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Pharmaceutical Calculations

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Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
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The gold standard textbook in its area for sixty years, Pharmaceutical Calculations is now in its Twelfth Edition. Every chapter has been revised and updated to reflect the basic calculations applicable to the contemporary practice of pharmacy. This edition provides expanded coverage of enteral and parenteral nutrition. New features include "Calculations Capsules" -boxed summaries of the type of calculation presented in each chapter, and "A Case in Point" -practical cases with step-by-step solutions to demonstrate each type of calculation. Review exercises at the end of the book are completely updated. This edition includes answers to all practice and review problems.

Table of Contents

Some Fundamentals of Measurement and Calculation
Numbers and Numerals
Kinds of Numbers
Arabic Numerals
Roman Numerals
Common and Decimal Fractions
Exponential Notation Fundamental
Arithmetic Operations with Exponentials Ratio, Proportion, and Variation Dimensional Analysis
Significant Figures
Estimation Percentage of Error
Measurement of Volume
Measurement of Weight
Aliquot Method of Weighing and Measuring
Least Weighable Quantity Method of Weighing
Interpretation of the Prescription or Medication Order
Medication Scheduling and Patient Compliance
The Metric System
Measure of Length
Measure of volume
Measure of Weight
Fundamental Computations
Relation of Metric to Other Systems of Measurement
Calculation of Doses Calibration of Droppers
Calculations in Miscellaneous
Dosage Problems Special Dosing
Considerations for the Pediatric and Elderly
Drug Dosage
Based on Age Drug Dosage
Based on Body Weight Drug Dosage
Based on Body Surface Area
Special Dosing Considerations in Cancer Chemotherapy
Clinical Laboratory Test Values and Dosage Heparin
Dosing Calculations Reducing and Enlarging Formulas
Formulas that Specify Amounts of Ingredients
Formulas that Specify Proportional Parts Density, Specific Gravity, and Specific volume
Density Specific Gravity
Density Versus Specific Gravity
Calculating the Specific Gravity of Liquids
Calculating the Specific Gravity of Solids
Calculating the Specific Volume
Use of Specific Gravity in Calculations of Weight and Volume Percentage
Ratio Strength, and Other Expressions of Concentration Percentage
Percentage Preparations
Percentage Weight-in-Volume
Percentage Volume-in Volume
Percentage Weight-Weight
Use of Percent in Compendial Standards Ratio
Strength Simple Conversions of Concentration to "mg/mL" Milligrams
Percent Expressing Clinical Laboratory Test Values
Parts per Million (PPM) and Parts per Billion (PPB)
Dilution and Concentration
Relationship Between Strength and Total Quantity
Dilution and Concentration of Liquids Stock Solutions
Dilution of Alcohol
Dilution of Acids
Dilution and Concentration of Solids
Triturations Alligation Specific
Gravity of Mixtures Isotonic Solutions
Preparation of Isotonic Solutions
Electrolyte Solutions:Milliequivalents, Millimoles, and Milliosmoles
Millimoles Osmolarity Clinical Considerations and Calculations
Some Calculations Involving Units, jug/mg, and other Measures of Potency
Constituted Solutions, Intravenous Admixtures, and Rate of Flow Calculations
Constitution of Dry Powders Intravenous
Admixtures Parenteral Nutrition
Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids
Some calculations in Contemporary Compounding
Use of Prefabricated Dosage Forms in Compounding
Pharmaceutical Formulas
Body Mass Index and the Nutrition
Label Body Mass index (BMI)
The Nutrition Label Some calculations
Associated with Drug Availability and Pharmacokinetics Drug Availability from Dosage
Forms and Delivery Systems Some introductory
Concepts and Calculations
Involved in Pharmacokinetics Dosage Calculations
Based on Creatinine Clearance Some Calculations
Associated with Olant Extractives Calculation of Active
Drug Moiety Atomic and Molecular Weights
Chemically Equivalent Quantities
Active Drug Moiety Equivalence
Some Calculations Associated with Plant
Exractives Extracts, Fluidextracts and Tinctures Botanic
Dietary Supplements Some Calculations
Involving Radiopharmaceuticals Radioisotopes
Radioactivity Units of Radioactivity
Some Pharmacoeconomic Calculations
Pharmacoeconomic Methods of Analysis
Cost Considerations of Drug and Drug
Product Selection
Drug Acquisition Costs Markup
Prescription Pricing Miscellaneous
Pharmaceutics Calculations Solubility
Ratios Emulsion Nucleaus
Hydrophille-Lipophile-Balance (HLB)
System Buffers and Buffers Solutions
Thermometry Proof Strength
The Common System of Measurement and Intersystem Conversion
Graphical Methods
Basic Statistical Concepts
Glossary of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery
Systems Review
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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