 The Reconversion of American Society The Postwar Economy The Challenge of Organized Labor Opportunities for Women Civil Rights for African Americans The Frustrations of Liberalism The Democrats' Troubles Truman's Comeback Fighting the Cold War at Home Doubts and Fears in the Atomic Age The Anti-Communist Crusade DEMOCRACY: The Hollywood Ten The Hunt for Spies The Rise of McCarthyism Conclusion
Chapter 25 Primary Sources 1. Churchill and Stalin Trade Accusations 2. George Kennan Argues for Containment 3. The United Auto Workers versus General Motors 4. President Truman Proposes National Health Insurance 5. McCarthyism in Action
Chapter 26: The Consumer Society, 1945-1961 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The Ricardos Living the Good Life Economic Prosperity The Suburban Dream The Pursuit of Pleasure AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Eisenhower's Interstate Highway System A Homogeneous Society? The Discovery of Conformity The Decline of Class and Ethnicity The Resurgence of Religion and Family Maintaining Gender Roles Persisting Racial Differences The Survival of Diversity The Eisenhower Era at Home and Abroad "Ike" and 1950s America Modern Republicanism DEMOCRACY: "The Fantastic, Real-Life, Dream-Come-True Adventure of the Barstow Family of Wethersfield, Connecticut" An Aggressive Cold War Strategy Avoiding War with the Communist Powers Crises in the Third World AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Consumerism and the Cold War Challenges to the Consumer Society Rebellious Youth The Beat Movement The Rebirth of Environmentalism The Struggle for Civil Rights The Crisis of "Misplaced Power" Conclusion
Chapter 26 Primary Sources 1. The New Suburbs 2. Teenagers in the Age of Conformity 3. Preparing for Nuclear War 4. "Misplaced Power"
CHAPTER 27: "The Table of Democracy", 1960-1968 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: The A&T Four New Approaches to Power Grassroots Activism for Civil Rights The New Liberalism The New Conservatism The New Left The Presidential Election of 1960 The New Frontier Style and Substance Civil Rights Flexible Response and the Third World Two Confrontations with the Soviets Kennedy and Vietnam The Great Society Lyndon Johnson's Mandate "Success Without Squalor" Preserving Personal Freedom The Death of Jim Crow DEMOCRACY: "The Long Cool Summer" of Greenville, Mississippi The American War in Vietnam Johnson's Decision for War Fighting a Limited War The War at Home The Great Society Comes Apart The Emergence of Black Power The Youth Rebellion AMERICA AND THE WORLD: International Student Protest, 1968 The Rebirth of the Women's Movement Conservative Backlash 1968: A Tumultuous Year Conclusion
Chapter 27 Primary Sources 1. Non-Violence, Love, and Civil Rights 2. John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address 3. The War on Poverty 4. Justifying the Vietnam War 5. The Great Society Comes Apart
Chapter 28: Living With Less, 1968-1980 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: "Fighting Shirley Chisholm" A New Crisis: Economic Decline Weakness at Home The Energy Crisis Competition Abroad The Multinationals AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Carl Gerstacker's Dream The Impact of Decline Confronting Decline: Nixon's Strategy A New Foreign Policy Ending the Vietnam War Chile and the Middle East Taming Big Government An Uncertain Economic Policy Refusing to Settle for Less: Struggles for Rights African Americans' Struggle for Racial Justice Women's Liberation DEMOCRACY: "ROAR"! Mexican Americans and "Brown Power" Asian American Activism The Struggle for Native American Rights Homosexuals and Gay Power Backlash: From Radical Action to Conservative Reaction "The Movement" and the "Me Decade" The Plight of the White Ethnics The Republican Counterattack Political Crisis: Three Troubled Presidencies Watergate: The Fall of Richard Nixon Gerald Ford and a Skeptical Nation "Why Not the Best?": Jimmy Carter Conclusion
Chapter 28 Primary Sources 1. Deindustrialization in Youngstown, Ohio 2. The Nixon Doctrine 3. Radical Feminism and Gay Liberation 4. The "White Ethnics" 5. A "Crisis of the American Spirit"
Chapter 29: The Triumph of Conservatism, 1980-1991 AMERICAN PORTRAIT: Linda Chavez Creating a Conservative Majority The New Economy The Rehabilitation of Business AMERICAN LANDSCAPE: Silicon Valley The Rise of the Religious Right The 1980 Presidential Election The Reagan Revolution at Home The Reagan Style Shrinking Government Reaganomics The 1984 Presidential Election The Reagan Revolution Abroad Restoring American Power Confronting the "Evil Empire" The Reagan Doctrine in the Third World The Middle East and Terrorism The United States and the World Economy AMERICA AND THE WORLD: Japanese Management, American Workers The Battle Over Conservative Social Values Attacking the Legacy of the 1960s Women's Rights and Abortion Gays and the AIDS Crisis African Americans and Racial Inequality "The Decade of the Hispanic" From Scandal to Triumph Business and Religious Scandals Political Scandals Setbacks for the Conservative Agenda A Vulnerable Economy Reagan's Comeback DEMOCRACY: Reagan at the Berlin Wall Conclusion
Chapter 29 Primary Sources 1. Evangelical Activism 2. Reaganomics 3. The Anti-Nuclear Movement 4. The Parties' Battle for the Family 5. "Homeless in America"
Chapter 30: The Globalized Nation, 1989-2001 American Portrait: James Sharlow The Age of Globalization The Cold War and Globalization New Communications Technologies Multinationals and NGOs Expanding Trade Moving People Contesting Globalization A New Economy From Industry to Information A Second Economic Revolution? Downsizing America Boom and Insecurity American Landscape: Seattle Democratic Deadlock George H. W. Bush and the End of the Reagan Revolution The Rebellion Against Politics as Usual Clinton's Compromise with Conservatism Domestic Dissent and Terrorism Scandal The Presidential Election of 2000 Democracy: "Temporarily Closed," 1995-1996 Culture Wars African-Americans in the Post-Civil Rights Era "Family Values" Multiculturalism Women in the Postfeminist Era Contesting Gay and Lesbian Rights Redefining Foreign Policy in the Global Age The New World Order The Persian Gulf War Retreating from the New World Order A New Threat Conclusion
Chapter 30 Primary Sources 1. Two Sides of Globalization 2. "Technology, the Great Equalizer" 3. "The Era of Big Government Is Over" 4. The Law and the LGBT Community 5. George H.W. Bush and the New World Order
Epilogue: "A Nation Transformed", 2001-2014 American Portrait: Lt. Craig Mullaney Twin Crises Bush 43 9/11 The Global War on Terror The Iraq War Iraq and Afghanistan in Turmoil Financial Crisis Democracy: "Gitmo" Obama and the Promise of Change The Presidential Election of 2008 Confronting Economic Crisis Ending the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq The Politics of Frustration A Second Term A Government and a Nation "Of the People"? A Diverse Society of Color LGBT Rights The Return of Economic Inequality Unending War? Conclusion
Epilogue Primary Sources 1. Declaring War on Terror 2. Debating Inequality