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Perspectives on Argument,9780131823747

Perspectives on Argument

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131823747

ISBN10:
0131823744
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $68.00

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Summary

For freshman/sophomore-level writing courses that teach argumentation. This combination rhetoric/reader helps students develop strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them argue clearly and convincingly. Every chapter includes essays for analysis and writing activities. Unique chapters on influences on argument (nationality, gender, etc.), arguing about literature, and visual and oral arguments round out this thoroughly class-tested approach.

Table of Contents

Alternate Table of Contents xxi
Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxx
Part One Engaging with Argument for Reading and Writing
1(124)
A Perspective on Argument
3(26)
What Is Your Current Perspective on Argument?
4(1)
Developing a Broad Perspective on Argument
5(1)
Forms of Argument
6(3)
Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best?
9(3)
Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail?
12(2)
Engaging with Issues
14(3)
Examples of Arguable Issues
17(1)
How Should You Engage with Issues?
17(4)
Review Questions
21(1)
Exercises and Activities
21(1)
Essays for Analysis
Pay Your Own Way! (Then Thank Mom)
22(2)
Audrey Rock-Richardson
A student extols the benefits of paying one's own way in college
The Laptop Ate My Attention Span
24(4)
Abby Ellin
Students, according to this author, often misuse their laptops when they bring them to their classes
Censoring the Internet
28(1)
Lada Carlisle
This student issue proposal examines a privacy issue
Developing Your Personal Argument Style
29(33)
The Adversarial and Consensual Styles of Argument
30(1)
Individual Styles of Argument
31(1)
Influence of Background, Experience, and Role Models
32(1)
Influence of Gender
33(4)
Influence of Culture
37(6)
Influence of Nationality
43(3)
Review Questions
46(1)
Exercises and Activities
46(3)
Essays for Analysis
We Knew What Glory Was
49(2)
Shirlee Taylor Haizlip
The daughter of a black Baptist minister describes her churchgoing experiences as a child and contrasts them now with the effects of church burnings in the South
A View from Berkeley
51(3)
Chang-Lin Tien
A former chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley expresses his views on affirmative action
Giving People a Second Chance
54(2)
Ernest Martinez
The author, a prison vocational trainer, claims that prisoners who have been rehabilitated and who have had vocational training deserve a job when they leave prison
One of Our Own: Training Native Teachers for the 21st Century
56(2)
Suzette Brewer
According to this author, Native American children should be taught by native teachers
Why I Want a Wife
58(2)
Judy Brady
Brady suggests that anyone would want a wife so long as the wife's job is to do all of the chores no one else wants to do
A Simple ``Hai'' Won't Do
60(2)
Reiko Hatsumi
Hai, or ``yes,'' in Japan means different things depending on the context
A Process for Reading Argument
62(29)
Recognizing Written Argument
63(2)
How Do You Read Now?
65(1)
Prereading Strategies
65(2)
Reading Strategies
67(6)
Strategies for Reading Difficult Material
73(1)
Postreading Strategies
74(3)
Organizing a Process for Reading Argument
77(2)
Review Questions
79(1)
Exercises and Activities
79(1)
Essays for Analysis
Jobs Illuminate What Riots Hid: Young Ideals
80(3)
Sara Rimer
Not all young African Americans in South-Central Los Angeles meet the popular stereotype
Don't Know Much about History
83(3)
Roberta Israeloff
The author complains that her young son is learning far less in his history class than she did at his age
The Road to Unreality
86(5)
Mark Slouka
This article suggests that modern technology may be changing people's experiences of reality
A Process for Writing Argument
91(34)
How Do You Write Now?
92(1)
Prewriting Strategies
93(9)
Writing the First Draft
102(1)
Special Strategies to Use If You Get Stuck
103(1)
Postwriting Strategies
104(5)
Organizing a Process for Writing Argument
109(1)
The Exploratory Paper
109(5)
How to Write an Exploratory Paper
114(2)
Review Questions
116(1)
Exercises and Activities
116
Essays for Analysis
A Room of Their Own
112(5)
LynNell Hancock
Claudia Kalb
This exploratory article describes several perspectives on single-sex classes
Coming and Going
117(3)
Nathan Glazer
Another exploratory article presents several perspectives on immigration
Trial by Jury: A Fundamental Right and a Flawed System
120(5)
Tanya Pierce
This student-written exploratory paper explains different perspectives on the jury system
Part Two Understanding the Nature of Argument for Reading and Writing
125(168)
The Essential Parts of an Argument: The Toulmin Model
126(33)
The Outcomes of Argument: Probability versus Certainty
126(1)
The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model
127(17)
Claim
131(2)
Support
133(4)
Warrants
137(5)
Backing
142(1)
Rebuttal
142(1)
Qualifiers
143(1)
Value of the Toulmin Model for Reading and Writing Argument
144(1)
Review Questions
145(1)
Exercises and Activities
145(2)
Essays For Analysis
Automobile Advertisement
147(1)
Practice finding the claim, support, and warrants in an advertisement for an automobile
What's Happened to Disney Films?
148(2)
John Evans
This author claims that modern Disney films for children lack decency and are often offensive
Toulmin Analysis of ``What's Happened to Disney Films?''
150(2)
Beth Brunk
This represents a student example of a Toulmin analysis of an essay
American Value Systems
152(7)
Richard D. Rieke
Malcolm O. Sillars
The authors argue that individuals have value systems that can be categorized and characterized and, thus, help with an understanding of value warrants
Types of Claims
159(38)
Getting a Sense of the Purpose and Parts of an Argument
160(1)
Five Types of Claims
160(14)
Claims of Fact
161(2)
Claims of Definition
163(3)
Claims of Cause
166(2)
Claims of Value
168(3)
Claims of Policy
171(3)
Claims and Argument in Real Life
174(3)
Value of the Claims and the Claim Questions for Reading and Writing Argument
177(1)
Review Questions
178(1)
Exercises and Activities
178
Essays for Analysis
Debunking the Digital Divide
162(2)
Robert Samuelson
The prediction that computer use would become unequally divided between the rich and the poor has not been borne out
Zygotes and People Aren't Quite the Same
164(3)
Michael S. Gazzaniga
A scientist provides some definitions that are essential for the cloning debate
Paying the Price of Female Neglect
167(3)
Susan Dentzer
The author argues in favor of better treatment of women in developing nations
What's Wrong with Standard Tests?
170(2)
Ted Sizer
This author claims that standardized test scores do not correlate with long-term success or failure
Campus Climate Control
172(6)
Katie Roiphe
This article addresses the issue of adult supervision of college students
Gene Tests: What You Know Can Hurt You
178(2)
Barbara Koenig
The author discusses some of the problems associated with genetic testing
Without a Safety Net
180(5)
Barbara Ehrenreich
Frances Fox Piven
The authors detail some of the effects of welfare reform
Reading, Writing, Narcissism
185(2)
Lilian G. Katz
This author claims that some efforts in school to improve students' self-esteem have become self-congratulatory and ineffective
Devising New Math to Define Poverty
187(2)
Louis Uchitelle
The Census Bureau has set new thresholds for poverty that have new implications
Bringing Up Adultolescents
189(4)
Peg Tyre
When should adult children start paying their own way?
Hold Your Horsepower
193(4)
Lyla Fox
Are students too eager to go to work and buy a car when they should be studying instead?
Types of Proof
197(34)
The Traditional Categories of Proof
197(2)
Types of Logical Proof: Logos
199(10)
A Mnemonic Device
200(1)
Argument from Sign
200(1)
Argument from Induction
201(1)
Argument from Cause
202(1)
Argument from Deduction
203(2)
Argument from Historical, Literal, or Figurative Analogy
205(2)
Argument from Definition
207(1)
Argument from Statistics
208(1)
Proof That Builds Credibility: Ethos
209(1)
Argument from Authority
209(1)
Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos
210(2)
Motivational Proofs
211(1)
Value Proofs
211(1)
A Mnemonic Device
212(1)
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style
212(6)
Language That Appeals to Logic
212(1)
Language That Develops Ethos
213(2)
Language That Appeals to Emotion
215(1)
Ethics and Morality in Argument
216(2)
Value of the Proofs for Reading and Writing Argument
218(1)
Review Questions
219(1)
Exercises and Activities
219(1)
Essays for Analysis
Meet the Philip Morris Generation, Advertisement
220(1)
Evaluate how proofs are used in an advertisement
Censorship or Common Sense?
221(1)
Roxana Robinson
This author argues that children should be protected from some of the material on the Internet
The Future Is Ours to Lose
222(4)
Naomi Wolf
Women need to become more conscious of their history and protect the gains they have made
The Declaration of Independence
226(5)
Thomas Jefferson
Reasons are given for severing ties with England and establishing a new country
The Fallacies or Pseudoproofs
231(14)
Fallacies in Logic
232(2)
Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos
234(1)
Emotional Fallacies
235(1)
Review Questions
236(1)
Exercises and Activities
236(1)
Essays for Analysis
Vitamin Advertisement
237(1)
Practice finding the fallacies in an advertisement
The Latest from the Feminist ``From''
238(4)
Rush Limbaugh
The author claims that feminism was established so that unattractive women could have better access to mainstream society
Minor Problems?
242(3)
Kelly Dickerson
A student-written position paper illustrates how the Toulmin model, the claim questions, the proof questions, and the questions to evaluate support and eliminate fallacies can be used to plan and write argument papers
Rogerian Argument and Common Ground
245(48)
Achieving Common Ground in Rogerian Argument
247(1)
Rogerian Argument as Strategy
248(2)
Writing Rogerian Argument
250(1)
Variations of Rogerian Argument
251(1)
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rogerian Argument
252(1)
Review Questions
253(1)
Exercises and Activities
253(2)
Essays For Analysis
When Special Care Is Called For, Advertisement
255(2)
This advertisement takes a Rogerian approach to environmental problems
Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option?
257(3)
Angela A. Boatwright
A student Rogerian argument attempts to reconcile conflicting ideas about cloning human beings
Special Education's Best Intentions
260(3)
Lois Agnew
A student Rogerian argument explains the problems associated with educating handicapped students; it is written for a hostile audience
Dear Mom
263(3)
Taryn Barnett
A student Rogerian argument written in letter form aims to persuade Mom to allow the author to stay in her apartment
The Great Campus Goof-Off Machine? Not for All Students
266(1)
Jeff Burkholder
This is a student example of a Rogerian response to ``The Great Campus Goof-Off Machine'' by Nate Stulman
The Great Campus Goof-Off Machine
267(5)
Nate Stulman
The author claims that college students waste a lot of time on their computers
Appendix to Chapter 9: Review and Synthesis of the Strategies For Reading and Writing Argument
272(3)
Rhetorical Situation For Martin Luther King Jr.'s ``Letter From Birmingham Jail''
272(2)
Reading the Letters and Reporting to the Class
274(1)
Letters For Analysis
A Call for Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen
275(2)
This letter, written by eight white clergymen in Alabama, prompted Martin Luther King Jr.'s famous response
Letter from Birmingham Jail
277(16)
Martin Luther King Jr
This is the letter King wrote in jail, justifying his participation in the civil rights movement
Part Three Writing a Research Paper That Presents an Argument
293(100)
The Research Paper: Clarifying Purpose and Understanding the Audience
294(18)
Understanding the Assignment and Getting Started
295(1)
Writing a Claim and Clarifying Your Purpose
295(2)
The Rhetorical Situation
296(1)
Questions to Plan Claim and Purpose
296(1)
Some Preliminary Questions to Help You Develop Your Claim
297(2)
Preliminary Plan
299(1)
Understanding the Audience
300(3)
Analyzing a Familiar Audience
303(2)
Constructing an Unfamiliar Audience
305(2)
Using Information about Your Audience
307(1)
New Yorker Cartoon
308(1)
Review Questions
309(1)
Exercises and Activities
309(3)
The Research Paper: Invention and Research
312(32)
Using Burke's Pentad to Establish Cause
312(2)
Using Chains of Reasons to Develop Greater Depth of Analysis and Detail
314(1)
Using Argument Theory to Think Systematically about Your Issue
315(3)
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation
315(1)
Use the Toulmin Model
315(2)
Plan Your Proofs
317(1)
Presenting Statistics in Graphs and Charts
318(1)
Using Proofs and Support Appropriate for the Purpose or Type of Claim
319(3)
Using Organizational Patterns to Help You Think
322(1)
Suggestions to Help You with Library and Online Research
323(9)
Get Organized for Research
323(1)
Learn to Use the Card Catalog or the Computer Index
324(1)
Use Your Preliminary Plan to Guide Your Research
324(1)
Search for Information in the Library
325(1)
Search for Information Online
326(2)
Create a Bibliography
328(2)
Survey and Skim
330(1)
Read Creatively to Generate Ideas
330(1)
Take Notes and Fill In Your Outline
331(1)
Evaluating Print and Online Sources
332(2)
Review Questions
334(1)
Exercises and Activities
335(3)
Annotated Bibliography
338(6)
Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography
338(6)
Angela A. Boatwright
This is a student-written annotated bibliography about human cloning
The Research Paper: Organizing, Writing, and Revising
344(49)
Using Organization to Help Your Reader Understand
344(3)
Using Organizational Patterns to Help You Think and Organize
347(6)
Claim with Reasons (or Reasons Followed by Claim)
347(1)
Cause and Effect (or Effect and Cause)
348(1)
Applied Criteria
348(1)
Problem-Solution
348(1)
Chronology or Narrative
348(1)
Deduction
349(1)
Induction
349(1)
Comparison and Contrast
349(1)
Rogerian Argument
349(1)
Motivated Sequence
350(1)
Exploration
351(1)
How to Match Patterns to Claims
352(1)
Outlining Your Paper and Cross-Referencing Your Notes
353(3)
Essay for Analysis
The Highs of Low Technology
356(2)
Johanne Mednick
This author enjoys her old bicycle in the age of high technology
Incorporating Research into Your First Draft
358(6)
Clearly Identify Words and Ideas from Outside Sources
360(1)
Avoid Plagiarism
361(2)
Document Your Sources
363(1)
Making Revisions and Preparing the Final Copy
364(1)
Review Questions
365(1)
Exercises and Activities
365(2)
Appendix to Chapter 12: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles
367(12)
How to Write In-Text Parenthetical Citations
367(4)
How to Write the List of ``Works Cited'' (MLA) or ``References'' (APA)
371(8)
Paper in MLA Style
The Importance of Jury Instructions
379(7)
Tanya Pierce
A student paper examines shortcomings in the current jury system, as an example of MLA style
Paper in APA Style
Alaskan Wolf Management
386(7)
Darrell D. Greer
A student paper argues in favor of exterminating wolves to preserve the caribou and moose herds, as an example of APA style
Part Four Further Applications: Visual and Oral Argument/Argument and Literature
393(44)
Visual and Oral Argument
394(21)
Recognizing Visual and Oral Argument
395(1)
Why Is Visual Argument Convincing?
395(7)
Why Is Oral Argument Convincing?
402(1)
Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual and Oral Argument
403(1)
Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument
404(2)
Review Questions
406(1)
Exercises and Activities
407(1)
Visual and Oral Arguments for Analysis
Advertisement for Computers
408(3)
This ad suggests reasons for buying a particular brand of computer
I Have a Dream
411(4)
Martin Luther King Jr.
This classic speech was given in Washington, D.C., during the civil rights movement
Color Portfolio of Visual Arguments and Questions for Discussion and Writing
Plate 1: We Never Met a Mom Who Wasn't Working
Plate 2: Buzz Aldrin on the Moon
Plate 3: Bringing Up Adultolescents
Plate 4: The Creation of Adam
Plate 5: Play Ball
Plate 6: Robot with Grappler Holding a Wounded Palestinian
Plate 7: Hands
Plate 8: Tree near El Paso, Texas
Plate 9: Boy Swims in Heavily Polluted Lake
Plate 10: Art (student example of visual argument)
Argument and Literature
415(22)
Finding and Analyzing Arguments in Literature
416(4)
What Is at Issue? What Is the Claim?
416(2)
Characters Making Arguments
418(2)
Writing Arguments about Literature
420(2)
Review Questions
422(1)
Exercises and Activities
422(1)
Literature for Analysis
Poem: Langston Hughes / Theme for English B
423(2)
A young black student in Harlem is assigned an English paper
Short Story: Ursula K. Le Guin / The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
425(5)
Everyone in this town seems very happy, but are they?
Argument in a Literary Essay: Jonathan Swift / A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country
430(7)
Think about how you should take this unusual proposal for helping the poor in Ireland in the eighteenth century
Synthesis of Chapters 1--14: Summary Charts
437(12)
Trace: The Rhetorical Situation
438(1)
The Process: Reading and Writing
439(1)
The Toulmin Model
440(1)
Types of Claims
441(2)
Types of Proof and Tests of Validity
443(6)
Part Five The Reader
449(4)
Introduction to ``The Reader'': Reading and Writing about Issue Areas
451(2)
Purpose of ``The Reader''
451(1)
How to Use ``The Reader''
452(1)
Questions to Help You Read Critically and Analytically
452(1)
Questions to Help You Read Creatively and Move from Reading to Writing
452(1)
Section I: Issues Concerning Families, Marriages, and Relationships
453(41)
The Issues
453(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
454(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
454(1)
What is the Status of the Traditional American Family? How Far Are We Willing to Go to Find Alternatives?
455(10)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
455(1)
The Childless Revolution
455(3)
Madelyn Cain
Cain makes an argument in favor of career and marriage without children
Building a Better Dad
458(5)
Jerry Adler
According to Adler, men ought to spend more time with their children
Marriage As We See It
463(2)
Chris Glaser
Glaser describes the transformation he experienced in a same-sex union and argues in favor of such unions
What Are the Benefits and Pitfalls of Being Married?
465(16)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
465(1)
The Marriage Problem: How Our Culture Has Weakened Families
466(6)
James Q. Wilson
Wilson argues that American culture favors individuals more than families
The Future of Marriage
472(6)
Stephanie Coontz
Coontz describes her research about some alternative ways of organizing parenthood and marriage
Predators and Nurturers
478(3)
Sylvia Ann Hewlett
This author claims that marriage is good for women
What Creates Successful Relationships? What Causes Them to Fail?
481(13)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
481(1)
The Mystery of Attraction
481(6)
Harville Hendrix
This author thinks he knows why people are attracted to each other
The Second Shift
487(2)
Sylvia Ann Hewlett
The latest research shows who takes the main responsibility for the household chores, men or women
Marriage and Divorce American Style
489(3)
E. Mavis Hetherington
The author claims that marriage is too complex for politicians to be promoting traditional marriage
Questions to Help You Think and Write about Family, Marriage, and Relationship Issues
492(2)
Section II: Issues in Education
494(30)
The Issues
494(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
494(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
495(1)
What Should Colleges and Universities Teach? Is There Anything They Should Not Teach?
495(18)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
495(1)
A Battle Plan for Professors to Recapture the Curriculum
496(7)
Frank H. T. Rhodes
A professor emeritus from Cornell University describes how he would change the curriculum he sees in many modern colleges and universities
The Hollow Curriculum
503(3)
Robert N. Sollod
The author argues in favor of educating students about religion and spirituality
Starting a Gay-Studies Course
506(3)
Henry Gonshak
This professor describes the difficulties he had introducing a nontraditional course into the college curriculum
Can or Should a College Teach Virtue?
509(4)
Harry C. Payne
The president of Williams College considers the role of teaching virtue in higher education
What Helps Students Learn and Succeed in College? What Hinders Them?
513(11)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
513(1)
The Harvard Guide to Happiness
513(3)
Kate Zernicke
Recent research at Harvard University looks at factors that improve learning and overall happiness for college students
Getting in Students' Way
516(3)
Richard J. Light
A professor at Harvard vividly describes the values of a multicultural learning environment
The Banking Concept of Education
519(4)
Paulo Freire
This classic work in education describes creative ways of teaching and learning that benefit both student and teacher
Questions to Help You Think and Write about Education Issues
523(1)
Section III: Issues Concerning Crime and the Treatment of Criminals
524(40)
The Issues
524(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
525(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
526(1)
How Should We Treat Convicted Criminals?
526(16)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
526(1)
Reflections from a Life Behind Bars: Build Colleges, Not Prisons
526(4)
James Gilligan
A former director of mental health for a prison system describes the horrible conditions in prisons and suggests other ways of dealing with prisoners
A Jailbreak for Geriatrics
530(2)
George F. Will
This author proposes an unusual solution for reducing overcrowding in prisons
Tinkering with Death
532(7)
Alex Kozinski
The author is a death penalty judge who reflects on what it feels like to send another man to die
One Big Happy Prison
539(3)
Michael Moore
A filmmaker and political activist reevaluates the death penalty in the United States
What Should Be Done With Young Offenders?
542(22)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
542(1)
The Apocalypse of Adolescence
542(8)
Ron Powers
This author claims there is a new trend among young criminals in the country that makes rehabilitation especially difficult
Not So Alone
550(5)
Gerard Jones
What influence do violent video games and other media have on young people?
This author's answers may surprise you
A Brain Too Young for Good Judgment
555(2)
Daniel R. Weinberger
Brains need to be physiologically mature in order to exhibit rational behavior, according to this author
Fairy Tales as a Learning Tool for Young Offenders
557(2)
Richard Rothstein
This author describes an unusual form of rehabilitation for young offenders
Out of Jail, into Temptation: A Day in a Life
559(4)
Alan Feuer
A report on the first day out of prison for a convict from New York City. What are his chances for success?
Questions to Help You Think and Write about Crime Issues
563(1)
Section IV: Issues Concerning Race, Culture, and Identity
564(32)
The Issues
564(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
565(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
565(1)
How Do Race and Culture Contribute to an Individual's Sense of Identity?
566(16)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
566(1)
Teaching Resistance: The Racial Politics of Mass Media
566(3)
Bell Hooks
This author examines the relationships between blacks and whites on television and in the movies
The Matter of Whiteness
569(4)
Richard Dyer
Dyer suggests that white people should be considered as members of a race just as members of other races are
Documented/Undocumented
573(3)
Guillermo Gomez-Pena
This author describes some of the cultural conflicts he has experienced living on the Mexico-United States border
On Being a Conceptual Anomaly
576(5)
Dorinne K. Kondo
A Japanese American describes her conflict in returning to Japan, where she is expected to observe Japanese cultural traditions
Culture by the Campfire
581(1)
Esther Pan
Sherry Keene-Osborn
How much of a child's original culture should be retained when that child is being raised by parents of another culture?
To What Extent Should Individuals Allow Their Cultural Heritage To Be Assimilated?
582(14)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
582(1)
Asian Identity Crisis
583(2)
Yahlin Chang
In this evaluation of two Asians who relocate to America, one gives up his original culture, and the other does not. Which route is better?
Educating Ourselves into Coexistence
585(3)
Anouar Majid
This author argues that students can learn to heal the wounds between Islam and America because of what they hold in common
American Jews and the Problem of Identity
588(7)
Edward S. Shapiro
This author asks whether being Jewish is a result of religion, culture, race, history, or some combination of these
Questions to Help You Think and Write about Race, Culture, and Identity
595(1)
Section V: Issues Concerning Freedom
596(31)
The Issues
596(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
597(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
597(1)
How Rigorously Should We Protect Our Civil Liberties?
598(6)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
598(1)
Security versus Civil Liberties
598(3)
Richard A. Posner
Posner suggests that people should be willing to sacrifice their civil liberties in times of crisis
The Tools of Freedom and Security
601(3)
Peter Lewis
Lewis points out that the same technologies can guarantee both freedom and security. How should we use them?
How Can We Balance Security Against Privacy in a Technological Age?
604(12)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
604(1)
How Private Is Your Life?
604(3)
Peter Maas
This author identifies the issues associated with computers and privacy
Living under the Electronic Eye
607(4)
Lisa Guernsey
How much information captured from electronic databases should the government be allowed to use?
Body of Evidence
611(3)
Dana Hawkins
What are some of the problems with biometrics? What are the implications of making your fingerprint or face structure become your identity card?
The Real Privacy Wars Are Just Over the Horizon
614(2)
Eric Cohen
Everyone wants to keep some information private, and increasingly that information will become associated with political parties
How Does Profiling Threaten Civil Liberties?
616(11)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
616(1)
The Color of Suspicion
617(5)
Jeffrey Goldberg
The practice of racial profiling by police officers helps catch criminals but also raises questions of fairness and equity
Patriotism vs. Ethnic Pride: An American Dilemma
622(1)
Lynette Clemetson
Keith Naughton
Even though Americans were cautioned not to profile following the 9/11 attacks, some did it anyway
Freedom vs. Security
623(3)
Fareed Zakaria
Zakaria advocates that officials responsible for security adopt the practice of ``smart profiling,'' which he defines in this article
Questions to Help You Think and Write about Freedom Issues
626(1)
Section VI: Issues Concerning the Future
627(40)
The Issues
627(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
627(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
628(1)
What Are Some Possible Issues for the Future?
629(4)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
629(1)
Looking Back on Tomorrow
629(4)
David Brooks
This author identifies a number of issues that he thinks will be important in the twenty-first century. Do you agree with him?
What Might Affect the Future of Human Beings?
633(19)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
633(1)
Reprogenetics: A Glimpse of Things to Come
633(5)
Lee M. Silver
With reprogenetics, Silver claims, parents could have complete control over determining the characteristics of their future children
An Inexorable Emergence: Transition to the Twenty-First Century
638(4)
Ray Kurzweil
This author describes a time when computers may become more intelligent than humans
Could This Pig Save Your Life?
642(4)
Sheryl Gay Stolberg
This article describes how animal parts may someday be used as transplants for humans
Better Living through Genetics
646(6)
James Wood
Wood sees some dangers in the development of technologies that could change the nature of the human race
What Might Affect the Future of the Planet?
652(15)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
652(1)
The Future of Life
652(5)
Edward O. Wilson
This well-known authority on science and conservation identifies the problems and the solutions for protecting life on this planet
The Challenges We Face
657(5)
Jeffrey Kluger
Andrea Dorfman
This article proposes an international agenda for preserving life on this planet
Second Thoughts on Expanding Lifespans
662(5)
Donald B. Louria
This author claims scientists will soon have the ability to extend people's lifespans considerably, but what are the implications?
Questions to Help You Think about Issues Concerning the Future
667(1)
Section VII: Issues Concerning War and Peace
667(40)
The Issues
668(1)
Web Sites for Further Exploration and Research
669(1)
The Rhetorical Situation
670(1)
Is War Inevitable?
671(13)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
671(1)
The Moral Equivalent of War
671(4)
William James
Some people may be drawn to fighting wars, according to this well-known psychologist, but there are other ways to channel such energy
Warfare: An Invention---Not a Biological Necessity
675(5)
Margaret Mead
This cultural anthropologist says war is not part of people's natural makeup: instead, it is a learned behavior
War Will Be War: No Matter the Era, No Matter the Weapons, the Same Old Hell
680(4)
Victor Davis Hanson
This author claims that war is eternal, part of the human condition, and there is nothing we can do about that
How Do People Justify War?
684(8)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
684(1)
Why We Blow Ourselves Up
685(1)
Eyad Sarraj
A Palestinian doctor explains why some people find honor in martyrdom
Why We Fight
686(4)
William J. Bennett
This author explains the concept of a ``just war'' and suggests we should always be prepared to fight one
How Can We Understand Their Hatred?
690(2)
Elie Wiesel
This Nobel Prize winner explores religious fanaticism and finds some grounds for hope
What Might Help Establish Peace?
692(15)
Questions to Consider Before You Read
692(1)
Getting to Peace
692(4)
William L. Ury
The author gives suggestions for moving from conflict to compromise
The Atomic Bomb
696(4)
Richard Rhodes
This Pulitzer Prize winner describes the power of the atomic bomb and shows how it has been a force for peace since World War II
All You Need Is Love
700(4)
Bruce Hoffman
This author describes an unusual method for stopping terrorism
Questions to Help You Think and Write about War and Peace
704(3)
Credits 707(4)
Topic Index 711(6)
Author-Title Index 717

Excerpts

PURPOSE The most important purpose of Perspectives on Argument is to teach students strategies for critical reading, critical thinking, research, and writing that will help them participate in all types of argument both inside and outside of the classroom. A basic assumption is that argument exists everywhere and that students need to learn to participate productively in all forms of argument, including those they encounter in school, at home, on the job, and in the national and international spheres. Such participation is critical not only in a democratic society but also in a global society, in which issues become more and more complex each year. Students who use this book will learn to identify controversial topics that are "at issue," to read and form reactions and opinions of their own, and to write argument papers that express their individual views and perspectives. A central idea of this text is that modern argument is not always polarized as right or wrong, but that instead it often invites a variety of perspectives on an issue. Another idea, equally important, is that not all argument results in the declaration of winners. The development of common ground and either consensus or compromise are. sometimes as acceptable as declaring winners in argument. Students will learn to take a variety of approaches to argument, including taking a position and defending it, seeking common ground at times, withholding opinion at other times, negotiating when necessary, and even changing their original beliefs when they can no longer make a case for them. The perspectives and abilities taught here are those that an educated populace in a world community needs to coexist cooperatively and without constant destructive conflict. SPECIAL FEATURES Both instructors and students who pick up Perspectives on Argument have the right to ask how it differs from some of the other argument texts that are presently available. They deserve to know why they might want to use this book instead of another. This text, which is targeted for first-year and second-year students enrolled in argument or argument and literature classes in two-year and four-year colleges, is both a reader and a rhetoric. Within this reader and rhetoric format are a number of special features that, when taken together, make the book unique. Reading, critical thinking, and writingare taught as integrated and interdependent processes. Comprehensive chapters on the reading and writing processes show how they can be adapted to argument. Extensive instruction in critical reading and critical thinking appear throughout. Assignments and questions that invite critical reading, critical thinking, and original argumentative writing appear at the end of every chapter in "The Rhetoric" and at the end of every section of "The Reader." Cross-gender and cross-cultural communication stylesare presented in a unique chapter that provides for a classroom in which every student can find a voice. Students learn to identify and develop their own unique styles of argument and to recognize how their styles may have been influenced by family background, gender, ethnic background, or country of origin. Also included are international students' perspectives on the argument styles of their countries. Many readings in the book are by authors of varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Explanations of the elements and structure of argumentinclude theToulmin model of argument,theclassical modes of appeal,thetraditional categories of claimsderived from classical stasis theory, and therhetorical situation.Theory is integrated and translated into language that students can easily understand and apply. For example, students learn to apply theory to recognize and analyze the parts of an argument while reading and to develop and structure their own ideas while writing. Audience analysisincludes


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