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Pharmaceutical Calculations,9780781762656
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Pharmaceutical Calculations

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780781762656

ISBN10:
0781762650
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/30/2005
Publisher(s):
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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Summary

This essential text is your best resource for mastering the basic calculations used in contemporary pharmacy practice. Now in continuous publication for 60 years, this fully revised 12th Edition builds on its reputation as the gold standard text for pharmaceutical calculations. Every chapter in this new edition has been updated to reflect the latest information in the field. The sequence of chapters has been reorganized to improve the flow and organization of the text.

Table of Contents

Introduction xv
Scope of Pharmaceutical Calculations xv
Fundamentals of Pharmaceutical Calculations
1(24)
Numbers and Numerals
1(1)
Kinds of Numbers
1(1)
Arabic Numerals
2(1)
Roman Numerals
3(1)
Common and Decimal Fractions
4(4)
Percent
8(2)
Exponential Notation
10(2)
Ratio, Proportion, and Variation
12(2)
Dimensional Analysis
14(5)
Significant Figures
19(2)
Estimation
21(4)
International System of Units
25(14)
Guidelines for the Correct Use of the SI
26(1)
Special Considerations of the SI in Pharmacy
27(1)
Measure of Length
28(1)
Measure of Volume
29(1)
Measure of Weight
30(1)
Fundamental Computations
31(3)
Relation of the SI to Other Systems of Measurement
34(5)
Pharmaceutical Measurement
39(12)
Measurement of Volume
39(2)
Measurement of Weight
41(1)
Aliquot Method of Weighing and Measuring
42(4)
Least Weighable Quantity Method of Weighing
46(1)
Percentage of Error
47(4)
Interpretation of Prescriptions and Medication Orders
51(16)
Range of Prescription and Medication Order Calculations
52(3)
Prescription and Medication Order Accuracy
55(2)
Use of Abbreviations and Symbols
57(4)
Medication Scheduling and Patient Compliance
61(6)
Density, Specific Gravity, and Specific Volume
67(12)
Density
67(1)
Specific Gravity
67(2)
Density Versus Specific Gravity
69(1)
Calculating the Specific Gravity of Liquids
69(2)
Use of Specific Gravity in Calculations of Weight and Volume
71(1)
Special Considerations of Specific Gravity
72(1)
Calculating Specific Volume
73(6)
Percentage, Ratio Strength, and Other Expressions of Concentration
79(20)
Percentage
79(1)
Percentage Preparations
79(1)
Special Considerations in Percentage Calculations
80(1)
Percentage Weight-in-Volume
80(2)
Percentage Volume-in-Volume
82(1)
Percentage Weight-in-Weight
83(3)
Use of Percent in Compendial Standards
86(1)
Ratio Strength
87(2)
Simple Conversions of Concentration to ``mg/mL''
89(2)
Milligrams Percent
91(1)
Parts Per Million (PPM) and Parts Per Billion (PPB)
91(8)
Calculation of Doses: General Considerations
99(16)
Dose Definitions
99(3)
Routes of Drug/Dose Administration and Dosage Forms
102(1)
Dose Measurement
102(3)
General Dose Calculations
105(3)
Dosing Options
108(7)
Calculation of Doses: Patient Parameters
115(20)
Pediatric Patients
115(1)
Geriatric Patients
116(1)
Dosage Forms Applicable to Pediatric and Geriatric Patients
117(1)
Drug Dosage Based on Age
118(1)
Drug Dosage Based on Body Weight
119(2)
Drug Dosage Based on Body Surface Area
121(5)
Special Dosing Considerations in Cancer Chemotherapy
126(9)
Some Calculations Involving ``Units,'' ``μg/mg,'' and Other Measures of Potency
135(8)
Selected Clinical Calculations
143(14)
Heparin-Dosing Calculations
143(3)
Dosage Calculations Based on Creatinine Clearance
146(4)
Clinical Laboratory Tests
150(7)
Isotonic and Buffer Solutions
157(20)
Special Clinical Considerations of Tonicity
157(1)
Physical/Chemical Considerations in the Preparation of Isotonic Solutions
158(9)
Buffers and Buffer Solutions
167(10)
Electrolyte Solutions: Milliequivalents, Millimoles, and Milliosmoles
177(18)
Milliequivalents
177(5)
Millimoles
182(1)
Osmolarity
182(3)
Clinical Considerations of Water and Electrolyte Balance
185(10)
Intravenous Infusions, Parenteral Admixtures, and Rate-of-Flow Calculations
195(18)
Intravenous Infusions
195(3)
Intravenous Push (IVP) Drug Administration
198(1)
Special Considerations in Pediatric IV Infusion Delivery
199(1)
Intravenous Admixtures
200(2)
Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids
202(11)
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition, Body Mass Index, and the Food Nutrition Label
213(22)
Enteral Nutrition
213(2)
Parenteral Nutrition
215(1)
Nutritional Requirements
216(2)
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Calculations
218(5)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
223(2)
The Nutrition Label
225(10)
Dilution, Concentration, and Alligation
235(28)
Special Considerations of Dilution and Concentration in Pharmaceutical Compounding
235(1)
Relationship Between Strength and Total Quantity
236(1)
Dilution and Concentration of Liquids
236(2)
Stock Solutions
238(5)
Dilution of Alcohol
243(1)
Dilution of Acids
244(1)
Dilution and Concentration of Solids and Semisolids
244(2)
Triturations
246(1)
Alligation
247(5)
Specific Gravity of Mixtures
252(11)
Reducing and Enlarging Formulas
263(8)
Formulas That Specify Proportional Parts
265(6)
Selected Calculations in Contemporary Compounding
271(20)
General Considerations in Compounding Practice
271(1)
Constitution of Dry Powders
271(5)
Use of Prefabricated Dosage Forms in Compounding
276(2)
Special Calculations: Capsule Filling and Suppository Molding
278(3)
Compounding Specialized Formulas
281(10)
Selected Calculations Involving Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
291(6)
Special Considerations in Compounding Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
292(5)
Selected Calculations Associated with Plant Extractives
297(6)
Extracts, Fluidextracts, and Tinctures
298(2)
Botanic Dietary Supplements
300(3)
Calculation of Active Drug Moiety
303(8)
Atomic and Molecular Weights
303(1)
Chemically Equivalent Quantities
304(1)
Active Drug Moiety Equivalence
305(6)
Selected Calculations Involving Radiopharmaceuticals
311(10)
Radioisotopes
311(1)
Radioactivity
311(3)
Units of Radioactivity
314(7)
Selected Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetic Calculations
321(12)
Drug Availability From Dosage Forms and Delivery Systems
321(4)
Introductory Concepts and Calculations Involved in Pharmacokinetics
325(8)
Selected Pharmacoeconomic Calculations
333(16)
Pharmacoeconomic Methods of Analysis
333(1)
Cost Considerations of Drug and Drug Product Selection
334(3)
Drug Acquisition Costs
337(1)
Markup
338(1)
Prescription Pricing
339(2)
Pharmacoeconomic Aspect of Proof Strength
341(8)
Appendix A Common Systems of Measurement and Intersystem Conversion
349(12)
Apothecaries' Fluid Measure
349(1)
Apothecaries' Measure of Weight
349(1)
Avoirdupois Measure of Weight
350(1)
Fundamental Operations and Calculations
350(2)
Relationship Between Avoirdupois and Apothecaries' Weights
352(1)
Intersystem Conversion
353(1)
Conversion of Linear Quantities
354(1)
Conversion of Liquid Quantities
355(1)
Conversion of Weights
355(1)
Conversion of Temperatures
356(5)
Appendix B Graphical Methods
361(10)
Linear Relationships on Rectangular Graph Paper
361(3)
Linear Relationships on Semilogarithmic Graph Paper
364(1)
Other Methods of Data Presentation: Tables and Charts
364(7)
Appendix C Basic Statistical Concepts
371(12)
The Array
371(1)
The Frequency Distribution
371(1)
Averages
372(1)
Measures of Variation
373(1)
Aspects of Probability
374(9)
Appendix D Glossary of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems
383(6)
Review Problems 389(18)
Answers to Review Problems 407(8)
Index 415


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