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Personality : Classic Theories and Modern Research

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205439652

ISBN10:
0205439659
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $137.26
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  • Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research (with Citing Sources with APA Documentation)
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Summary

This successful text puts "personality" back into the personality course. Integrating the classic insights of personality theorists with the modern research of investigators in the field, Personality will fascinate students and encourage deeper thought.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
About the Authors xxvii
Part I Introduction
What Is Personality?
1(26)
Personality and Science
3(4)
Where Do Personality Theories Come From?
5(2)
Preview of the Perspectives
7(4)
Overview of the Eight Perspectives
7(2)
Are Personality Aspects Really Separable?
9(2)
A Brief History of Personality Psychology
11(8)
Theater and Self-Presentation
12(1)
Religion
12(1)
Evolutionary Biology
13(1)
Testing
14(3)
Modern Theory
17(2)
Some Basic Issues: The Unconscious, the Self, Uniqueness, Gender, Situations, Culture
19(3)
What Is the Unconscious?
19(1)
What Is the Self?
19(1)
Does Each Individual Require a Unique Approach?
20(1)
Are There Differences between Men and Women?
20(1)
The Person versus the Situation
20(1)
To What Extent Is Personality Culturally Determined?
21(1)
Is Personality a Useful Concept?
21(1)
Personality in Context
22(2)
Summary and Conclusion
24(3)
How Is Personality Studied and Assessed?
27(42)
Measuring Personality
29(6)
Reliability
31(2)
Construct Validity
33(2)
Bias
35(3)
Response Sets
35(1)
Ethnic Bias
36(1)
Gender Bias
37(1)
Varieties of Personality Measures
38(20)
Self-Report Tests
40(1)
Q-Sort Tests
41(1)
Ratings and Judgments by Others
42(2)
Biological Measures
44(2)
Behavioral Observations
46(2)
Interviews
48(2)
Expressive Behavior
50(1)
Document Analysis and Life Stories
51(2)
Projective Tests
53(2)
Demographics and Lifestyle
55(3)
Is There One Best Method of Assessment?
58(1)
How Not to Test Personality
58(2)
The Design of Research
60(3)
Case Studies
61(1)
Correlational Studies
61(1)
Experimental Studies
61(2)
The Ethics of Personality Testing
63(2)
Summary and Conclusion
65(4)
Part II Eight Basic Aspects of Personality
Psychoanalytic Aspects of Personality
69(48)
Basic Psychoanalytic Concepts
71(6)
The Unconscious and Therapeutic Techniques
72(2)
The Structure of the Mind
74(3)
Psychosexual Development
77(6)
Oral Stage
77(1)
Anal Stage
78(2)
Phallic Stage
80(2)
Latency Period
82(1)
Genital Stage
82(1)
Male versus Female
83(2)
Defense Mechanisms
85(10)
Repression
85(4)
Reaction Formation
89(1)
Denial
90(1)
Projection
91(1)
Displacement
92(1)
Sublimation
93(1)
Regression
94(1)
Rationalization
94(1)
Cross-Cultural Issues
95(1)
Major Contributions and Limitations of Freudian Psychoanalysis
96(4)
Modern Developments from Experimental Psychology
100(14)
Unconscious Emotion and Motivation
101(1)
Illusion of Free Will
102(1)
Hypermnesia
103(3)
Infantile Amnesia
106(2)
Subliminal Perception
108(1)
Memory
109(2)
Amnesia
111(3)
Summary and Conclusion
114(3)
Neo-Analytic and Ego Aspects of Personality: Identity
117(44)
Carl G. Jung and Selfhood
119(7)
Background to Jung's Approach
119(2)
Jung's Analytic Psychology
121(5)
Alfred Adler---The Inferiority Complex and the Importance of Society
126(7)
Adler's Differences with Freudian Theory
127(1)
Adler's Individual Psychology
127(6)
Karen Horney---Culture and Feminism
133(6)
Rejection of Penis Envy
135(1)
Basic Anxiety
136(1)
The Self
136(1)
Neurotic Coping Strategies
137(1)
Horney's Impact on Psychoanalytic Thinking
138(1)
Bridges from Freud to More Modern Conceptions
139(1)
Anna Freud
139(1)
Heinz Hartmann
139(1)
Object Relations Theories: A Conceptual Link between Self-Identity and Social Identity
140(5)
Margaret Mahler and Symbiosis
140(2)
Melanie Klein and the Relational Perspective
142(2)
Heinz Kohut
144(1)
The Contributions of Object Relations Approaches
144(1)
Erik Erikson---Life-Span Identity and Identity Crises
145(6)
Erikson's Life Path
145(1)
Identity Formation and Ego Crises
146(5)
Some Modern Approaches to Identity
151(7)
Personal and Social Identity
152(1)
Self-Monitoring
152(2)
The Role of Goals and Life Tasks
154(1)
Possible Selves and the Search for a Meaningful Life
155(3)
Summary and Conclusion
158(3)
Biological Aspects of Personality
161(42)
Direct Genetic Effects
162(2)
Natural Selection and Functionalism
163(1)
Angelman Syndrome: Genes and Personality
163(1)
Behavioral Genomics
164(1)
Genetic Effects through Temperament
164(9)
Activity, Emotionality, Sociability, Impulsivity
165(2)
Eysenck's Model of Nervous System Temperament
167(1)
Approach, Inhibition, and Regulation
168(1)
Sensation Seeking and Addiction-Proneness
169(2)
Brain Hemispheres and Personality
171(2)
Twins as a Source of Data
173(7)
Sir Francis Galton
174(1)
Minnesota Twin Study
175(1)
Nurture and Nonshared Environmental Variance
176(2)
The Case of Schizophrenia
178(1)
Inferences from Schizophrenic Twins
179(1)
Sexual Identity and Homosexuality
180(3)
Exotic Becomes Erotic
181(1)
Kin Selection
182(1)
Sex Hormones and Experience
182(1)
Mediated Effects of Biology
183(5)
Effects through Environmental Toxins: Poisoning
183(1)
Effects through Physical Illness
184(3)
Effects from Legal and Illegal Drugs
187(1)
Effects from Creation of Environments
188(4)
Tropisms
188(2)
Do Looks Reveal Personality?: Somatotypes
190(2)
Effects from Reactions of Others
192(2)
Physical Attractiveness Stereotype
193(1)
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Personality
194(2)
Sociobiology
194(1)
Cinderella Effect
194(1)
Evolution and Culture
195(1)
Personality and Public Policy
196(4)
Social Darwinism and Eugenics: Psuedoscience
196(1)
Culture, Nazis, and ``Superior Races''
197(1)
The Human Genome: Racist Eugenics of the Future?
198(2)
Summary and Conclusion
200(3)
Behaviorist and Learning Aspects of Personality
203(32)
The Classical Conditioning of Personality
204(3)
Conditioning a Response to a Stimulus
205(1)
Behavioral Patterns as a Result of Conditioning
205(1)
Extinction Processes
206(1)
Conditioning of Neurotic Behavior
206(1)
Complexities in Application of Conditioning Principles
207(1)
The Origins of Behaviorist Approaches: Watson's Behaviorism
207(4)
The Rejection of Introspection
207(1)
Applying Conditioning Principles to Little Albert: Conditioned Fear and Systematic Desensitization
208(3)
The Radical Behaviorism of B. F. Skinner
211(5)
Operant Conditioning
212(1)
Operant Theory as an Alternative Description of Personality
212(2)
Controlling the Reinforcement
214(1)
Skinner's Behaviorist Utopia: Walden Two
214(2)
Applying Behaviorism: Personality Change and Individual Differences
216(5)
Internal Processes and Behaviorist Theory
219(1)
External Causation versus Free Will or Free Choice
220(1)
Other Learning Approaches to Personality
221(7)
The Role of Internal Drives: Clark Hull
221(1)
Social Learning Theory: Dollard and Miller
221(1)
Habit Hierarchies
222(3)
Drive Conflict
225(1)
Patterns of Child-Rearing and Personality: Robert Sears
226(1)
Modern Behaviorist Personality Approaches
226(2)
Key Behaviorist Terms and Concepts
228(2)
Evaluation
230(2)
Summary and Conclusion
232(3)
Cognitive and Social-Cognitive Aspects of Personality
235(40)
Roots of Cognitive Approaches
236(5)
Roots in Gestalt Psychology
237(1)
Kurt Lewin's Field Theory
238(1)
Field Dependence as a Personality Variable
238(3)
Cognitive and Perceptual Mechanisms
241(6)
Schema Theory
241(1)
Categorization
242(2)
Control of Attention
244(1)
Individual Differences in Attention: ADHD
244(3)
Humans as Scientists: George Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
247(3)
Individuals as Amateur Personality Theorists
247(1)
The Role Construct Repertory Test
248(2)
Social Intelligence
250(1)
Explanatory Style as a Personality Variable
251(2)
Optimism and Pessimism
251(1)
Attributional Model of Learned Helplessness
252(1)
Julian Rotter's Locus of Control Approach
253(4)
Generalized versus Specific Expectancies
254(2)
The Role of Reinforcements
256(1)
The Psychological Situation
256(1)
Locus of Control
256(1)
Albert Bandura's Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
257(11)
The Self-System
258(1)
Observational Learning
258(7)
Self-Efficacy
265(1)
Self-Regulation Processes
266(2)
Humans as Computers
268(3)
Summary and Conclusion
271(4)
Trait and Skill Aspects of Personality
275(40)
The History of Trait Approaches
277(4)
Ancient Conceptions
277(1)
Jung's Extroversion and Introversion
278(1)
The Use of Statistics: R. B. Cattell
279(1)
Q-data, T-data, L-data, and the 16PF
280(1)
Gordon Allport's Trait Psychology
281(6)
Variability and Consistency
281(2)
The Importance of Culture
283(1)
Functional Equivalence
284(1)
Common Traits
284(1)
Personal Dispositions
285(2)
A Contemporary Trait Approach: The Big Five
287(10)
How Was the Big Five Model Developed?
287(5)
Career Pathways
292(1)
More Than Five? Fewer Than Five?
292(2)
Eysenck's Big Three and Related Alternatives
294(1)
Evidence for Eysenck's Approach
295(2)
Personality Judgments
297(4)
Consensus in Personality Judgments
297(1)
Zero Acquaintance
297(2)
Limits of Trait Conceptions
299(2)
Types
301(1)
Motives
301(3)
Need for Achievement: n Ach
302(1)
Need for Affiliation: n Aff
303(1)
Need for Power: n Power
303(1)
Measuring Motivation
304(1)
Need for Exhibition
304(1)
Expressive Style
304(6)
Emotional Expressiveness
305(2)
Dominance, Leadership, Influence
307(1)
Expressiveness and Health
307(3)
Skills
310(2)
Intelligence
310(2)
Summary and Conclusion
312(3)
Humanistic and Existential Aspects of Personality
315(36)
Existentialism
317(2)
Alternatives to Positivism
317(1)
The Phenomenological View
318(1)
Humanism
319(3)
Giving a Role to the Human Spirit
319(1)
Relations with Other People Define Our Humanness
320(1)
The Human Potential Movement
321(1)
Love as a Central Focus of Life: Erich Fromm
322(3)
Loving as an Art
322(1)
Dialectical Humanism: Transcending Conflict
323(1)
Evidence Supporting Fromm's Approach? The Age of Anxiety?
324(1)
Responsibility: Carl Rogers
325(3)
Rogers's Background
325(1)
Growth, Inner Control, and the Experiencing Person
325(1)
Rogerian Therapy
326(1)
Becoming One's Self
327(1)
Implications of Humanism for World Peace
328(1)
Anxiety and Dread
328(4)
Anxiety, Threat, and Powerlessness: Rollo May
329(1)
Personal Choice: Victor Frankl
330(1)
Is There Free Will?
331(1)
Self-Actualization: Abraham Maslow
332(8)
Early Ideas about Self-Actualization in Jung's Work
332(1)
Peak Experiences
332(3)
The Internal Push for Self-Actualization
335(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
335(2)
Measuring Self-Actualization
337(3)
Happiness and Positive Psychology
340(4)
Positive Psychology
341(2)
The American Paradox
343(1)
Further Evaluation of Existential-Humanistic Approaches
344(4)
Summary and Conclusion
348(3)
Person--Situation Interactionist Aspects of Personality
351(34)
Harry Stack Sullivan: Interpersonal Psychiatry
352(3)
Interpersonal Psychiatry Contrasted with Psychoanalytic Theory
353(1)
Personality as a Pattern of Interpersonal Interactions
354(1)
Motivation and Goals: Henry A. Murray
355(4)
The Personological System
356(1)
Thema
357(1)
The Narrative Approach: Murray's Influence
358(1)
Other Influences on Murray's Approach
359(1)
Modern Interactionist Approaches Begin: Walter Mischel
359(5)
Mischel's Critique
360(2)
Mischel's Theory
362(1)
Attributions
363(1)
Validity
364(1)
The Power of Situations
364(7)
Trait Relevance
365(1)
The ``Personality'' of Situations
366(1)
Consistency Averaged across Situations
367(1)
Personal versus Social Situations
368(2)
Seeking and Creating Situations
370(1)
Time: The Importance of Longitudinal Study
371(6)
The Life Course Approach
372(3)
Readiness
375(2)
Interactions, Emotions, and Development
377(5)
Circumplex Model
377(2)
Ego Development
379(3)
Summary and Conclusion
382(3)
Part III Applications to Individual Differences
Male--Female Differences
385(34)
Do Males and Females Differ?
386(4)
A Brief History of Gender Difference in Personality
390(1)
Evidence from Ancient Civilizations
390(1)
Nineteenth-Century Views
390(1)
Biological Influences on Gender Differences
391(5)
Sex Hormones in Normal Prenatal Development
391(1)
The Effects of Prenatal Sex Hormones on Gender Behavior
391(3)
The Influence of Hormones during and after Puberty
394(2)
Gender Differences in Personality from the Eight Perspectives
396(19)
The Psychoanalytic Approach
396(1)
The Neo-Analytic Approaches
397(2)
Biological/Evolutionary Approaches
399(3)
The Behaviorist Approach: Social Learning
402(1)
The Cognitive Approach: Gender Schema Theory
402(2)
Trait Approaches to Masculinity and Femininity
404(6)
Humanistic Approaches
410(1)
Interactionist Approaches: Social and Interpersonal Characteristics
410(5)
Cross-Cultural Studies of Gender Differences
415(1)
Love and Sexual Behavior
415(2)
Summary and Conclusion
417(2)
Stress, Adjustment, and Health Differences
419(32)
Disease-Prone Personalities
421(9)
Health Behaviors
421(3)
The Sick Role
424(1)
Disease-Caused Personality Changes
425(1)
Personality Disorders
425(1)
Diathesis-Stress
426(4)
Personality and Coronary-Proneness
430(4)
The Type A Behavior Pattern
431(1)
Choleric Struggle
431(1)
Giving Up
432(1)
Other Diseases
433(1)
The Human Termites
434(6)
Conscientiousness
435(1)
Sociability
436(1)
Cheerfulness
437(1)
Stressed Termites
437(2)
Mental Health
439(1)
Blaming the Victim
440(1)
The Self-Healing Personality
441(3)
Control, Commitment, and Challenge
442(1)
Trust and Devotion
442(2)
The Influence of Humanistic and Existential Aspects on Understanding Self-Healing
444(4)
Growth Orientation
445(1)
Identity and Purpose
445(2)
Sense of Coherence
447(1)
Summary and Conclusion
448(3)
Culture and Ethnicity: Processes and Differences
451(36)
Group Influence
452(1)
Cultural Effects
453(1)
History of Research on Personality and Culture
453(5)
Contributions from Cultural Anthropology
454(2)
Lewin's Laboratory Experiments on Political Culture
456(1)
Emic versus Etic Approaches
457(1)
Collectivist versus Individualistic
458(1)
Errors of Scientific Inference: The Case of Race
459(4)
Race as a Flawed Approach to Grouping People
460(1)
The American Dilemma
461(2)
Socioeconomic Influences on Personality
463(2)
Karl Marx and Alienation
464(1)
Language as a Cultural Influence
465(6)
Language and Identity: Idiolects and Dialects
465(1)
Creating a Culture through Shared Language: The Deaf Community
466(1)
Language as Politics: The ``English Only'' Movement
467(1)
Language and Thought
467(1)
Bilingualism: Two Personalities?
468(1)
Language and Social Interaction
469(1)
Gender and Language
470(1)
Culture and Testing
471(5)
Culture-Free and Culture-Fair Tests
472(2)
Stereotype Threat
474(2)
A More General Model of Personality and Culture
476(5)
Incorporating Culture into Personality Theory
477(1)
Culture and Humanity
477(2)
Culture and Theory
479(2)
Some Current Research Developments
481(3)
The Situation May Elicit Cultural Differences
482(1)
Ethnic Socialization
483(1)
Summary and Conclusion
484(3)
Love and Hate
487(32)
The Personality of Hate
489(15)
Biological Explanations of Hate
491(2)
Psychoanalytic Approaches to Hate
493(1)
Neo-Analytic Views of Hate
494(3)
Hate and Authoritarianism: Erich Fromm
497(1)
The Humanistic Perspective on Hate
498(1)
Hatred as a Trait
499(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Hate
500(1)
Learning Theory: Hate as Learned Behavior
501(1)
Cultural Differences in Hatred
502(2)
Evaluation: Hate
504(1)
The Personality of Love
505(9)
Evolutionary/Ethological Explanations of Love
506(2)
Psychoanalytic Explanations for Love
508(1)
Neo-Analytic Explanations for Love
508(1)
Cognitive Approaches to Love
509(1)
Humanistic/Existential Perspectives on Love
510(2)
Cultural Differences in Love
512(1)
The Trait and Interactionist Approaches: Loneliness
513(1)
Love Gone Wrong: Violent or Risky Sexual Behavior
514(2)
Summary and Conclusion
516(3)
Part IV Conclusion and Outlook for the Future
Where Will We Find Personality?
519(12)
The Brave New World of Personality
520(5)
Designer Personalities
520(2)
A Utopian World versus Abuse of Reward and Punishment
522(1)
Genetic Superhumans
523(1)
Can I Change My Personality?
524(1)
The Eight Perspectives Revisited
525(5)
Is There One Correct Perspective?
525(3)
Are There Exactly Eight Perspectives?
528(1)
Can the Perspectives Be Merged?
528(2)
Summary and Conclusion
530(1)
Glossary 531(18)
References 549(42)
Name Index 591(10)
Subject Index 601


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