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Perspectives on Personality

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205293940

ISBN10:
0205293948
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $106.20

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Summary

The various perspectives of the field of personality provide the organizing framework for this text. Each perspective is presented in two chapters and is introduced by a prologue that describes the assumptions and themes of the perspective.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
PART ONE An Introduction 1(52)
What Is Personality Psychology?
2(15)
Defining Personality
3(4)
Why Do People Use Personality as a Concept?
3(2)
A Working Definition
5(1)
Two Fundamental Issues in Personality Psychology
6(1)
Theory in Personality Psychology
7(3)
What Do Theories Do?
7(1)
Evaluating Theories: The Role of Research
8(1)
What Else Makes a Theory Good?
9(1)
Perspectives on Personality
10(3)
Groupings among Theories
11(1)
How Distinct Are the Perspectives?
12(1)
Another Kind of ``Perspective''
13(1)
Organization within Chapters
13(2)
Assessment
14(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
14(1)
Summary
15(2)
Methods in the Study of Personality
17(19)
Gathering Information
18(3)
Sources: Observe Yourself and Observe Others
18(1)
Seeking Depth: Case Studies
19(1)
Seeking Generality: Studies of Many People
20(1)
Establishing Relationships among Variables
21(14)
Correlation between Variables
22(4)
Two Kinds of Significance
26(1)
Causality and a Limitation on Inference
27(1)
Search for Causality: Experimental Research
28(3)
Recognizing Types of Study
31(1)
What Kind of Research Is Best?
32(1)
Multifactor Studies
32(1)
Reading Figures from Multifactor Research
33(2)
Summary
35(1)
Issues in Personality Assessment
36(17)
Sources of Information
37(1)
Reliability of Measurement
38(4)
Internal Consistency
39(2)
Inter-Rater Reliability
41(1)
Stability across Time
41(1)
Validity of Measurement
42(6)
Construct Validity
44(1)
Criterion Validity
44(1)
Convergent Validity
45(1)
Discriminant Validity
45(1)
Face Validity
46(1)
Culture and Validity
46(1)
Response Sets and Loss of Validity
47(1)
Two Rationales behind the Development of Assessment Devices
48(3)
Rational, or Theoretical, Approach
49(1)
Empirical Approaches
49(2)
Better Assessment: A Never-Ending Search
51(1)
Summary
51(2)
PART TWO The Dispositional Perspective 53(69)
Prologue: The Dispositional Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
54(2)
Types, Traits, and Interactionism
56(34)
Types and Traits
57(2)
Nomothetic and Idiographic Views of Traits
58(1)
What Traits Matter?
59(9)
A Tool to Use along the Way: Factor Analysis
60(1)
Let Reality Reveal Itself: Cattell's Approach
61(3)
Start from a Theory: Eysenck's Approach
64(3)
Other Theoretical Starting Points: Folk Concepts and the Interpersonal Circle
67(1)
The Five-Factor Model: The Basic Dimensions of Personality?
68(6)
What Are the Five Factors?
69(2)
The Five-Factor Model in Relation to Other Models
71(1)
Further Variations
72(1)
Are Superordinate Traits the Best Level to Use?
73(1)
Traits, Situations, and Interactionism
74(7)
Is Behavior Actually Traitlike?
74(1)
Situationism
74(1)
Low Reliability in Measurement of Behavior
74(2)
Interactionism
76(2)
Individual Differences in Consistency
78(1)
Beyond Analysis of Variance in Interactionism
79(1)
Was the Problem Ever Really as Bad as It Seemed?
80(1)
Interactionism Extended: Context-Dependent Expression of Personality
81(2)
Older and Contemporary Views of Traits and Behavior
81(2)
Assessment
83(1)
Comparing Individuals: Personality Profiles
83(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
84(2)
Interactionism in Behavior Problems
85(1)
Behavior Change
85(1)
Trait Psychology: Problems and Prospects
86(2)
Summary
88(2)
Needs and Motives
90(32)
Basic Theoretical Elements
91(4)
Needs
91(3)
Motives
94(1)
Press
94(1)
Needs, Motives, and Personality
95(4)
Motivational States and Motive Dispositions
95(1)
Murray's System of Needs
96(2)
Measuring Motives: The Thematic Apperception Test
98(1)
Individual Differences in Specific Needs
99(11)
Need for Achievement
100(4)
Need for Power
104(2)
Need for Affiliation
106(1)
Need for Intimacy
107(2)
Patterned Needs: Inhibited Power Motive
109(1)
Further Determinants of Behavior
110(1)
Incentive Value
110(1)
The Methods of Personology
111(1)
Assessment
112(3)
Self-Reports and the TAT May Not Measure the Same Thing
113(1)
Motives and the Five-Factor Model
113(1)
Traits and Motives as Distinct
114(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
115(3)
The Need for Power and Alcohol Abuse
115(1)
Focusing on and Changing Motivation
115(3)
Need and Motive Theories: Problems and Prospects
118(1)
Summary
118(4)
PART THREE The Biological Perspective 122(63)
Prologue: The Biological Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
122(2)
Inheritance, Evolution, and Personality
124(32)
Physique and Personality
125(3)
Somatotypes
125(1)
Temperament
126(2)
Determining the Role of Inheritance in Personality
128(2)
Twin Study Method
128(2)
Adoption Research
130(1)
What Personality Qualities Are Inherited?
130(8)
Temperaments: Activity, Sociability, and Emotionality
131(3)
Are There Other Temperaments?
134(1)
Inheritance of Traits
135(1)
Temperaments and the Five-Factor Model
136(1)
Genetics of Other Qualities: How Distinct Are They?
137(1)
Two Further Issues
138(1)
The Nature of Environmental Influences
138(1)
Inheritance and Sexual Orientation
138(1)
Evolution and Human Behavior
139(9)
Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology
139(3)
Genetic Similarity and Attraction
142(1)
Mate Selection and Competition for Mates
143(2)
Mate Retention and Other Issues
145(1)
Aggression and the Young Male Syndrome
146(2)
Assessment
148(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
148(4)
Behavior Genetics and Disorders
148(3)
Evolution and Problems in Behavior
151(1)
Behavior Change: How Much Is Possible?
151(1)
Inheritance and Evolution: Problems and Prospects
152(2)
Summary
154(2)
Biological Processes and Personality
156(29)
Eysenck: Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Brain Functions
157(4)
Extraversion and Cortical Arousal
157(2)
Cortical Arousal Differences
159(2)
Biological Basis of Emotionality
161(1)
A Different View of Brain Functions: Approach and Inhibition
161(6)
Behavioral Approach, Activation, Engagement, or Facilitation
162(1)
Neurotransmitters and the Approach System
163(1)
Behavioral Inhibition, Withdrawal, or Avoidance
164(1)
Relating These Systems to Temperaments or Traits
165(2)
Sensation Seeking: A Third Biological System?
167(5)
Sensation Seeking, Impulsiveness, and Other Theories
168(1)
Brain Chemicals and Sensation Seeking
169(1)
Biological Function of Sensation Seeking
170(2)
Hormones and Personality
172(6)
Hormones, the Body, and the Brain
172(1)
Early Hormonal Exposure and Behavior
173(2)
Testosterone and Adult Personality
175(2)
Cycles of Hormones and Action
177(1)
Hormones, Dominance, and Evolutionary Psychology
178(1)
Assessment
178(2)
Electroencephalograms
179(1)
Computer-Assisted Imaging
179(1)
Diagnosing Depression Chemically
180(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
180(2)
Biological Bases of Anxiety, Depression, and Antisocial Personality
180(1)
Medication in Therapy
181(1)
Biological Processes and Personality: Problems and Prospects
182(3)
Summary
183(2)
PART FOUR The Psychoanalytic Perspective 185(64)
Prologue: The Psychoanalytic Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
186(2)
Psychoanalytic Structure and Process
188(30)
The Topographical Model of Mind
191(2)
Aspects of Personality: The Structural Model
193(5)
Id
193(1)
Ego
194(2)
Superego
196(1)
Balancing the Forces
197(1)
Motivation: The Drives of Personality
198(7)
Cathexes and the Utilization of Energy
199(1)
Two Classes of Drives: Life and Death Instincts
200(2)
Coming Together of Libidinal and Aggressive Energies
202(1)
Catharsis
203(1)
Displacement and Sublimation of Motive Forces
204(1)
Psychosexual Development
205(9)
The Oral Stage
206(2)
The Anal Stage
208(1)
The Phallic Stage
209(3)
The Latency Period
212(1)
The Genital Stage
213(1)
Psychoanalytic Structure and Process: Problems and Prospects
214(2)
Summary
216(2)
Anxiety, Defense, and Self-Protection
218(31)
Anxiety
219(1)
Mechanisms of Defense
220(10)
Repression
220(2)
Denial
222(2)
Projection
224(1)
Rationalization
225(1)
Intellectualization
225(1)
Reaction Formation
226(1)
Regression
226(1)
Displacement and Sublimation
227(1)
Research on Defenses
228(1)
Evidence of Unconscious Conflict
228(2)
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
230(5)
Parapraxes
230(2)
Dreams
232(3)
Humor
235(1)
Projective Techniques of Assessment
235(4)
Rorschach Inkblot Test
237(2)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
239(6)
Origins of Problems
239(1)
Behavior Change
240(4)
Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?
244(1)
Psychoanalytic Defense: Problems and Prospects
245(1)
Summary
246(3)
PART FIVE The Neoanalytic Perspective 249(60)
Prologue: The Neoanalytic Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
250(2)
Ego Psychology
252(26)
Principles of Ego Psychology
255(9)
Shifting the Emphasis from Id to Ego
255(1)
Adaptation and Autonomy
256(1)
The Ego, Adaptation, and Competence Motivation
257(2)
Is Competence Striving Automatic, or Is It Done to Remedy Inferiority?
259(3)
Ego-Control and Ego-Resiliency
262(2)
Ego Development
264(6)
Early Ego Development
265(1)
Middle Stages of Development: Control of Impulses
266(2)
Advanced Stages of Development: Taking More into Account
268(1)
Research on Ego Development
268(2)
Assessment
270(3)
Assessment of Lifestyles
270(1)
Assessment of Level of Ego Development
271(2)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
273(2)
Inferiority and Superiority Complexes
274(1)
Behavior Change
274(1)
Ego Psychology: Problems and Prospects
275(1)
Summary
276(2)
Psychosocial Theories
278(31)
Object Relations Theories
279(4)
Self Psychology
281(1)
Basic Anxiety
282(1)
Attachment Theory and Personality
283(5)
Attachment Patterns in Adult Behavior
286(1)
Other Reflections of Adult Attachment
287(1)
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
288(13)
Ego Identity, Competence, and the Experience of Crisis
289(1)
Infancy
290(1)
Early Childhood
291(1)
Preschool
292(1)
School Age
293(1)
Adolescence
294(2)
Young Adulthood
296(2)
Adulthood
298(1)
Old Age
299(1)
The Epigenetic Principle
299(2)
Comparing Erikson's Theory with Other Psychosocial Theories
301(1)
Assessment
301(2)
Object Relations, Attachment, and the Focus of Assessment
301(1)
Play in Assessment
302(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
303(3)
Narcissism as a Disorder of Personality
303(1)
Neurotic Needs
304(1)
Attachment and Depression
305(1)
Behavior Change
305(1)
Psychosocial Theories: Problems and Prospects
306(1)
Summary
307(2)
PART SIX The Learning Perspective 309(66)
Prologue: The Learning Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
310(2)
Conditioning Theories
312(31)
Classical Conditioning
313(6)
Basic Elements
313(3)
Classical Conditioning as Anticipatory Learning
316(2)
Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Classical Conditioning
318(1)
Emotional Conditioning
319(1)
Instrumental Conditioning
319(11)
The Law of Effect
321(1)
Reinforcement and Punishment
322(2)
Discrimination, Generalization, and Extinction in Instrumental Conditioning
324(2)
Altering the Shape of Behavior
326(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement and the Issue of Persistence
326(2)
Learning ``Irrational'' Behavior
328(2)
Reinforcement of Dimensions of Behavior
330(1)
Assessment
330(3)
Techniques
331(2)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
333(6)
Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses
333(3)
Classical Conditioning of Aversion
336(1)
Instrumental Conditioning and Maladaptive Behaviors
337(1)
Instrumental Conditioning of Conflict
337(1)
Instrumental Conditioning and Token Economies
338(1)
Instrumental Conditioning and Biofeedback
338(1)
Conditioning Theories: Problems and Prospects
339(1)
Summary
340(3)
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
343(32)
Elaborations on Conditioning Processes
344(11)
Social Reinforcement
344(2)
Vicarious Emotional Arousal
346(2)
Vicarious Reinforcement
348(1)
Semantic Generalization
349(1)
Rule-Based Learning
349(1)
Expectancies Concerning Outcomes
350(1)
Locus-of-Control Expectancies
351(3)
Efficacy Expectancies
354(1)
Observational Learning
355(5)
Acquisition versus Performance
357(3)
Manifestations of Cognitive and Social Learning
360(3)
Modeling and Sex Role Acquisition
360(2)
Modeling of Aggression and the Issue of Media Violence
362(1)
Assessment
363(2)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
365(6)
Conceptualizing Behavioral Problems
365(1)
Modeling-Based Therapy for Skill Deficits
366(1)
Modeling and Responses to Fear
367(1)
Therapeutic Changes in Efficacy Expectancy
368(2)
Self-Instructions and Cognitive Behavior Modification
370(1)
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories: Problems and Prospects
371(2)
Summary
373(2)
PART SEVEN The Phenomenological Perspective 375(60)
Prologue: The Phenomenological Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
376(2)
Humanistic Psychology: Self-Actualization and Self-Determination
378(32)
Self-Actualization
379(4)
The Need for Positive Regard
380(3)
Self-Determination
383(3)
Free Will and Reactance
384(2)
The Self and Processes of Defense
386(3)
Incongruity, Disorganization, and Defense
386(1)
Self-Esteem Maintenance and Enhancement
387(1)
Self-Handicapping
388(1)
Self-Actualization and Maslow's Hierarchy of Motives
389(7)
Characteristics of Frequent Self-Actualizers
392(2)
The Peak Experience
394(2)
Existential Psychology
396(2)
The Existential Dilemma
396(1)
Emptiness and Loneliness
397(1)
Assessment
398(3)
Interviews in Assessment
398(1)
The Q-Sort and Measurement of the Self-Concept
399(1)
Measurement of Self-Actualization
400(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
401(3)
Client-Centered Therapy
403(1)
Encounter Groups
404(1)
Beyond Therapy, to Personal Growth
404(1)
Humanistic Theories: Problems and Prospects
404(3)
Summary
407(3)
Personal Constructs
410(25)
Personal Constructs and Personality
412(14)
Using Constructs
413(1)
Constructs Are Bipolar
414(1)
The Role of Recurrences
415(1)
Range and Focus of Convenience
416(1)
Elaboration and Change in Construct Systems
416(2)
Organization among Constructs
418(3)
Individuality of Constructs
421(1)
Similarities and Differences between People
422(1)
Role Taking
423(2)
Personal Constructs and Behavioral Consistency
425(1)
Assessment
426(2)
Kelly's Role Construct Repertory Test
426(2)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
428(4)
Personal Constructs and Psychological Distress
428(1)
Dealing with Anxiety and Threat
429(1)
Fixed Role Therapy
430(2)
Personal Construct Theory: Problems and Prospects
432(1)
Summary
432(3)
PART EIGHT The Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspective 435(60)
Prologue: The Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspective: Major Themes and Underlying Assumptions
436(1)
Contemporary Cognitive Views
437(29)
Representing Your Experience of the World
440(13)
Schemas and Their Development
440(1)
Manifestations of Schemas
441(1)
Socially Relevant Schemas
442(1)
Self-Schemas
443(3)
Entity and Incremental Schemas
446(1)
Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Scripts
447(2)
Attribution
449(2)
Activation and Use of Memories
451(2)
Broader Statements on Cognition and Personality
453(3)
Cognitive Person Variables
453(3)
Social Intelligence
456(1)
Assessment
456(4)
Think-Aloud and Thought Sampling
457(1)
Self-Monitoring
458(1)
Diagnostic Categories as Prototypes
459(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
460(3)
Information Processing Deficits
460(1)
Depressive Self-Schemas
460(2)
Cognitive Therapy
462(1)
Contemporary Cognitive Theories: Problems and Prospects
463(1)
Summary
464(2)
Self-Regulation
466(29)
From Cognition to Behavior
468(4)
Schemas for Action
468(2)
Behavioral Intentions
470(1)
Goals
471(1)
Goal Setting
472(1)
Self-Regulation and Feedback Control
472(13)
Feedback Control
472(2)
Self-Directed Attention and the Action of the Comparator
474(2)
Hierarchical Organization
476(3)
Issues Concerning Hierarchical Organization
479(1)
Research on Hierarchies of Behavior
480(2)
Emotion
482(1)
Effects of Expectancies: Effort versus Disengagement
483(2)
Assessment
485(2)
Assessment of Self-Regulatory Qualities
485(2)
Assessment of Goals
487(1)
Problems in Behavior, and Behavior Change
487(5)
Problems as Conflicts among Goals, and Lack of Goal Specifications
487(2)
Problems from an Inability to Disengage
489(1)
Self-Regulation and the Process of Therapy
490(1)
Therapy Is Dynamic
491(1)
Self-Regulation Theories: Problems and Prospects
492(1)
Summary
493(2)
PART NINE Personality in Perspective 495(20)
Overlap and Integration
496(19)
Similarities among Perspectives
498(11)
Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: The Structural Model
498(1)
Psychoanalysis and Evolutionary Psychology: Fixations and Mating Patterns
499(1)
Psychoanalysis and Conditioning
499(1)
Psychoanalysis and Self-Regulation: The Structural Model
500(1)
Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Processes
501(2)
Social Learning and Cognitive Self-Regulation Views
503(3)
Neoanalytic and Cognitive Self-Regulation Perspectives
506(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy and Hierarchies of Self-Regulation
507(1)
Self-Actualization and Self-Regulation
508(1)
Dispositions and Their Equivalents in Other Models
508(1)
Recurrent Themes, Viewed from Different Angles
509(1)
Impulse and Restraint
509(1)
Individual versus Group Needs
509(1)
Combining Perspectives
510(3)
Eclecticism
510(1)
An Example: Biology and Learning as Complementary Influences on Personality
511(1)
Which Theory Is Best?
512(1)
Summary
513(2)
References 515(60)
Name Index 575(12)
Subject Index 587


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