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Perspectives on Argument

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321964267

ISBN10:
0321964268
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/23/2014
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $98.33

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Table of Contents

Contents
Alternate Table of Contents 00
Preface 000

Part 1 Engaging with Argument  1


1 A PERSPECTIVE ON ARGUMENT 0
What Is Your Current Perspective on Argument? 0
A Definition of Argument 0
Recognizing Traditional and Consensual Argument 0
Recognizing Visual Argument 0
Under What Conditions Does Argument Work Best? 00
Under What Conditions Does Argument Fail? 00
Distinguishing Between Ethical and Unethical Argument 00
Recognizing Argument in the 21st Century 00
Engaging with Issues 00
How Should You Engage with Issues? 00
Review Questions  00
Exercises and Activities 00
Essays for Analysis
Felix Carroll / No Escape from ’Helicopter Parents’ 00
Abby Ellin / The Laptop Ate My Attention Span 00
Prisna Virasin / The Barbie Controversy 00
Image for Analysis
Image 1: Waterfront Living 00


2 THE RHETORICAL SITUATION: UNDERSTANDING AUDIENCE AND CONTEXT 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Read an Argument 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You View a Visual Argument 00
Analyze the Rhetorical Situation When You Encounter an Argument Online 00
Use the Rhetorical Situation When You Write an Argument 00
Conducting an Audience Analysis 00
Review Questions 00
Exercises and Activities 00
Essays for Analysis
Chris Piper / “A” Is for “Absent” 00
Will Harrel / “A Defense of Grade Deflation” 00
The Library of Congress / The Civil Rights Era 00
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Rosa Parks Rides in the Front of the Bus 00
Image 2: Auschwitz Victims of Medical Experiments 00


3 READING, THINKING, AND WRITING ABOUT ISSUES 00
Getting Started on a Writing Assignment 00
Read to Develop Arguments for Your Paper 00
Take Notes and Avoid Plagiarism 00
Write Your Paper, Read It, Think about It, and Revise It 00
Practice Your Process by Writing These Papers 00
Submit Your Paper for Peer Review 00
Expressing Multiple Perspectives through Visual Argument 00
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Scientific American / As Spy Drones Come to the US, We Must Protect Our Privacy 00
Gina Kolata / PSST! Ask for Donor 1913 000
Randy Cohen / When Texting Is Wrong 000
Prisna Virasin / The Controvery behind Barbie 000
Congressional Research Service / Flag Protection: A Brief History of
 Recent Supreme Court Decisions 000
Images for Analysis: Walling Off Your Enemies: The Long View
Image 1: The Chinese Perspective 000
Image 2: The German Perspective 000
Image 3: The Israeli Perspective 000
Image 4: The Iraqi Perspective 000


Part 2 Understanding the Nature of Argument  113


4 THE ESSENTIAL PARTS OF AN ARGUMENT: THE TOULMIN MODEL 000
The Outcomes of Argument: Probability versus Certainty 000
The Parts of an Argument according to the Toulmin Model 000
Value of the Toulmin Model for Reading, Writing, and Viewing Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Frank DeFord / Bust the Amateur Myth 000
Mohamed T. Diaby Jr. / Toulmin
  Analysis of the “Price of Oranges” Cartoon 000
Richard D. Rieke and Malcolm O. Sillars / American Value Systems 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Sense of Community, Advertisement 000
Image 2: “The Price of Oranges” Cartoon 000


5 TYPES OF CLAIMS 000
Five Types of Claims 000
Value of the Claim Types and the Claim Questions
for Reading, Viewing, and Writing Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Stephen J. Handel / 2-Year Students Have Long Had 4-Year Dreams 000
Mark Levinson / Mismeasuring Poverty 000
Jeffrey Young / High Tech Cheating Abounds, and Professors
  are Partly to Blame 000
A. K. Simon / Reality TV: More than Just a Guilty Pleasure 000
Rebecca Cho / Is Bottled Water a Moral Issue? 000
Barry Schwartz / When It’s All Too Much 172
Images for Analysis
Image 1: War Casualties 000
Image 2: U.S. Border Patrol 000
Image 3: The Rhone Glacier 000
Image 4: Go Paperless 000
Image 5: Corn Power 000


6 TYPES OF PROOF 000
The Traditional Categories of Proof  000
Types of Logical Proof: Logos  000
Proof That Builds Credibility: Ethos  000
Types of Emotional Proof: Pathos  000
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos Communicated through Language and Style  000
Value of the Proofs for Reading, Viewing, and Writing Argument  000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Careen Shannon / Stop Calling People “Aliens” 208
Government Accountability Office /  ”Poverty in America: Consequences for Individuals and the Economy” 212
Thomas Jefferson / The Declaration of Independence 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Mothers Against Drunk Driving 000
Image 2: Poor Tenements in Holyoke, Massachusetts 000
Image 3: Little Girl on Bed in Rundown Bedroom 000


7 THE FALLACIES AND ETHICAL ARGUMENT 000
Fallacies in Logic 000
Fallacies That Affect Character or Ethos 000
Emotional Fallacies 000
Ethics and Morality in Argument 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Hannah Sternberg / Conservative Feminism Is Not an Oxymoron 000
Kelly Dickerson /  Minor Problems? 238
Images for Analysis
Image 1: A Shower Gels Ad 000
Image 2: 1930s Drunk Driving Poster 000
Image 3: An Ad for a Blog 000
Essay with Images for Analysis
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 /
  The Gettysburg Address 000
Image 1: President Lincoln Among the Crowd at Gettysburg 000
Image 2: The Soldier’s National Monument that Stands in the Center of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 000


8 VISUAL ARGUMENT 000
Recognizing Visual Argument  000
Why Visual Argument Is Convincing: Eight Special Features  000
Using Argument Theory to Critique Visual Argument  000
Bias in Visual Argument  000
Sample Analysis of a Visual Argument  000
Add Visual Argument to Support Written Argument  000
Create Visual Arguments That Stand Alone  000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: West Bank Barrier 000
Image 2: Immigrant Rights 000
Image 3: Coming Home to a Destroyed Neighborhood 000
Image 4: LeBron James 000
Image 5: At Home Outdoors 000
Image 1: Adam and God 000
Image 2: Play Ball 000
Image 3: Robot with a Grappler 000
Visual Argument Created by Students
Student Visual Argument 1: Untitled 000
Student Visual Argument 2: Never Again 000
 Analytical Essay on Never Again 000


9 ROGERIAN ARGUMENT AND COMMON
GROUND  000
Achieving Common Ground in Rogerian Argument 000
Rogerian Argument as Strategy 000
Writing Rogerian Argument 000
Rogerian Argument in Academic Writing 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Mike Rose / Heal the Academic-Vocational Schism 000
Angela A. Boatwright /  Human Cloning: Is It a Viable Option? 000
Eric Hartman /  Let Those Who Ride Decide! 000
Elizabeth Nabhan /  Dear Boss 000
Images for Analysis
Image 1: Hands across the World 000
Image 2: Bridging the Gap 000
Image 3: Bipartisanship and What It Can Achieve 000


10 REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF ARGUMENT STRATEGIES  000
Reading for the Argument Analysis Paper 000
Writing the Argument Analysis Paper 000
Rhetorical Situation for “A Call to Unity: A Letter from Eight White Clergymen” and “Letter from Birmingham Jail” 000
Focus Topics to Help You Analyze the Letters 000
Essays for Analysis
White Clergymen / A Call for Unity:
  A Letter from Eight White Clergymen 000
Martin Luther King Jr. / Letter from Birmingham Jail 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000


Part III Writing a Researched Argument 000


11 THE RESEARCH PAPER: PLANNING, RESEARCH, AND INVENTION 000
Understanding the Assignment and Getting Started 000
Writing a Claim and Clarifying Your Purpose 000
Some Preliminary Questions to Help You Narrow and Develop Your Claim 000
Developing a Research Plan 000
Understanding the Audience 000
Analyzing Your Class as Your Audience 000
Constructing an Unfamiliar Audience 000
Using Information about Your Audience 000
Get Organized for Research 000
Locating Sources for Research 000
Evaluating Sources 000
Creating a Bibliography 000
Taking and Organizing Your Notes 000
Two Invention Strategies to Help You Think Creatively about Your Research and Expand Your Own Ideas 000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Essays for Analysis
Angela Boatwright / Human Cloning: An Annotated Bibliography 000
Image for Analysis
Image 1: What’s Wrong with Cloning Humans? 000


12 THE RESEARCH PAPER: USING SOURCES, WRITING, AND REVISING 000
Matching Patterns and Support to Claims  000
Outlining Your Paper and Cross-Reference Your Notes  000
Incorporating Research into Your First Draft  000
Making Revisions and Preparing the Final Copy  000
Present Your Paper Orally to the Class  000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 12: How to Document Sources Using MLA and APA Styles 000
MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT 000
MLA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE WORKS CITED PAGE 000
MLA: STUDENT PAPER IN MLA STYLE 000
PRISNA VIRASIN / The Big Barbie Controversy 000
 QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, MLA STYLE 000
APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT 000
APA: HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN THE REFERENCES PAGE 000
APA: STUDENT PAPER IN APA STYLE 000
DARRELL D. GREER / Alaskan Wolf Management 000
 QUESTIONS ON THE RESEARCHED POSITION PAPER, APA STYLE 000

Part IV Further Applications: Argument
and Literature 
000


13 ARGUMENT AND LITERATURE 000
Finding and Analyzing Arguments in Literature  000
Writing Arguments about Literature  000
Review Questions 000
Exercises and Activities 000
Literature for Analysis 000
Poem / Taylor Mali / Totally Like Whatever, You Know? 000
Poem / Robert Frost / Mending Wall 000
Story / Ursula K. Le Guin / The Ones Who Walk Away
  from Omelas 000

SYNTHESIS OF CHAPTERS 1–13: SUMMARY CHARTS 000
• TRACE: The Rhetorical Situation  000
• The Process 000
• The Toulmin Model 000
• Types of Claims 000
• Rogerian Argument 000
• Types of Proof and Tests of Validity 000
• Logical Fallacies 000


Part V The Reader 000


Introduction to “The Reader”: Reading and Writing About Issue Areas 000
Purpose of “The Reader” 000
How to Use “The Reader” 000
Section 1   Families and Personal Relationships  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation 000
A. WHAT IS THE STATUS OF THE TRADITIONAL
AMERICAN FAMILY? HOW IS THE FAMILY
BEING REDEFINED? 000
Sarah Yoest Pederson / A Family of a Different Feather 000
Lorraine Ali / The Curious Lives of Surrogates 000
Margaret Rock / Till Tech Do Us Part   000
B. WHAT CAUSES PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS TO SUCCEED
OR FAIL? 000
Robert Weiss / Unmasking the Neurobiology of Love 000
Christine Hassler / Digital Dating: Desperation or Necessity? 000
Anita Jain / Is Arranged Marriage Really Any Worse Than Craigslist? 000
John Yemma / Millennial Generation: What’s Love Got to Do With It? 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Families and
  Personal Relationships 000
Section 2  Modern Technology  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. HOW ARE ONLINE TECHNOLOGIES CHANGING THE WAY
WE LIVE?  000
Nicholas Carr / Is Google Making Us Stupid? 000
Evgeny Morozov / Are Smart Gadgets Making Us Dumb?
Scott Steinberg / How Video Games Can Make You Smarter
Reading Images: Ways of Reading 000
Matthew Kirschenbaum / How Reading is Being Reimagined 000
B. HOW IS TECHNOLOGY CHANGING OUR DEFINITION OF WHAT IT MEANS TO BE HUMAN? 000
Ray Kurzweil / Our Bodies, Our Technologies 000
Peggy Orenstein / Your Gamete, Myself 000
Kathleen Craig / Making a Living in Second Life 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Modern Technology 000
Section 3   Education and Learning  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. WHAT ARE THE KEY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING HIGHER EDUCATION?  000
Tressie MacMillan Cottom, “Redefining the ‘Typical’ College Student” (new)
Scott Jaschik / Getting Out of Grading 000
Editorial Board, Daily Californian / Making College Affordable   000
Kevin Carey / College Consumerism Run Amok   000
B. WHAT ROLE SHOULD TECHNOLOGY PLAY IN EDUCATION?  000
Zach Miners / Twitter Goes to College 000
Sarah Perez / Social Network Profile Costs Woman
 College Degree 000
Mira Jacob / The Great Baby Einstein Scam 000
Kerry Soper / RateMyProfessorsAppearance.com 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About
 Education and School 000
Section 4   Race, Culture, and Identity  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. HOW IMPORTANT IS RACE TO AMERICAN IDENTITY?  000
Emma Daly / DNA Test Gives Students Ethnic Shocks 000
READING IMAGES: Racial Role Reversal in William
 Shakespeare’s Othello 000
Martin Luther King Jr. / I Have a Dream 000
K. A. Dilday / Go Back to Black 000
B. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY DEPEND ON ETHNIC AFFILIATION?  000
Mychal Denzel Smith / To Be Young and Black in America   000
Dorinne K. Kondo / On Being a Conceptual Anomaly 000
Katie Halper / Digging for Roots at Secular Camp 000
Carlos Lozada / What Makes Me Hispanic  000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Race,
 Culture, and Identity 000
Section 5  The Environment and Sustainability  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. HOW CAN WE CREATE A MORE SUSTAINABLE CULTURE OF EATING?  000
Lisa Hamilton / Unconventional Farmers; Let Them Eat Meat 000
James McWilliams / The Green Monster   000
Josh Viertel, The Soul of Slow Food   000
Martha Rosenberg, “Is Animal Treatment on Farms Our Business?   000
B. HOW CAN WE RESOLVE THE ECONOMY VERSUS ENVIRONMENT DEBATE?  000
Ramit Plushnick-Masti / Descendants of Slaves in East Texas Hold Out Against Luminant’s Coal Mining Plans 000
Reading Images: Coal Mining and the Environment 000
Stuart Price / Carving Up the Congo 000
Reading Images: The Rain Forest 000
Brian Wingfield / For Job Market, Green Means Growth 000
Bill Carter / The Hidden Costs of Going Green   000
Reading Images: “Near-Zero Energy Home” Advertisement 000
Questions to Help You Think and Write About Issues
  of the Environment and Sustainability 000
Section 6  Immigration  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. HOW SHOULD WE RESPOND TO THE GLOBAL PROBLEM
OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION?  000
Marc Cooper / Exodus 000
Peter Wilby / The Right to Sell Labor 000
Angela Maria Kelley / The Changing Face of Immigration in America 000
Jake and Calvin Ratana / Dispelling the Myth of the Model Minority   000
B. DO GOOD FENCES MAKE GOOD NEIGHBORS WHEN DEFINING NATIONAL BORDERS?  000
Jonah Goldberg / To Wall or Not to Wall 000
David Aaronovitch / It’s Not Immigrations We Fear, It’s Change 000
Reading Images: What Is American? 000
Miguel Bustillo / Town Against the Wall 000
Section 7   War and Peace  000
The Issues  000
Exploring Online Argument  000
The Rhetorical Situation  000
A. IS WAR INEVITABLE? HOW DOES WAR BECOME INTEGRAL
TO SOCIETY?  000
William James / The Moral Equivalent of War 000
Reading Images: War Memorials and Martial Character 000
Margaret Mead / Warfare: An Invention—Not a Biological Necessity  000
Reading Images: Child Soldiers 000
David Goodman / A Few Good Kids? 000
B. HOW DO PEOPLE JUSTIFY WAR?  000
Noah Charles Pierce / Iraq War Poems 000
Frank Deford / Sweetness and Light 000
Haim Watzman / When You Have to Shoot First 000
Credits  000
Subject Index  000
Author-Title Index  000


 



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