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Petrology : Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic

by ; ;
Edition:
3RD
ISBN13:

9780716737438

ISBN10:
0716737434
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/11/2005
Publisher(s):
W. H. Freeman
List Price: $240.70

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Summary

Now in a thoroughly updated new edition (the first since 1995),Petrologyremains the most student-friendly undergraduate level text covering all three major rock groups. As always, the new edition organizes a vast body of literature from its wide-ranging subject, presenting what is essential to geology majors in a way that is accessible and at an appropriate level. The new edition welcomes Brent Owens as the new lead author for the chapters on igneous rocks, complementing Harvey Blatt's role for the sedimentary chapters, and Robert Tracy's for the metamorphic chapters. Petrology, Third Edition Text Art Download All text art is downloadable in a .zip file at http://www.whfreeman.com/college/pdfs/petrology.zip

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction: Why Study Petrology? xvii
PART I IGNEOUS ROCKS
1(212)
Introduction to Igneous Environments
3(17)
What Is Igneous Petrology?
3(1)
Some Reasons to Study Igneous Petrology
4(1)
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Petrology
5(1)
Igneous Environments: Intrusive versus Extrusive
5(5)
Small-Scale Features
10(1)
Types of Intrusions
11(6)
Sills
11(1)
Laccoliths
12(1)
Lopoliths
12(1)
Dikes and Veins
13(1)
Batholiths and Stocks
14(3)
Methods of Emplacement of Intrusive Rocks
17(3)
Minerals and Their Textural Relations in Igneous Rocks
20(30)
Minerals of Igneous Rocks
20(9)
Silica Minerals
21(3)
Feldspars
24(1)
Pyroxenes
24(2)
Olivine
26(1)
Feldspathoids
26(1)
Amphiboles
27(1)
Micas and Other Sheet Silicates
28(1)
Other Silicates
28(1)
Oxides, Phosphates, Carbonates, and Sulfides
28(1)
Igneous Rock Textures and Structures
29(6)
Degree of Crystallinity, Grain Size, and Grain Shape
29(1)
Fabrics
29(6)
Common Plutonic Rocks
35(7)
Granite and Alkali Granite
35(2)
Syenite and Alkali Syenite
37(2)
Nepheline Syenite
39(1)
Monzonite
39(1)
Diorite
39(1)
Gabbro
39(1)
Ultramafic Rocks
39(3)
Common Volcanic Rocks
42(8)
Rhyolite, Dacite, Obsidian, Vitrophyre, Pumice, Scoria
42(1)
Trachyte
42(1)
Phonolite
42(1)
Latite
42(1)
Andesite
42(4)
Basalt
46(4)
Chemistry, Physics, and Classification of Igneous Rocks
50(21)
Physics and Physical Properties of Magma
50(1)
Chemical Constituents of Igneous Rocks
51(2)
Methods of Chemical Analysis
53(2)
Wet Chemical Analysis
53(1)
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
53(1)
X-Ray Emission or X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy
54(1)
Electron Microprobe (EMP) and Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)
54(1)
Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy
54(1)
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)
54(1)
Mass Spectrometry (MS) Methods
54(1)
The Chemical Compositions of Igneous Rocks
55(1)
Measuring and Estimating Mineralogy
56(1)
Weight and Volume Modes
56(1)
The CIPW Norm
56(1)
Mineralogic Classification
57(8)
The IUGS Classification System
57(5)
Other Aspects of Classification
62(3)
Chemical Classification
65(1)
Silica Saturation
65(1)
Alumina Saturation
65(1)
Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks
66(1)
Chemical Trends
66(5)
Harker Diagrams
67(1)
AFM (or FMA) Diagrams
67(1)
Differentiation Index
67(1)
Alkali-Lime Index
68(1)
Larsen Index
68(1)
Spider Diagrams
68(1)
Assimilation and Fractional Crystallization (AFC)
68(3)
Volcanism
71(21)
Volcanism as a Planetary Thermal-Regulatory Mechanism
72(1)
Distribution of Volcanic Activity on Earth
72(3)
Oceanic Volcanism
72(2)
Continental Volcanism
74(1)
Styles of Volcanic Eruptions: Effusive versus Explosive
75(2)
Controls of Eruption
77(4)
Composition and Rheology
78(2)
Dissolved Magmatic Gases
80(1)
Driving Forces, Flow Regimes, and Eruption Dynamics
80(1)
Volcanic Products
81(5)
Lava Flows
82(2)
Pyroclastic Deposits
84(2)
Extraterrestrial Volcanism
86(6)
The Moon
86(1)
Venus
87(1)
Mars
88(1)
Io
88(4)
Origin of Magmas Through Melting of the Mantle and Crust
92(24)
Laboratory Experiments on Magmas
92(1)
Equilibrium and the Phase Rule
93(3)
Equilibrium
93(1)
Phases
94(1)
Components
94(1)
The Phase Rule
95(1)
Derivation of the Phase Rule
95(1)
Two-Component Systems
96(2)
Geometric-Topologic Properties
96(2)
Phase Diagrams and Rock Melting
98(1)
Melting in Binary Systems
98(2)
Simple Binary Eutectic Systems
98(2)
Two-Component Systems with an Incongruently Melting Phase
100(3)
Geometric-Topologic Properties
100(2)
Melting in Binary Systems with Peritectic Points
102(1)
Binary Systems with Complete Solid Solution
102(1)
Ternary Systems
103(2)
Simple Ternary Systems
103(2)
Melting in Ternary Systems
105(3)
Simple Ternary Eutectic Systems
105(2)
Ternary Systems with Congruent Intermediate Compounds
107(1)
Forsterite-Diopside-Silica: A Model for Mantle Melting and the Origin of Basaltic Magmas
108(2)
Low-Pressure Phase Relations
108(1)
High-Pressure Phase Relations
109(1)
Albite-Orthoclase-Quartz: A Model for Crustal Melting and Crystallization of Granites
110(3)
Low-Pressure Phase Relations
110(2)
High-Pressure Phase Relations
112(1)
Equilibrium and Fractional Melting: Do They Actually Occur in Nature?
113(3)
Crystallization of Magmas
116(20)
Equilibrium Crystallization
116(1)
Fractional Crystallization
117(6)
Binary Eutectic and Peritectic Systems
117(3)
Ternary Eutectic Systems
120(2)
Volumetric Relationships
122(1)
Layered Gabbroic Intrusions: A Natural Example of Fractional Crystallization
123(8)
Crystallization Sequence in Layered Intrusions
124(4)
Physical Characteristics of Cumulate Layers in Layered Intrusions
128(1)
New Ideas Regarding Layered Instrusions
129(2)
Magma Contamination
131(3)
Physical and Chemical Access
132(1)
Thermal and Energy Effects
133(1)
Effects on Basaltic Magma Composition
134(1)
Magma Mixing
134(2)
Petrology of the Mantle
136(15)
Gross Vertical Structure of the Interior
136(3)
Crust
137(1)
Upper Mantle
137(1)
Transition Zone
138(1)
Lower Mantle, Outer Core, and Inner Core
139(1)
Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
139(1)
Physical Characteristics of the Mantle
139(4)
Horizontal Density Heterogeneity
139(1)
Temperature Distribution
140(1)
Mantle Convection
141(2)
Mineralogy and Chemical Composition of the Mantle and Core
143(3)
Sources of Information
143(2)
Estimates of Mantle Chemistry
145(1)
Mantle Petrology
146(5)
Petrologic Significance of the Asthenosphere
147(4)
Igneous Rocks of the Oceanic Lithosphere
151(17)
The Nature of the Mid-Ocean Ridges
151(10)
Petrographic and Chemical Characteristics of MORBs
157(2)
Petrogenesis of Seafloor Basalts
159(2)
Ocean Island Basalts and Related Rocks
161(7)
Chemical and Mineralogic Characteristics of Ocean Island Rocks
162(2)
Petrogenesis of Ocean Island Magmas
164(4)
Igneous Rocks of Convergent Margins
168(23)
Igneous Rocks of Convergent Oceanic Plates
169(7)
Chemistry and Petrography of Island Arc Volcanics
170(3)
Petrogenesis of Island Arc Magmas
173(3)
Igneous Rocks of the Continental Margins
176(11)
The Ophiolite Suite
177(3)
Continental Magmatic Arcs
180(1)
Chemical Compositions and Petrography
181(2)
Petrogenesis of Continental Arc Magmas
183(1)
The Role of Secondary Melting: Introduction to the Granite Problem
184(3)
Continent-Continent Collision
187(4)
Igneous Rocks of Continental Lithosphere
191(22)
Continental Basalt Provinces
191(6)
Flood Basalts
191(3)
Layered Mafic Intrusions
194(1)
Komatiites
195(2)
Continental Rifts
197(5)
Petrography, Composition, and Petrogenesis of Continental Rift Magmas
199(2)
Carbonatites
201(1)
Anorogenic Granitoids
202(4)
Anorthosites
206(3)
Lunar Anorthosites
206(1)
Archean Megacrystic Anorthosites
206(1)
Massif Anorthosites
207(2)
Kimberlites and Lamproites
209(4)
PART II SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
213(124)
The Occurrence of Sedimentary Rocks
215(17)
Destruction of the Rock Record
216(1)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
216(2)
Mudrocks
217(1)
Sandstones
217(1)
Carbonate Rocks
217(1)
Depositional Basins and Plate Tectonics
218(11)
Divergent Margins
222(1)
Convergent Margins
222(3)
Intracratonic Basins
225(4)
Climate
229(3)
Weathering and Soils
232(12)
The Soil Profile
232(2)
Reactions and Products
234(2)
Chemical Composition
234(1)
Structural Integrity
234(1)
Crystallinity
235(1)
Chemical Character of the Environment
235(1)
The Structure of Clay Minerals
236(1)
Soil Types
237(3)
Duricrusts
237(3)
Paleosols
240(4)
Using Paleosols to Intrepret Paleoclimate
240(4)
Conglomerates and Sandstones
244(26)
Field Observations
244(2)
Grain Size
244(1)
Dispersal Pattern and Transport Distance
244(2)
Conglomerates
246(2)
Poway Conglomerate (Cretaceous), Southern California
246(2)
Gravel Mixed with Sand or Clay
248(1)
Laboratory Studies
248(1)
Textural Maturity
248(1)
Mineral Composition
249(1)
Sandstones
249(7)
Quartz
249(1)
Feldspars
250(2)
Lithic Fragments
252(1)
Accessory Minerals
253(2)
Micas
255(1)
Classification
256(1)
Interpretive Petrology
256(4)
Tectonics and Detrital Mineral Composition
256(1)
Climate and Detrital Mineral Composition
256(2)
Transporting Agent, Depositional Environment, and Detrital Mineral Composition
258(1)
Recycling of Sediment
259(1)
Diagenesis
260(10)
Compaction
260(1)
Cementation
260(6)
Albitization
266(1)
Intrastratal Solution
266(1)
Porosity and Permeability
267(1)
Plate Tectonic Controls of Diagenesis
268(2)
Mudrocks
270(12)
Field Observations
270(3)
Textures
270(1)
Structures
270(2)
Paleocurrent Indicators
272(1)
Colors
272(1)
Fossils
273(1)
Laboratory Studies
273(1)
Mineral Composition
273(9)
Clay Minerals
275(1)
Quartz
276(1)
Feldspar
277(1)
Carbonate Minerals
277(1)
Organic Matter
277(1)
Heavy Minerals
277(1)
Sulfidic Black Shales
277(1)
Bentonite
278(1)
Pierre Shale
279(3)
Limestones and Dolomites
282(28)
Textures
283(1)
Grains
283(4)
Fossils
284(1)
Coated Grains
284(2)
Peloids
286(1)
Compound Grains
286(1)
Matrix
287(1)
Grain Size, Sorting, and Rounding
288(1)
Insoluble Residues
288(1)
Classification
288(1)
Primary Structures
289(2)
Current-Generated Structures
289(2)
Planar Lamination
291(1)
Calcium Carbonate Depositional Sites
291(5)
Platform and Shelf Carbonates
292(2)
Organic Reefs
294(1)
Reefs Without Frameworks
294(1)
Deep-Sea Carbonates
295(1)
Lacustrine Carbonates
296(1)
Diagenesis
296(6)
Seafloor Alterations
296(1)
Cementation
297(1)
Dissolution
298(1)
Mechanical Compaction
299(1)
Chemical Compaction
300(2)
Recrystallization and Replacement
302(1)
Dolomite
302(8)
Field Observations
302(1)
Laboratory Studies
303(1)
Geochemistry of Dolomite
304(1)
Environments of Formation
304(2)
Kinetic Factors
306(1)
Recrystallization
307(1)
Late Diagenetic Dolomite
307(3)
Other Types of Sedimentary Rocks
310(27)
Evaporites
310(9)
Abundance
310(2)
Mineralogy
312(1)
Distinguishing Marine from Nonmarine Evaporites
312(1)
Distinguishing Primary from Secondary Features
313(1)
Sedimentary Structures
313(1)
Sinkholes
314(1)
Laboratory Studies
314(1)
Gulf Coast Salt Basin
315(1)
Ochoan Series, Delaware Basin
315(3)
Origin of Giant Marine Evaporite Deposits
318(1)
Summary of Evaporites
319(1)
Chert
319(4)
Occurrences
319(1)
Chert in Shallow-Water Limestones
320(1)
Bedded Cherts at Plate Margins
321(1)
Cherts in Saline, Alkaline Lakes
321(1)
Laboratory Studies
322(1)
Chemical Considerations
322(1)
Summary of Cherts
323(1)
Iron-Rich Rocks
323(5)
Iron Formations
324(1)
Mineral Composition
324(1)
Textures and Structures
324(1)
Field Relationships
325(1)
Iron Formations and the Precambrian Atmosphere
326(1)
Ironstones
327(1)
Summary of Iron-Rich Rocks
328(1)
Phosphorites
328(5)
Field Observations
329(1)
Laboratory Studies
329(2)
Chemical Considerations
331(1)
Summary of Phosphorites
332(1)
Coal
333(4)
PART III METAMORPHIC ROCKS
337(128)
Introduction to Metamorphism: Isograds, Facies, and P-T Evolution
339(20)
A Definition of Metamorphism
340(1)
Metamorphic Isograds
341(2)
Metamorphic Facies and Facies Series
343(3)
Metamorphic Facies
343(3)
Facies Series
346(1)
Pressure-Temperature-Time Models for Metamorphism
346(5)
A Thermal Model for Contact Metamorphism
347(1)
A Thermal Model for Regional Metamorphism
348(2)
Thermal Evolution of Granulite Facies Terranes
350(1)
Influence of Tectonics on Metamorphic P-T-t Paths
351(8)
Convergent Margins with Subduction
351(2)
Continent-Continent Collision
353(1)
The Alpine Example
353(1)
The Appalachian Example
354(5)
Metamorphism and the Macroscopic Properties of Metamorphic Rocks
359(22)
The Origins of Metamorphic Petrology
359(1)
Types of Metamorphism
360(1)
Metamorphic Minerals
361(4)
Metamorphic Orthosilicates
361(3)
Metamorphic Chain Silicates
364(1)
Nonsilicates
365(1)
Metamorphic Textures and Structures
365(3)
Metamorphic Recrystallization
368(3)
Initiation of Metamorphism
368(1)
Increase in Grain Size
368(2)
Growth of Porphyroblasts
370(1)
Common Metamorphic Rock Types
371(3)
Mudrocks
371(1)
Calcareous Rocks
372(1)
Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks
372(1)
Other Rock Types
373(1)
Field Observations of Metamorphic Rocks
374(7)
Regional Metamorphic Rocks
378(1)
Contact Metamorphic Rocks
378(1)
Identification of Rock Types
378(3)
Assemblages, Reactions, and Equilibrium in Metamorphic Rocks
381(15)
Components, Phases, and Assemblages
381(2)
The Concept of Equilibrium
383(1)
Application of Equilibrium Concepts to Metamorphic Rocks
384(1)
Reactions and the Phase Rule
385(3)
Graphical Representation of Assemblages and Reactions
388(8)
Fundamental Principles
388(2)
More Complex Systems: ACF, A'KF, and AFM Diagrams
390(6)
Metamorphic Reactions
396(15)
Environmental Controls
396(3)
Temperature and Pressure
396(2)
Compositions of Metamorphic Fluids
398(1)
Fluid Inclusions
398(1)
Metamorphic Reactions
399(3)
Reaction Mechanisms
402(1)
Types of Metamorphic Reactions
403(8)
Discontinuous (Univariant) Reactions
404(1)
Continuous (Divariant) Reactions and Distribution Coefficients
405(1)
Simple Solid-Solid Reactions
406(2)
Dehydration and Decarbonation Reactions
408(3)
Metamorphism of Mafic and Ultramafic Igneous Rocks
411(16)
Seafloor Metamorphism and Hydrothermal Alteration
411(2)
Burial Metamorphism
413(2)
Low- and Medium-Pressure Regional Metamorphism
415(7)
Greenschist Facies
415(2)
Amphibolite Facies
417(4)
Granulite Facies
421(1)
High-Pressure Regional Metamorphism
422(5)
Blueschist Facies
422(1)
Eclogite Facies
423(4)
Metamorphism of Aluminous Clastic Rocks
427(19)
Aluminous Rock Compositions
427(2)
Very Low Grade Metamorphism
429(1)
Metamorphism at Moderate MFG: The Barrovian Sequence
430(9)
Chlorite Zone
431(1)
Biotite Zone
432(1)
Garnet Zone
433(1)
Staurolite Zone
434(1)
Kyanite Zone
435(1)
Sillimanite Zone
436(1)
Sillimanite-Orthoclase and Higher-Grade Zones
437(1)
Influence of Minor Components
438(1)
Metamorphism at High MFG--Low-Pressure Sequences
439(1)
Low-Pressure Metamorphism in Northeast Scotland
440(1)
Metamorphism at Low MFG--High-Pressure Sequences
440(1)
UHP Metamorphism
441(1)
Melting of Aluminous Rocks
442(4)
Metamorphism of Calcareous Rocks
446(19)
The Role and Behavior of Metamorphic Fluids
446(4)
Mixed Volatile Equilibria
446(2)
Internal Control of Fluid Compositions
448(1)
Infiltration and Buffering of Fluid Composition
449(1)
Metamorphic Reactions and Assemblages in Marbles
450(6)
Regional Metamorphism
450(3)
Contact Metamorphism of Marbles
453(3)
Metamorphism of Calc-Silicate Rocks
456(9)
Prograde Assemblages in Calc-Silicates
457(4)
Further Observations on Calc-Silicate Rocks
461(4)
APPENDIX 1 Calculation of the CIPW Norm
465(6)
Mode and Norm---What and Why
465(1)
CIPW Norm Calculation
466(5)
APPENDIX 2 Pressure-Temperature Determination
471(11)
General Principles
471(3)
Exchange Thermometry
471(2)
Solvus Thermometry
473(1)
Net-Transfer Equilibria
473(1)
Other Geothermobarometers
473(1)
Igneous Rock Geothermobarometry
474(1)
Temperature Determination
474(1)
Pressure Determination
475(1)
Metamorphic Rock Geothermobarometry
475(3)
Temperature Determination
475(1)
Pressure Determination
476(1)
Thermodynamic Database Approaches
477(1)
Uncertainties in Quantitative P-T Estimation
478(1)
Sedimentary Rock Thermometry
478(4)
Vitrinite Reflectance
478(2)
Conodont Color Alteration
480(2)
APPENDIX 3 Isotopes in Petrology
482(8)
Isotopic Basics
482(1)
Measurement of Stable, Radioactive, and Radiogenic Isotopes
483(1)
Stable Isotopes in Petrology and Geochemistry
483(3)
Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes
484(1)
Carbon Isotopes
485(1)
Sulfur Isotopes
485(1)
Nitrogen Isotopes
485(1)
Radioactive and Radiogenic Isotopes
486(4)
Potassium-Argon
486(1)
Rubidium-Strontium
487(1)
Samarium-Neodymium
488(1)
Uranium-Thorium-Lead
488(2)
APPENDIX 4 Applications of Trace-Element Data in Igneous Petrology
490(9)
Trace-Element Partitioning
490(1)
Rare-Earth Elements as an Example of Trace-Element Partitioning
491(2)
Trace-Element Modeling
493(2)
Partial Melting
493(1)
Fractional Crystallization
494(1)
Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization
494(1)
Other Uses of Trace Elements
495(4)
General Comparisons
495(1)
Classification
495(1)
Interpretation of Tectonic Setting
496(3)
Glossary 499(16)
Index 515


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