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Personality Psychology : Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature,9780073531908
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Personality Psychology : Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780073531908

ISBN10:
0073531901
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/29/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $216.00
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Summary

Organizing content into six domains of personality functioning (dispositional, biological, intrapsychic, cognitive/experiential, social and cultural, and adjustment), this text interweaves contemporary research with classic and modern theories within the context of each of the domains. This unique framework encourages students to view the "whole person" as the sum of influences and effects of each of the domains of personality functioning. The second edition includes the latest research, as well as a restructuring of material, and continues to bring the subject to life by incorporating a vivid, four-color design.

Table of Contents

About the Authors xv
Preface xvii
Introduction
Introduction to Personality Psychology
2(22)
Personality Defined
4(7)
Personality Is the Set of Psychological Traits
6(1)
And Mechanisms
7(1)
Within the Individual
8(1)
That Are Organized and Relatively Enduring
8(1)
And That Influence
9(1)
His or Her Interactions with
9(1)
And Adaptations to
10(1)
The Environment
10(1)
Three Levels of Personality Analysis
11(2)
Human Nature
11(1)
Individual and Group Differences
12(1)
Individual Uniqueness
13(1)
A Fissure in the Field
13(2)
Grand Theories of Personality
13(1)
Contemporary Research in Personality
14(1)
Six Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature
15(5)
Dispositional Domain
16(1)
Biological Domain
16(1)
Intrapsychic Domain
17(1)
Cognitive-Experiential Domain
17(1)
Social and Cultural Domain
18(1)
Adjustment Domain
19(1)
The Role of Personality Theory
20(1)
Standards for Evaluating Personality Theories
21(1)
Is There a Grand Ultimate and True Theory of Personality?
22(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Personality Assessment, Measurement, and Research Design
24(36)
Sources of Personality Data
26(15)
Self-Report Data (S-Data)
26(4)
Observer-Report Data (O-Data)
30(2)
Test-Data (T-Data)
32(6)
Life-Outcome Data (L-Data)
38(1)
Issues in Personality Assessment
39(2)
Evaluation of Personality Measures
41(3)
Reliability
41(1)
Validity
42(1)
Generalizability
43(1)
Research Designs in Personality
44(10)
Experimental Methods
44(3)
Correlational Studies
47(4)
Case Studies
51(2)
When to Use Experimental, Correlational, and Case Study Designs
53(1)
Summary and Evaluation
54(1)
Key Terms
55(5)
PART I The Dispositional Domain
Traits and Trait Taxonomies
60(34)
What Is a Trait? Two Basic Formulations
62(2)
Traits as Internal Causal Properties
62(1)
Traits as Purely Descriptive Summaries
63(1)
The Act Frequency Formulation of Traits---An Illustration of the Descriptive Summary Formulation
64(3)
Act Frequency Research Program
64(2)
Critique of the Act Frequency Formulation
66(1)
Identification of the Most Important Traits
67(5)
Lexical Approach
67(2)
Statistical Approach
69(1)
Theoretical Approach
70(2)
Evaluating the Approaches for Identifying Important Traits
72(1)
Taxonomies of Personality
72(19)
Eysenck's Hierarchical Model of Personality
72(5)
Cattell's Taxonomy: The 16 Personality Factor System
77(2)
Circumplex Taxonomies of Personality
79(3)
Five-Factor Model
82(9)
Summary and Evaluation
91(2)
Key Terms
93(1)
Theoretical and Measurement Issues in Trait Psychology
94(42)
Theoretical Issues
97(11)
Meaningful Differences between Individuals
97(1)
Consistency over Time
98(2)
Consistency across Situations
100(1)
Person-Situation Interaction
101(6)
Aggregation
107(1)
Measurement Issues
108(10)
Carelessness
109(1)
Faking on Questionnaires
110(1)
Response Sets
110(6)
Beware of Barnum Statements in Personality Test Interpretations
116(2)
Personality and Prediction
118(15)
Applications of Personality Testing in the Workplace
118(1)
Legal Issues in Personality Testing in Employment Settings
119(5)
Personnel Selection---Choosing the Right Person for the Job
124(1)
Selection in Business Settings---The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
125(5)
Selection in Business Settings---The Hogan Personality Inventory
130(3)
Summary and Evaluation
133(2)
Key Terms
135(1)
Personality Dispositions over Time: Stability, Change, and Coherence
136(36)
Conceptual Issues: Personality Development, Stability, Change, and Coherence
138(3)
What Is Personality Development?
138(1)
Rank Order Stability
138(1)
Mean Level Stability
139(1)
Personality Coherence
139(2)
Personality Change
141(1)
Three Levels of Analysis
141(2)
Population Level
142(1)
Group Differences Level
142(1)
Individual Differences Level
143(1)
Personality Stability over Time
143(10)
Stability of Temperament during Infancy
143(2)
Stability during Childhood
145(3)
Rank Order Stability in Adulthood
148(2)
Mean Level Stability in Adulthood
150(3)
Personality Change
153(7)
Changes in Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Adulthood
153(1)
Flexibility and Impulsivity
154(1)
Autonomy, Dominance, Leadership, and Ambition
154(1)
Sensation Seeking
154(1)
Femininity
155(2)
Competence
157(1)
Independence and Traditional Roles
157(2)
Personality Changes across Cohorts: Women's Assertiveness in Response to Changes in Social Status and Roles
159(1)
Personality Coherence over Time: The Prediction of Socially Relevant Outcomes
160(6)
Marital Stability, Marital Satisfaction, and Divorce
161(1)
Alcoholism and Emotional Disturbance
162(1)
Education, Academic Achievement, and Dropping Out
162(1)
Health and Longevity
163(1)
Prediction of Personality Change
164(2)
Summary and Evaluation
166(1)
Key Terms
167(5)
PART II The Biological Domain
Genetics and Personality
172(32)
The Human Genome
174(1)
Controversy about Genes and Personality
175(1)
Goals of Behavioral Genetics
176(1)
What Is Heritability?
177(3)
Misconceptions about Heritability
178(1)
Nature-Nurture Debate Clarified
179(1)
Behavioral Genetic Methods
180(6)
Selective Breeding---Studies of Humans' Best Friend
180(1)
Family Studies
181(1)
Twin Studies
182(2)
Adoption Studies
184(2)
Major Findings from Behavioral Genetic Research
186(7)
Personality Traits
186(2)
Attitudes and Preferences
188(3)
Drinking and Smoking
191(1)
Marriage
192(1)
Shared versus Nonshared Environmental Influences: A Riddle
193(2)
Genes and the Environment
195(3)
Genotype-Environment Interaction
195(1)
Genotype-Environment Correlation
196(2)
Molecular Genetics
198(1)
Behavioral Genetics, Science, Politics, and Values
199(1)
Summary and Evaluation
200(3)
Key Terms
203(1)
Physiological Approaches to Personality
204(38)
A Physiological Approach to Personality
209(1)
Physiological Measures Commonly Used in Personality Research
210(3)
Electrodermal Activity (Skin Conductance)
210(1)
Cardiovascular Activity
211(1)
Brain Activity
212(1)
Other Measures
213(1)
Physiologically Based Theories of Personality
213(28)
Extraversion---Introversion
214(6)
Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment
220(3)
Sensation Seeking
223(6)
Neurotransmitters and Personality
229(2)
Morningness-Eveningness
231(5)
Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style
236(5)
Summary and Evaluation
241(1)
Key Terms
241(1)
Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality
242(42)
Evolution and National Selection
244(5)
Natural Selection
244(1)
Sexual Selection
245(1)
Genes and Inclusive Fitness
246(1)
Products of the Evolutionary Process
247(2)
Evolutionary Psychology
249(3)
Premises of Evolutionary Psychology
249(1)
Empirical Testing of Evolutionary Hypotheses
250(2)
Human Nature
252(7)
Need to Belong
253(1)
Helping and Altruism
254(3)
Universal Emotions
257(2)
Sex Differences
259(11)
Sex Differences in Aggression
260(2)
Sex Differences in Jealousy
262(4)
Sex Differences in Desire for Sexual Variety
266(1)
Sex Differences in Mate Preferences
267(3)
Individual Differences
270(5)
Environmental Triggers of Individual Differences
271(1)
Heritable Individual Differences Contingent on Other Traits
272(1)
Frequency-Dependent Strategic Individual Differences
272(3)
The Big Five and Evolutionarily Relevant Adaptive Problems
275(1)
Limitations of Evolutionary Psychology
276(1)
Summary and Evaluation
277(2)
Key Terms
279(5)
PART III The Intrapsychic Domain
Psychoanalytic Approaches to Personality
284(36)
Sigmund Freud: A Brief Biography
287(1)
Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory
288(6)
Basic Instincts: Sex and Aggression
289(1)
Unconscious Motivation: Sometimes We Don't Know Why We Do What We Do
289(2)
One of Freud's Famous Students: Carl Gustav Jung
291(1)
Psychic Determinism: Nothing Happens by Chance
292(2)
Structure of Personality
294(4)
Id: Reservoir of Psychic Energy
295(1)
Ego: Executive of Personality
296(1)
Superego: Upholder of Societal Values and Ideals
297(1)
Interaction of the Id, Ego, and Superego
297(1)
Dynamics of Personality
298(8)
Types of Anxiety
298(1)
Defense Mechanisms
299(7)
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
306(3)
Personality and Psychoanalysis
309(6)
Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious
310(3)
The Process of Psychoanalysis
313(2)
Why Is Psychoanalysis Important?
315(1)
Evaluation of Freud's Contributions
315(3)
Summary and Evaluation
318(1)
Key Terms
319(1)
Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues
320(30)
The Neo-Analytic Movement
323(8)
Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory
323(6)
Contemporary Views on the Unconscious
329(2)
Ego Psychology
331(10)
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
332(6)
Karen Horney and a Feminist Interpretation of Psychoanalysis
338(1)
Emphasis on Self and the Notion of Narcissism
339(2)
Object Relations Theory
341(7)
Early Childhood Attachment
342(2)
Adult Relationships
344(4)
Summary and Evaluation
348(1)
Key Terms
349(1)
Motives and Personality
350(40)
Basic Concepts
352(8)
Need
354(2)
Press
356(1)
Apperception and the TAT
356(4)
The Big Three Motives: Achievement, Power, and Intimacy
360(10)
Need for Achievement
360(5)
Need for Power
365(3)
Need for Intimacy
368(2)
Humanistic Tradition: The Motive to Self-Actualize
370(14)
Maslow's Contributions
371(6)
Rogers's Contributions
377(7)
Summary and Evaluation
384(1)
Key Terms
385(5)
PART IV The Cognitive/Experiential Domain
Cognitive Topics in Personality
390(32)
Personality Revealed through Perception
395(7)
Field Dependence
395(4)
Pain Tolerance and Sensory Reducing-Augmenting
399(3)
Personality Revealed through Interpretation
402(9)
Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
402(2)
Locus of Control
404(3)
Learned Helplessness
407(4)
Personality Revealed through Goals
411(5)
Personal Projects Analysis
411(1)
Cognitive Social Learning Theory
412(4)
Intelligence
416(3)
Summary and Evaluation
419(2)
Key Terms
421(1)
Emotion and Personality
422(40)
Issues in Emotion Research
425(4)
Emotional States versus Emotional Traits
425(1)
Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion
425(4)
Content versus Style of Emotional Life
429(31)
Content of Emotional Life
429(25)
Style of Emotional Life
454(4)
Interaction of Content and Style in Emotional Life
458(2)
Summary and Evaluation
460(1)
Key Terms
461(1)
Approaches to the Self
462(32)
Descriptive Component of the Self: Self-Concept
466(5)
Development of the Self-Concept
466(3)
Self-Schemata: Possible Selves, Ought Selves, and Undesired Selves
469(2)
Evaluative Component of the Self: Self-Esteem
471(11)
Evaluation of Oneself
471(1)
Research on Self-Esteem
472(10)
Social Component of the Self: Social Identity
482(6)
The Nature of Identity
482(1)
Identity Development
483(2)
Identity Crises
485(3)
Summary and Evaluation
488(1)
Key Terms
489(5)
PART V The Social and Cultural Domain
Personality and Social Interaction
494(28)
Selection
496(10)
Personality Characteristics Desired in a Marriage Partner
497(2)
Assortative Mating for Personality: The Search for the Similar
499(2)
Do People Get the Mates They Want?
501(2)
Personality and the Selective Breakup of Couples
503(1)
Shyness and the Selection of Risky Situations
504(1)
Other Personality Traits and the Selection of Situations
505(1)
Evocation
506(5)
Aggression and the Evocation of Hostility
506(1)
Evocation of Anger and Upset in Partners
507(4)
Evocation through Expectancy Confirmation
511(1)
Manipulation: Social Influence Tactics
511(7)
A Taxonomy of 11 Tactics of Manipulation
512(4)
Sex Differences in Tactics of Manipulation
516(1)
Personality Predictors of Tactics of Manipulation
516(2)
Panning Back: An Overview of Personality and Social Interaction
518(2)
Summary and Evaluation
520(1)
Key Terms
521(1)
Sex, Gender, and Personality
522(30)
The Science and Politics of Studying Sex and Gender
524(4)
History of the Study of Sex Differences
525(1)
Calculation of Effect Size: How Large Are the Sex Differences?
526(1)
Minimalists and Maximalists
527(1)
Sex Differences in Personality
528(9)
Temperament in Children
528(1)
Five-Factor Model
529(4)
Basic Emotions: Frequency and Intensity
533(1)
Other Dimensions of Personality
534(3)
Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny, and Sex Roles
537(7)
The Search for Androgyny
538(4)
Gender Stereotypes
542(2)
Theories of Sex Differences
544(6)
Socialization and Social Roles
544(2)
Hormonal Theories
546(2)
Evolutionary Psychology Theory
548(1)
An Integrated Theoretical Perspective
549(1)
Summary and Evaluation
550(1)
Key Terms
551(1)
Culture and Personality
552(34)
Cultural Violations: An Illustration
554(1)
What Is Cultural Personality Psychology?
555(1)
Three Major Approaches to Culture
555(26)
Evoked Culture
556(3)
Transmitted Culture
559(13)
Cultural Universals
572(9)
Summary and Evaluation
581(2)
Key Terms
583(3)
PART VI The Adjustment Domain
Stress, Coping, Adjustment, and Health
586(34)
Models of the Personality-Illness Connection
589(4)
The Concept of Stress
593(7)
Stress Response
594(1)
Major Life Events
595(2)
Daily Hassles
597(1)
Varieties of Stress
598(1)
Primary and Secondary Appraisal
599(1)
Coping Strategies and Styles
600(12)
Attributional Style
600(4)
Optimism and Physical Well-Being
604(3)
Management of Emotions
607(3)
Disclosure
610(2)
Type A Personality and Cardiovascular Disease
612(6)
Hostility: The Lethal Component of the Type A Behavior Pattern
615(3)
How the Arteries Are Damaged by Hostile Type A Behavior
618(1)
Summary and Evaluation
618(1)
Key Terms
619(1)
Disorders of Personality
620(40)
The Building Blocks of Personality Disorders
622(2)
The Concept of Disorder
624(4)
What Is Abnormal?
624(1)
What Is a Personality Disorder?
625(3)
Specific Personality Disorders
628(25)
The Erratic Cluster: Ways of Being Unpredictable, Violent, or Emotional
628(12)
The Eccentric Cluster: Ways of Being Different
640(6)
The Anxious Cluster: Ways of Being Nervous, Fearful, or Distressed
646(7)
Prevalence of Personality Disorders
653(1)
Gender Differences in Personality Disorders
654(1)
Dimensional Model of Personality Disorders
654(1)
Causes of Personality Disorders
655(3)
Summary and Evaluation
658(1)
Key Terms
659(1)
Conclusion
Summary and Future Directions
660(12)
Current Status of the Field
662(1)
Domains of Knowledge: Where We've Been, Where We're Going
663(8)
Dispositional Domain
663(1)
Biological Domain
664(3)
Intrapsychic Domain
667(1)
Cognitive/Experiential Domain
668(1)
Social and Cultural Domain
669(1)
Adjustment Domain
670(1)
Integration: Personality in the New Millennium
671(1)
Glossary 672(31)
References 703(36)
Credits 739(2)
Name Index 741(9)
Subject Index 750


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