9781405169301

Persistent Organic Pollutants

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781405169301

  • ISBN10:

    1405169303

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-05-10
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Summary

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife. The Stockholm Convention on POPs is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs which came into force in 2004. Currently, twelve substances or substance groups are included under the Stockholm Convention, but there is a case for including new and emerging POPs such as brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated substances. This book considers these two new pollutants, together with the emerging area of chirality and its applications as an environmental forensics tool, and the topic of POPs contamination of indoor environments.

Author Biography

Dr Stuart Harrad is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Birmingham. He heads the NERC Network on POPs and has been selected to chair Dioxin 2008, a major conference on Halogenated POPs (1000 delegates).
He edited Persistent Organic Pollutants: Environmental Behaviour and Pathways of Human Exposure published by Kluwer in 2001.

Table of Contents

Beyond the Stockholm Convention: An Introduction to Current Issues and Future Challenges in POPs Research
References
Brominated Flame Retardants
Introduction
Sources
Overview of measurement techniques
Physico-chemical properties and their influence on environmental fate and behaviour
Overview of toxicology
Environmental levels - present, past and future temporal trends
Human exposure - magnitude and relative significance of pathways
Summary/Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Perfluoroalkyl Compounds
Introduction and Nomenclature
Manufacturing and Production
Overview of Toxicology
Physical Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate
Overview of Measurement Techniques
Human Exposure
Sources of PFCs to the Environment
Environmental Measurements
References
Chirality as an Environmental Forensics Tool
Introduction
Classes of Chiral Legacy and Persistent Organic Pollutants
Measuring and Quantifying Enantiomer Composition of POPs
Chirality to Characterize Environmental Biochemical Processes
Chirality to Quantify Rates of Biotransformation
Chirality as a tool for Pollutant Source Apportionment
Caveats in using Chirality to probe Biologically-Mediated Environmental Processes
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Developing World
Introduction
Sources of POPs in developing countries
Levels of POPs in developing countries
Problems related to POPs in Developing Countries
Conclusions
References
Sources, Fate and Effects of Contaminant Emissions in Urban Areas
Introduction
Chemical Emissions in Urban Areas
Chemical Mixtures in Urban Media
Urban Chemical Signatures
Emissions and Environmental Degradation
Urban Form and Chemical Emissions
A Quantitative Model of Contaminant Fate in Urban Areas
Future Directions
Acknowledgements
References
The Contamination of Indoor Environments with Persistent Organic Pollutants
Introduction
Methods of Sampling
Sources and Levels of Indoor Contamination
Relative Significance of Indoor Exposure
Uncertainties in Estimates of Exposure via Dust Ingestion and Indoor Air Inhalation
International Differences in Indoor Contamination
Concentrations in Different Microenvironment Categories
Influence of Indoor Contamination on Outdoor Contamination
Future Research Priorities
References
The Chemicals that will not go away: Implications for Human Exposure of Reservoirs of Pops
References
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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