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Pharmacology; A Nursing Process Approach,9780721639277

Pharmacology; A Nursing Process Approach

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ISBN13:

9780721639277

ISBN10:
0721639275
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/11/2005
Publisher(s):
Saunders
List Price: $76.95

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Summary

This full-color pharmacology textbook is full of innovative, user-friendly features such as prototype drug charts, nursing process sections, and an extensive math/dosage calculations section. The 5th edition has been completely updated and includes a Companion CD-ROM that contains animations, NCLEX® examination-style review questions, printable IV therapy and medication safety checklists, drug calculation problems, and convenient electronic calculators. A separate drug calculations section - Medications and Calculations - features 65 pages of math review and step-by-step instructions for dosage calculations using the four primary methods - basic formula, ratio and proportion, dimensional analysis, and fractional equation. Nursing Process sections relate nursing care to drug therapy. Each step of the nursing process includes concise actions for the plan of care in relation to treatment for selected drug prototypes. A chapter on Principles of Drug Administration features comprehensive coverage of the procedures for administering drugs. It addresses all routes of administration and various settings. Unit openers for drug therapy chapters include an illustrated overview of normal anatomy and physiology, giving readers the foundation for understanding how the drug works in that body system. Herbal Alert boxes highlight various herbal products and their interactions with drugs. More than 100 detailed Prototype Drug Charts list the following information: dosage, indication, contraindication, drug-lab-food interactions, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic effects, side effects, and adverse reactions. Highlighted Client Teaching, Cultural Considerations, and Herbal Alerts are included in the Nursing Process sections to emphasize key implications for nurses. Client Teaching in the nursing process sections guide readers through instructions for teaching patients about medication, self-administration, dietary concerns, and side effects. Includes a separate Transcultural and Genetic Considerations chapter. Critical Thinking Case Studies and Study Questions at the end of each chapter present readers with a clinical scenario and several questions that reinforce key concepts and encourage critical thinking. A new chapter on substance abuse addresses this important aspect of the nurse's role in pharmacology. Preventing Medication Errors boxes draw attention to important safety considerations and present guidelines from the Institute for Safe Medication Practice (ISMP). Critical Thinking Case Study boxes provide clinical scenarios and questions to sharpen analytical and critical thinking skills. Now includes step-by-step instructions for dosage calculations using dimensional analysis. Web sites, organizations, and research database information are available at the end of clinical chapters for further review and research. The newest JCAHO guidelines for medication safety are applied throughout the text and the abbreviations appendix has been revised to reflect these updates. Includes a new Herb/Drug Interaction chart, as well as new sugar-free and alcohol-free drug lists. Features updated coverage of pain as the fifth vital sign. Look-alike/sound-alike drugs are highlighted throughout to promote safe drug administration. Includes a list of the 200 most frequently prescribed drugs. Electronic Resources boxes at the beginning of each chapter direct readers to additional learning activities available on the Companion CD and the Evolve website.

Author Biography

Linda E. McCuistion is a Professor in the Division of Nursing at Our Lady of Holy Cross College in New Orleans, Louisiana. Evelyn R. Hayes is Professor in the School of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, at the University of Delaware. Joyce LeFever Kee was a distinguished faculty educator at the University of Maryland for 4 years and at the University of Delaware for 27 years.

Table of Contents

One: A Nurse's Perspective of Pharmacology
1(44)
Drug Action: Pharmaceutic, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Phases
2(12)
Introduction
3(1)
Pharmaceutic Phase
3(1)
Pharmacokinetic Phase
3(4)
Absorption
3(1)
Distribution
4(1)
Metabolism, or Biotransformation
5(1)
Excretion, or Elimination
6(1)
Pharmacodynamic Phase
7(7)
Dose Response and Maximal Efficacy
7(1)
Onset, Peak, and Duration of Action
7(1)
Receptor Theory
7(2)
Therapeutic Index and Therapeutic Range (Therapeutic Window)
9(1)
Peak and Trough Levels
9(1)
Loading Dose
10(1)
Side Effects, Adverse Reactions, and Toxic Effects
11(1)
Pharmacogenetics
11(1)
Tachyphylaxis
11(1)
Placebo Effect
11(1)
Summary
11(3)
Nursing Process and Client Teaching
14(9)
Introduction
15(1)
Nursing Process
15(8)
Assessment
15(1)
Planning
16(1)
Implementation
16(5)
Evaluation
21(2)
Principles of Drug Administration
23(22)
Introduction
24(1)
The ``Five-Plus-Five Rights'' of Drug Administration
24(7)
Medication Self-Administration
31(1)
Special Considerations: Factors That Modify Drug Response
31(1)
Guidelines for Drug Administration
32(1)
Forms and Routes for Drug Administration
32(10)
Tablets and Capsules
32(1)
Liquids
33(1)
Transdermal
33(1)
Topical
34(1)
Instillations
34(1)
Inhalations
35(2)
Nasogastric and Gastrostomy Tubes
37(1)
Suppositories
37(1)
Parenteral
37(5)
Nursing Implications for Administration of Parenteral Medications
42(1)
Sites
42(1)
Equipment
42(1)
Technique
42(1)
Developmental Needs of Pediatric Clients
42(1)
Technologic Advances
42(3)
Two: Medications and Calculations
45(74)
Medications and Calculations
46(73)
Overview
46(1)
Section 4A Systems of Measurement with Conversion
46(1)
Introduction
47(1)
Metric System
47(1)
Conversion Within the Metric System
48(1)
Metric Conversion
48(1)
Apothecary System
48(1)
Apothecary Conversion
49(1)
Household System
49(2)
Household Conversion
50(1)
Conversion Among the Metric, Apothecary, and Household Systems
51(2)
Metric, Apothecary, and Household Equivalents
52(1)
Section 4B Methods for Calculation
53(1)
Introduction
54(1)
Interpreting Oral and Injectable Drug Labels
55(1)
Method 1: Basic Formula (BF)
55(1)
Method 2: Ratio and Proportion (RP)
56(1)
Method 3: Fractional Equation (FE)
57(1)
Method 4: Dimensional Analysis (DA)
58(1)
Method 5: Body Weight (BW)
59(1)
Method 6: Body Surface Area (BSA)
60(7)
BSA with the Square Root
62(5)
Section 4C Calculations of Oral Dosages
67(1)
Introduction
67(1)
Tablets, Capsules, and Liquids
68(1)
Interpreting Oral Drug Labels
68(1)
Drug Differentiation
69(1)
Preventing Medication Errors
69(1)
Calculation for Tablet, Capsule, and Liquid Doses
70(4)
Body Weight and Body Surface Area
74(1)
Drugs Administered Via Nasogastric Tube
74(2)
Section 4D Calculations of Injectable Dosages
76(1)
Introduction
76(1)
Injectable Preparations
76(1)
Vials and Ampules
77(1)
Syringes
77(4)
Prefilled Drug Cartridges and Syringes
79(1)
Needles
80(1)
Interpreting Injectable Drug Labels
81(1)
Intradermal Injections
81(1)
Subcutaneous Injections
81(2)
Calculations: Subcutaneous Injections
82(1)
Insulin Injections
83(3)
Types of Insulins
83(2)
Mixing Insulins
85(1)
Intramuscular Injections
86(8)
Drug Solutions for Injection
86(1)
Powdered Drug Reconstitution
86(1)
Mixing Injectable Drugs
87(6)
Section 4E Calculations of Intravenous Fluids
93(1)
Introduction
94(1)
Continuous Intravenous Administration
94(4)
Intravenous Sets
94(1)
Calculation Intravenous Flow Rate
95(1)
Mixing Drugs for Continuous Intravenous Administration
95(3)
Intermittent Intravenous Administration
98(1)
Secondary Intravenous Sets Without IV Pumps
98(1)
Intermittent Infusion Adapters/Devices
98(1)
SASH Procedure
99(1)
Direct Intravenous Injections
99(1)
Electronic Intravenous Regulators
100(1)
Patient-Controlled Analgesia
101(1)
Client Teaching
101(1)
Calculating Flow Rates for Intravenous Drugs
102(6)
Section 4F Pediatric Drug Calculations
108(1)
Introduction
108(1)
Oral
109(1)
Intramuscular
109(1)
Pediatric Dosage per Body Weight
110(1)
Pediatric Dosage per Body Surface Area
111(1)
Pediatric Dosage From Adult Dosage
112(2)
Pediatric Calculations for Injectables
114(5)
Three: Contemporary Issues in Pharmacology
119(100)
The Drug Approval Process
120(8)
Introduction
121(1)
Drug Standards and Legislation
121(2)
Drug Standards
121(1)
Federal Legislation
121(2)
Nurse Practice Acts
123(1)
Canadian Drug Regulation
123(1)
Initiatives to Combat Drug Counterfeiting
124(1)
Drug Names
124(1)
Drug Resources
125(1)
Food and Drug Administration Pregnancy Categories
126(1)
Poison Control Centers
126(1)
Ethical Considerations
126(1)
International Issues
127(1)
Transcultural and Genetic Considerations
128(11)
Introduction
129(1)
The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence
129(1)
The Domains of Culture
129(10)
Overview/Heritage
129(1)
Communication
129(2)
Family Organization
131(1)
Biocultural Ecology
131(1)
High-Risk Behaviors
132(1)
Nutrition
132(1)
Spirituality
132(1)
Health Care Practices
132(1)
Health Care Practitioners
133(6)
Drug Interaction and Over-the-Counter Drugs
139(10)
Introduction
140(1)
Drug Interaction
140(3)
Pharmacokinetic Interactions
140(1)
Pharmacodynamic Interactions
141(2)
Drug-Food Interactions
143(1)
Drug-Laboratory Interactions
144(1)
Drug-Induced Photosensitivity
144(1)
Over-the-Counter Drugs
144(5)
Cold and Cough Remedies
146(1)
Sleep Aids
146(1)
Weight-Control Drugs
147(2)
Drugs of Abuse
149(19)
Introduction
150(2)
Terminology of Drug Abuse
150(1)
Neurobiology of Addictive Drugs
150(1)
Overview of Addictive States
151(1)
Stimulants
152(5)
Nicotine
152(2)
Cocaine
154(2)
Amphetamines
156(1)
Caffeine
157(1)
Depressants
157(4)
Alcohol
157(3)
Sedative-Hypnotics
160(1)
Opioids
160(1)
Other Drugs of Abuse
161(3)
Cannabis
161(1)
Psychedelic Agents
162(2)
Inhalants
164(1)
Special Needs of Drug-Abusing Clients
164(1)
Surgical Clients
164(1)
Pain Management
165(1)
Chemical Impairment in Nurses
165(1)
Contributing Factors
165(1)
Characteristics
165(1)
Management
165(1)
Summary
166(2)
Herbal Therapy with Nursing Implications
168(16)
Introduction
169(1)
Herbal Monographs
169(1)
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994
170(1)
Proposed Standards
170(1)
Herbal Preparations
170(1)
Commonly Used Herbal Remedies
171(2)
Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)
171(1)
Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
171(1)
Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis)
171(1)
Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia)
171(1)
Feverfew, (Chrysanthemum parthenium)
171(1)
Garlic (Allium sativum)
171(1)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
172(1)
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
172(1)
Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
172(1)
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)
172(1)
Kava (Piper methysticum)
172(1)
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
172(1)
Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
172(1)
Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
172(1)
St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
172(1)
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens)
173(1)
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)
173(1)
Summary of Commonly Used Herbal Remedies
173(1)
Using Herbs to Treat Selected Common Ailments
173(1)
Potential Hazards of Herbs
173(7)
Tips for Consumers and Health Care Providers
180(2)
Herbal Resources
182(1)
Organizations
182(1)
Research Databases
182(1)
Summary
182(2)
Pediatric Pharmacology
184(9)
Introduction
185(1)
Pharmacokinetics
185(2)
Absorption
185(1)
Distribution
186(1)
Metabolism
186(1)
Excretion
187(1)
Pharmacodynamics
187(1)
Nursing Implications
187(2)
Pediatric Medication Dosing and Monitoring
187(1)
Pediatric Medication Administration
188(1)
Nursing Process
189(1)
Considerations for the Adolescent
190(3)
Geriatric Pharmacology
193(9)
Introduction
194(1)
Physiologic Changes
194(1)
Polypharmacy
194(1)
Pharmacokinetics
195(1)
Absorption
195(1)
Distribution
195(1)
Metabolism or Biotransformation
196(1)
Excretion
196(1)
Pharmacodynamics
196(1)
Effects of Selected Drug Groups on Older Adults
197(1)
Hypnotics
197(1)
Diuretics and Antihypertensives
197(1)
Cardiac Glycosides
198(1)
Anticoagulants
198(1)
Antibacterials
198(1)
Gastrointestinal Drugs
198(1)
Antidepressants
198(1)
Narcotic Analgesics
198(1)
Noncompliance/Nonadherence
198(1)
Health Teaching with the Older Adult
199(3)
Medication Administration in Community Settings
202(9)
Introduction
203(1)
Client Teaching
203(2)
General
203(1)
Diet
204(1)
Self-Administration
204(1)
Side Effects
205(1)
Cultural Considerations
205(1)
Community-Based Settings
205(3)
Home Setting
205(2)
School Setting
207(1)
Work Setting
208(1)
Summary
208(3)
The Role of the Nurse in Drug Research
211(8)
Introduction
212(1)
Basic Ethical Principles
212(2)
Respect for Person
212(1)
Beneficence
212(1)
Justice
212(1)
Informed Consent
212(2)
Risk-to-Benefit Ratio
214(1)
Objectives and Phases of Human Clinical Experimentation
214(2)
Preclinical Testing
214(1)
Human Clinical Experimentation
214(1)
Study Designs
215(1)
Nurse's Role
215(1)
Recent Developments and What Is on the Horizon
216(3)
Four: Nutrition and Electrolytes
219(42)
Vitamin and Mineral Replacement
220(14)
Introduction
221(1)
Vitamins
221(9)
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
223(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 14-1: Vitamin A
223(1)
Water-Soluble Vitamins
224(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 14-2: Vitamin C
226(4)
Minerals
230(4)
Iron
230(1)
Copper
230(1)
Zinc
230(1)
Chromium
230(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 14-3: Iron
231(1)
Selenium
231(3)
Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement
234(17)
Introduction
235(1)
Body Fluids
235(1)
Osmolarity and Tonicity
236(1)
Fluid Replacement
236(2)
Intravenous Solutions
236(2)
Electrolytes
238(13)
Potassium
238(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 15-1: Potassium
239(3)
Sodium
242(2)
Calcium
244(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 15-2: Calcium
245(3)
Magnesium
248(3)
Nutritional Support
251(10)
Introduction
252(1)
Enteral Nutrition
252(5)
Routes for Enteral Feedings
252(1)
Enteral Solutions
252(2)
Methods for Delivery
254(1)
Complications
255(1)
Enteral Medications
255(2)
Parenteral Nutrition
257(4)
Total Parenteral Nutrition
257(1)
Complications
257(4)
Five: Autonomic Nervous System Agents
261(34)
Adrenergics and Adrenergic Blockers
265(15)
Introduction
266(1)
Adrenergics
266(8)
Inactivation of Neurotransmitters
268(1)
Classification of Sympathomimetics/Adrenomimetics
268(1)
Epinephrine
268(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 17-1: Epinephrine
269(1)
Albuterol
269(1)
Isoproterenol Hydrochloride
270(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 17-2: Albuterol
270(1)
Clonidine and Methyldopa
271(3)
Adrenergic Blockers (Antagonists)
274(6)
Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers
274(1)
Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
274(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 17-3: Atenolol
275(2)
Adrenergic Neuron Blockers
277(3)
Cholinergics and Anticholinergics
280(15)
Introduction
281(1)
Cholinergics
281(4)
Direct-Acting Cholinergics
282(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 18-1: Bethanechol Chloride
283(1)
Indirect-Acting Cholinergics
284(1)
Anticholinergics
285(4)
Atropine
286(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 18-2: Atropine
287(2)
Antiparkinson-Anticholinergic Drugs
289(1)
Antihistamines for Treating Motion Sickness
289(6)
Prototype Drug Chart 18-3: Trihexyphenidyl HCI
290(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 18-4: Tolterodine Tartrate
292(3)
Six: Neurologic and Neuromuscular Agents
295(78)
Central Nervous System Stimulants
298(9)
Introduction
299(1)
Pathophysiology
299(1)
Amphetamines
299(3)
Amphetamine-Like Drugs for ADHD and Narcolepsy
299(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 19-1: Methylphenidate
300(2)
Anorexiants
302(1)
Analeptics
302(1)
Respiratory Central Nervous System Stimulant
303(1)
Headaches: Migraine and Cluster
303(4)
Pathophysiology
304(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 19-2: Sumatriptan
305(2)
Central Nervous System Depressants
307(14)
Introduction
308(1)
Types and Stages of Sleep
308(1)
Nonpharmacologic Methods
308(1)
Sedative-Hypnotics
309(7)
Prototype Drug Chart 20-1: Secobarbital Sodium
311(1)
Barbiturates
311(2)
Benzodiazepines
313(1)
Nonbenzodiazepines
313(1)
Piperidinediones
313(1)
Chloral Hydrate
313(1)
Sedatives and Hypnotics for Older Adults
313(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 20-2: Zolpidem Tartrate
315(1)
Anesthetics
316(5)
Pathophysiology
316(1)
Balanced Anesthesia
316(1)
Stages of General Anesthesia
316(1)
Assessment Before Surgery
316(1)
Inhalation Anesthetics
317(1)
Intravenous Anesthetics
317(1)
Topical Anesthetics
317(1)
Local Anesthetics
317(1)
Spinal Anesthesia
317(4)
Drugs for Pain Management: Nonnarcotic and Narcotic Analgesics
321(18)
Introduction
322(1)
Pathophysiology
322(1)
Nonnarcotic Analgesics
322(5)
Salicylates and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
322(2)
Acetaminophen
324(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 21-1: Acetaminophen
325(2)
Narcotic Analgesics
327(7)
Opioid Use in Children and Older Adults
328(1)
Morphine
329(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 21-2: Morphine Sulfate
329(2)
Meperidine
331(1)
Hydromorphone
331(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 21-3: Hydromorphone
333(1)
Combination Drugs
334(1)
Transdermal Opioid Analgesics
334(1)
Narcotic Agonist-Antagonists
334(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 21-4: Nalbuphine
335(1)
Narcotic Antagonists
336(1)
Treatment for Narcotic-Addicted Persons
337(2)
Anticonvulsants
339(11)
Introduction
340(1)
International Classification of Seizures
340(1)
Anticonvulsants
340(8)
Pharmacophysiology: Action of Anticonvulsants
341(1)
Hydantoins
341(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 22-1: Phenytoin
342(1)
Barbiturates
343(1)
Succinimides
343(1)
Oxazolidones/Oxazolidinedione
343(1)
Benzodiazepines
343(1)
Iminostilbenes
343(1)
Valproate
343(1)
Anticonvulsants and Pregnancy
343(1)
Anticonvulsants and Febrile Seizures
343(5)
Anticonvulsants and Status Epilepticus
348(1)
Summary
348(2)
Drugs for Neurologic Disorders: Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's Disease
350(13)
Introduction
351(1)
Parkinsonism
351(7)
Nonpharmacologic Measures
351(1)
Pathophysiology
351(1)
Anticholinergics
351(3)
Dopaminergics
354(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 23-1: Carbidopa-Levodopa
355(1)
Dopamine Agonists
356(1)
MAO-B Inhibitor
356(1)
COMT Inhibitors
356(1)
Precautions for Drugs Used to Treat Parkinson's Disease
357(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
358(5)
Pathophysiology
358(1)
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors/Cholinesterase Inhibitors
359(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 23-2: Tacrine
360(3)
Drugs for Neuromuscular Disorders: Myasthenia Gravis, Multiple Sclerosis, and Muscle Spasms
363(10)
Introduction
364(1)
Myasthenia Gravis
364(3)
Pathophysiology
364(1)
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors/Cholinesterase Inhibitors
364(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 24-1: Pyridostigmine Bromide
365(2)
Multiple Sclerosis
367(1)
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
368(5)
Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants
368(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 24-2: Carisoprodol
370(3)
Seven: Psychiatric Agents
373(30)
Antipsychotics and Anxiolytics
375(15)
Introduction
376(1)
Psychosis
376(1)
Antipsychotic Agents
376(9)
Pharmacophysiologic Mechanisms of Action
376(1)
Adverse Reactions
376(1)
Phenothiazines
377(1)
Nonphenothiazines
378(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 25-1: Fluphenazine
379(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 25-2: Haloperidol and Haloperidol Decanoate
380(1)
Antipsychotic Dosage for Older Adults
381(1)
Atypical (Serotonin/Dopamine Antagonists) Antipsychotics
381(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 25-3: Risperidone
384(1)
Anxiolytics
385(5)
Nonpharmacologic Measures
386(1)
Benzodiazepines
386(1)
Miscellaneous Anxiolytics
386(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 25-4: Lorazepam
388(2)
Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizer
390(13)
Introduction
391(1)
Depression
391(1)
Pathophysiology
391(1)
Herbal Supplements for Depression
391(1)
Antidepressant Agents
391(8)
Tricyclic Antidepressants
391(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 26-1: Amitriptyline HCI
392(1)
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
393(1)
Atypical Antidepressants
393(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 26-2: Fluoxetine
394(1)
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
394(5)
Mood Stabilizer: Lithium for Bipolar Disorder
399(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 26-3: Lithium
399(4)
Eight: Antiinflammatory and Antiinfective Agents
403(88)
Antiinflammatory Drugs
405(18)
Introduction
406(1)
Pathophysiology
406(1)
Antiinflammatory Agents
406(1)
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
407(8)
Salicylates
407(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-1: Aspirin
410(1)
Para-Chlorobenzoic Acid
411(1)
Phenylacetic Acid Derivatives
411(1)
Propionic Acid Derivatives
411(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-2: Ibuprofen
412(1)
Fenamates
412(1)
Oxicams
413(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-3: Celecoxib
414(1)
Selective COX-2 Inhibitors (Second-Generation NSAIDs)
414(1)
Use of NSAIDs in Older Adults
414(1)
Corticosteroids
415(1)
Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs
415(3)
Gold
415(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-4: Gold
416(1)
Immunosuppressive Agents
417(1)
Immunomodulators
417(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-5: Infliximab
418(1)
Antimalarials
418(1)
Antigout Drugs
418(5)
Antiinflammatory Gout Drug: Colchicine
419(1)
Uric Acid Inhibitor
419(1)
Uricosurics
419(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 27-6: Allopurinol
420(3)
Antibacterials: Penicillins and Cephalosporins
423(16)
Introduction
424(1)
Pathophysiology
424(1)
Antibacterial Drugs
424(3)
Antibacterials/Antibiotics
424(3)
Penicillins and Cephalosporins
427(12)
Penicillins
427(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 28-1: Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin
430(2)
Cephalosporins
432(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 28-2: Cefazolin and Cefaclor
434(5)
Antibacterials: Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Aminoglycosides, and Fluoroquinolones
439(15)
Introduction
440(1)
Macrolides, Lincosamides, Vancomycin, and Ketolides
440(4)
Macrolides
440(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 29-1: Azithromycin
442(1)
Lincosamides
443(1)
Vancomycin
444(1)
Ketolides
444(1)
Tetracyclines
444(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 29-2: Doxycycline
445(2)
Aminoglycosides
447(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 29-3: Gentamicin Sulfate
448(2)
Fluoroquinolones (Quinolones)
450(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 29-4: Levofloxacin
450(3)
Unclassified Antibacterial Drugs
453(1)
Antibacterials: Sulfonamides
454(6)
Introduction
455(1)
Sulfonamides
455(5)
Trimethoprim and Co-Trimoxazole
456(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 30-1: Co-Trimoxazolene/TMP-SMZ
457(1)
Topical and Ophthalmic Sulfonamides
458(2)
Antitubercular Drugs, Antifungal Drugs, Peptides, and Metronidazole
460(12)
Introduction
461(1)
Tuberculosis
461(1)
Pathophysiology
461(1)
Antitubercular Drugs
461(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 31-1: Isoniazid
462(2)
Antifungal Drugs
464(5)
Polyenes
467(1)
Azole Group
467(1)
Antimetabolite
467(1)
Antiprotozoal
467(1)
Echinocandins
467(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 31-2: Fluconazole
468(1)
Peptides
469(1)
Polymyxins
469(1)
Bacitracin
470(1)
Metronidazole
470(2)
Antiviral, Antimalarial, and Anthelmintic Drugs
472(11)
Viruses
473(1)
Vaccines
473(1)
Diagnostic Tests for Influenza
473(1)
Antiviral Non-HIV Drugs
473(4)
Nonclassified Antivirals
473(1)
Topical Antivirals
473(1)
Neuraminidase Inhibitors
473(1)
Gamma Globulin (Immune Globulin)
474(1)
Purine Nucleosides
474(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 32-1: Acyclovir Sodium
476(1)
Antiviral HIV Drugs
477(1)
Antimalarial Drugs
477(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 32-2: Chloroquine HCI
478(2)
Anthelmintic Drugs
480(3)
Drugs for Urinary Tract Disorders
483(8)
Introduction
484(1)
Urinary Antiseptics/Antiinfectives and Antibiotics
484(4)
Nitrofurantoin
484(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 33-1: Nitrofurantoin
485(1)
Methenamine
486(1)
Trimethoprim and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
486(1)
Fluoroquinolones (Quinolones)
486(2)
Drug-Drug Interactions
488(1)
Urinary Analgesics
488(1)
Phenazopyridine
488(1)
Urinary Stimulants
488(1)
Urinary Antispasmodics/Antimuscarinics
489(2)
Nine: Immunologic Agents
491(36)
HIV and AIDS-Related Agents
493(20)
Introduction
494(1)
Pathology
494(1)
Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests
494(2)
Antiretroviral Therapy
496(12)
Antiretroviral Agents
497(1)
Drug Class-Related Adverse Effects
497(1)
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
497(1)
Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
497(1)
Protease Inhibitors
497(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 34-1: Zidovudine
498(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 34-2: Efavirenz
499(1)
Antiretroviral Combinations
500(1)
Summary of Antiretroviral Agents
500(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 34-3: Lopinavir/Ritonavir
501(6)
Antiretroviral Therapy: The Nurse's Role
507(1)
Other Drugs for HIV
508(1)
Adherence to Drug Regimen
508(1)
Opportunistic Infections and Kaposi's Sarcoma
509(1)
Candidiasis
509(1)
Cryptococcus
509(1)
Cytomegalovirus
509(1)
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
509(1)
Histoplasmosis
509(1)
Mycobacterium avium Complex
509(1)
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia
509(1)
Salmonella
509(1)
Toxoplasma gondii
509(1)
Tuberculosis
509(1)
Kaposi's Sarcoma
509(1)
End-Stage Aids
509(1)
Antiretroviral Therapy in Pregnancy
510(1)
Postexposure Prophlaxis for Health Care Workers
511(1)
The Future of HIV/AIDS-Related Agents
511(2)
Vaccines
513(14)
Introduction
514(1)
Active Immunity
514(1)
Passive Immunity
514(1)
Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
514(4)
Childhood Immunizations
518(1)
Adult Immunizations
518(1)
Immunization Before Foreign Travel
518(1)
Reporting of Diseases and Adverse Reactions
518(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 35-1: Varicella
522(1)
Varicella Vaccine
522(2)
Recent Developments and the Future of Vaccines
524(3)
Ten: Cncer Agents
527(46)
Anticancer Drugs
529(24)
Introduction
530(1)
Genetic, Infective, Environmental, and Dietary Influences
530(1)
Cell-Cycle Nonspecific and Specific Drugs
531(1)
Cancer Chemotherapy
532(4)
Drug Resistance
532(1)
Combination Chemotherapy
532(1)
General Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
532(1)
Anticancer Therapy in Outpatient Clinics and in the Home
532(4)
Alkylating Drugs
536(2)
Cyclophosphamide
536(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 36-1: Cyclophosphamide
538(1)
Antimetabolites
538(4)
Fluorouracil
541(1)
Antitumor Antibiotics
542(4)
Doxorubicin and Plicamycin
542(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 36-2: 5-Fluorouracil
543(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 36-3: Doxorubicin
544(2)
Mitotic Inhibitors
546(1)
Targeted Therapies (Topoisomerase Inhbitors, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Proteosome Inhibitors, Monoclonal Antibodies, Angiogenesis Inhibitors)
547(2)
Liposomal Chemotherapy
549(1)
Hormonal Agents
549(2)
Corticosteroids
549(1)
Sex Hormones
549(1)
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogues
549(1)
Antiandrogens
549(1)
Aromatase Inhibitors
549(2)
Miscellaneous Agents
551(1)
Summary
551(2)
Biologic Response Modifiers
553(20)
Introduction
554(1)
Interferons
555(3)
Intereferon-α
555(3)
Colony-Stimulating Factors
558(5)
Erythropoietin
558(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 37-1: Epoeitin Alfa (Erythopoietin)
559(1)
Granulocyte and Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta) Colony-Stimulating Factor
560(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 37-2: Filgrastim
561(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 37-3: Sargramostim
562(1)
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
562(1)
Neumega (Oprelvekin)
563(1)
Interleukins
564(1)
Monoclonal Antibody
564(5)
Trastuzumab
565(1)
Rituximab
566(3)
Summary
569(4)
Eleven: Respiratory Agents
573(30)
Drugs for Common Upper Respiratory Disorders
575(11)
Introduction
576(1)
Common Cold, Acute Rhinitis, and Allergic Rhinitis
576(7)
Antihistamines
576(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 38-1: Deiphenhydramine
577(3)
Nasal and Systemic Decongestants
580(1)
Intranasal Glucocorticoids
581(1)
Antitussives
581(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 38-2: Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide
582(1)
Expectorants
582(1)
Sinusitis
583(1)
Acute Pharyngitis
584(2)
Drugs for Acute and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disorders
586(17)
Introduction
587(1)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
587(1)
Bronchial Asthma
588(1)
Sympathomimetics: Alpha- and Beta2-Adrenergic Agonists
588(3)
Albuterol
588(1)
Metaproterenol
589(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 39-1: Metaproterenol
590(1)
Isoproterenol
590(1)
Use of an Aerosol Inhaler
590(1)
Anticholinergics
591(1)
Methylxanthine (Xanthine) Derivatives
592(3)
Theophylline
593(2)
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists and Synthesis Inhibitors
595(1)
Glucocorticoids (Steroids)
596(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 39-2: Montelukast
598(1)
Cromolyn and Nedocromil
598(1)
Drug Therapy for Asthma According to Severity
599(1)
Drug Therapy for Asthma According to Age
599(1)
Young Children
599(1)
Older Adults
599(1)
Mucolytics
599(1)
Antimicrobials
599(4)
Twelve: Cardiovascular Agents
603(80)
Cardiac Glycosides, Antianginals, and Antidysrhythmics
606(20)
Introduction
607(1)
Cardiac Glycosides
607(5)
Nonpharmacologic Measures to Treat Heart Failure
608(1)
Digoxin
608(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 40-1: Digoxin (Lanoxin)
609(2)
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
611(1)
Other Agents Used to Treat Heart Failure
612(1)
Antianginal Drugs
612(6)
Types of Angina Pectoris
612(1)
Nonpharmacologic Measures to Control Angina
612(1)
Types of Antianginal Drugs
612(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 40-2: Nitroglycerin
614(4)
Antidysrhythmic Drugs
618(8)
Cardiac Dysrhythmias
618(1)
Cardiac Action Potentials
618(1)
Types of Antidysrhythmic Drugs
619(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 40-3: Acebutolol HCI
623(3)
Diuretics
626(14)
Introduction
627(2)
Thiazides and Thiazide-Like Diuretics
629(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 41-1: Hydrochlorothiazide
630(2)
Loop (High-Ceiling) Diuretics
632(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 41-2: Furosemide
633(2)
Osmotic Diuretics
635(1)
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
636(1)
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
636(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 41-3: Triameterene
637(3)
Antihypertensive Drugs
640(19)
Hypertension
641(1)
Selected Regulators of Blood Pressure
641(1)
Physiologic Risk Factors
641(1)
Cultural Responses to Antihypertensive Agents
641(1)
Hypertension in Older Adults
642(1)
Nonpharmacologic Control of Hypertension
642(1)
New Guidelines for Hypertension
642(1)
Pharmacologic Control of Hypertension
643(9)
Diuretics
643(1)
Sympatholytics (Sympathetic Depressants)
644(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 42-1: Metoprolol
645(5)
Prototype Drug Chart 42-2: Prazosin (HCI)
650(1)
Direct-Acting Arteriolar Vasodilators
651(1)
Angiotensin Antagonists (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme [ACE] Inhibitors)
652(1)
Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (Blockers)
653(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 42-3: Losartan Potassium
655(1)
Calcium Channel Blockers
655(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 42-4: Amlodipine
657(2)
Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets, and Thrombolytics
659(14)
Introduction
660(1)
Pathophysiology: Thrombus Formation
660(1)
Anticoagulants
660(7)
Heparin
660(1)
Oral Anticoagulants
661(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 43-1: Heparin and Warfarin Sodium
662(5)
Antiplatelet Drugs
667(1)
Thrombolytics
667(6)
Prototype Drug Chart 43-2: Clopidogrel Bisulfate
668(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 43-3: Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)
669(4)
Antilipidemics and Peripheral Vasodilators
673(10)
Introduction
674(1)
Antilipidemics
674(5)
Nonpharmacologic Methods for Cholesterol Reduction
674(1)
Types of Antilipidemics
675(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 44-1: Atorvastatin
676(3)
Peripheral Vasodilators
679(4)
Prototype Drug Chart 37-3: Isoxsuprine HCI
680(1)
Isoxsuprine
680(1)
Pentoxifylline
680(3)
Thirteen: Gastrointestinal Agents
683(38)
Drugs for Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
685(21)
Introduction
686(1)
Vomiting
686(6)
Nonpharmocologic Measures
686(1)
Nonprescription Antiemetics
686(1)
Prescription Antiemetics
687
Prototype Drug Chart 45-1: Promethazine HCI
562(130)
Emetics
692(2)
Ipecac
692(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 45-2: Ipecac Syrup
693(1)
Diarrhea
694(3)
Nonpharmacologic Measures
694(1)
Traveler's Diarrhea
694(1)
Antidiarrheals
694(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 45-3: Diphenoxylate with Atropine
695(2)
Constipation
697(9)
Nonpharmacologic Measures
697(1)
Laxatives
697(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 45-4: Bisacodyl
699(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 45-5: Psyllium
701(5)
Antiulcer Drugs
706(15)
Introduction
707(1)
Predisposing Factors in Peptic Ulcer Disease
707(1)
Helicobacter pylori
708(1)
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
708(1)
Nonpharmocologic Measures for Managing Peptic Ulcer and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
708(1)
Antiulcer Drugs
709(8)
Tranquilizers
710(1)
Anticholinergics
710(1)
Antacids
710(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 46-1: Aluminum Hydroxide
711(2)
Histamine2 Blockers
713(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 46-2: Ranitidine
714(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 46-3: Lansoprazole
716(1)
Proton Pump Inhibitors (Gastric Acid Secretion Inhibitors, Gastric Acid Pump Inhibitors)
717(1)
Pepsin Inhibitor (Mucosal Protective Drug)
718(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 46-4: Sucralfate
718(1)
Prostaglandin Analogue Antiulcer Drug
719(2)
Fourteen: Eye, Ear, and Skin Agents
721(32)
Drugs for Disorders of the Eye and the Ear
724(16)
Introduction
725(1)
Drugs for Disorders of the Eye
725(10)
Diagnostic Aids
725(1)
Topical Anesthetics
725(1)
Antiinfectives and Antiinflammatories
725(1)
Lubricants
725(2)
Antiglaucoma Agents
727(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 47-1: Pilocarpine
729(4)
Anticholinergic Mydriatics and Cycloplegics
733(2)
Administration of Eyedrops and Ointments
735(1)
Clients with Eye Disorders: General Suggestions for Client Teaching
735(1)
Drugs for Disorders of the Ear
735(5)
Antibacterials
735(3)
Antihistamine-Decongestants
738(1)
Combination Products
738(1)
Ceruminolytics
738(1)
Administration of Ear Medications
738(1)
Clients with Ear Disorders: General Suggestions for Client Teaching
738(2)
Drugs for Dermatologic Disorders
740(13)
Introduction
741(1)
Acne Vulgaris and Psoriasis
741(5)
Acne Vulgaris
741(2)
Psoriasis
743(1)
Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Acne Vulgaris and Psoriasis
744(2)
Verruca Vulgaris (Warts)
746(1)
Drug-Induced Dermatitis
746(1)
Contact Dermatitis
746(1)
Hair Loss and Baldness
747(1)
Sunscreens
747(1)
Burns and Burn Preparations
748(5)
Mafenide Acetate
748(1)
Silver Sulfadiazine
748(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 48-1: Mafenide Acetate
749(4)
Fifteen: Endocrine Agents
753(38)
Endocrine Pharmacology: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroids, and Adrenals
757(18)
Introduction
758(1)
Pituitary Gland
758(4)
Anterior
758(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 49-1: Corticotropin, Corticotropin Repository, Corticotropin-Zinc Hydroxide
760(1)
Posterior
761(1)
Thyroid Gland
762(4)
Hypothyroidism
762(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 49-2: Levothyroxine Sodium
763(1)
Hyperthyroidism
763(3)
Parathyroid Glands
766(1)
Calcitriol
766(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 49-3: Calcitrol
766(1)
Adrenal Glands
767(8)
Glucocorticoids
768(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 49-4: Prednisone
769(1)
Glucocorticoid Inhibitors
770(1)
Mineralocorticoids
770(5)
Antidiabetic Drugs
775(16)
Introduction
776(1)
Diabetes Mellitus
776(15)
Insulin
776(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 50-1: Insulins
779(4)
Oral Antidiabetic Drugs (Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs)
783(3)
Prototype Drug Chart 50-2: Glipizide
786(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 50-3: Metformin
788(1)
Hyperglycemic Drugs
789(1)
Other Agents
789(2)
Sixteen: Reproductive and Gender-Related Agents
791(114)
Drugs Associated with the Female Reproductive Cycle I: Pregnancy and Preterm Labor
795(21)
Introduction
796(1)
Physiology of Pregnancy
796(2)
Therapeutic Drug and Herbal Use in Pregnancy
798(7)
Iron
798(1)
Folic Acid
799(1)
Multiple Vitamins
799(1)
Drugs for Minor Discomforts of Pregnancy
800(5)
Drugs That Decrease Uterine Muscle Contractility
805(3)
Preterm Labor
805(1)
Tocolytic Therapy
806(2)
Corticosteroid Therapy in Preterm Labor
808(1)
Betamethasone (Celestone)
808(1)
Dexamethasone
809(1)
Drugs for Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
809(7)
Drugs Associated with the Female Reproductive Cycle II: Labor, Delivery, and the Preterm Neonate
816(23)
Drugs for Pain Control During Labor
817(13)
Analgesia/Sedation
818(4)
Anesthesia
822(8)
Drugs That Enhance Uterine Muscle Contractility
830(5)
Oxytocin
831(1)
Ergot Alkaloids
832(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 52-1: Oxytocin
833(2)
Surfactant Therapy in Preterm Birth
835(4)
Synthetic Surfactant
835(4)
Drugs Associated with the Postpartum and the Newborn
839(20)
Introduction
840(1)
Drugs Used During the Postpartum Period
840(9)
Pain Relief for Uterine Contractions
841(1)
Pain Relief for Perineal Wounds and Hemorrhoids
841(4)
Lactation Suppression
845(1)
Promotion of Bowel Function
846(3)
Immunizations
849(4)
Rh0 (D) Immune Globulin
849(2)
Rubella Vaccine
851(2)
Drugs Administered to the Newborn Immediately After Delivery
853(6)
Immunization During the Newborn Period Before Discharge
854(5)
Drugs Related to Women's Health and Disorders
859(21)
Introduction
860(1)
Oral Contraceptive Products
860(6)
Estrogen-Progestin Combination Products
860(1)
Progestin-Only Products
861(1)
Dosage Schedules
862(4)
Alternative Methods of Contraception
866(1)
Norplant
866(1)
Implanon
866(1)
Depo-Provera
866(1)
Lunelle
866(1)
NuvaRing
866(1)
Today Sponge
867(1)
Intrauterine Devices
867(1)
The Patch
867(1)
Medical Abortion
867(1)
Emergency Contraception
867(1)
Drugs Used to Treat Hormone Dysfunction
868(9)
Premenstrual Syndrome
868(3)
Endometriosis
871(2)
Menopause
873(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 54-1: Conjugated Estrogens
875(2)
Osteoporosis
877(3)
Nursing Interventions
877(1)
Medications
877(3)
Drugs Related to Reproductive Health: Male Reproductive Disorders
880(12)
Introduction
881(1)
Substances Related to Male Reproductive Disorders
881(11)
Androgens
881(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 55-1: Testosterone
882(4)
Anabolic Steroids
886(1)
Antiandrogens
886(1)
Drugs Used in Other Male Reproductive Disorders
887(5)
Drugs Related to Reproductive Health: Infertility and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
892(13)
Introduction
893(1)
Drugs Related to Infertility Treatment
893(4)
Assessing Infertility
893(1)
Induction of Ovulation
893(2)
Prototype Drug Chart 56-1: Clomiphene Citrate
895(1)
Other Drug Treatments
895(1)
Drug Therapy for Male Infertility
896(1)
Drugs Used in the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
897(6)
Transmission and Risk
897(5)
HIV Disease
902(1)
Summary
903(2)
Seventeen: Emergency Agents
905(19)
Adult and Pediatric Emergency Drugs
906(18)
Introduction
907(1)
Oxygen as an Emergency Drug
907(1)
Emergency Drugs for Cardiac Disorders
907(5)
Nitroglycerin
908(1)
Morphine Sulfate
908(1)
Atropine Sulfate
908(1)
Isoproterenol
909(1)
Adenosine
909(1)
Verapamil
909(1)
Diltiazem
909(1)
Lidocaine
910(1)
Amiodarone
910(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 57-1: Lidocaine HCI
911(1)
Procainamide
911(1)
Magnesium Sulfate
911(1)
Epinephrine
912(1)
Vasopressin
912(1)
Sodium Bicarbonate
912(1)
Emergency Drugs for Neurosurgical Disorders
912(2)
Mannitol
913(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 57-2: Mannitol
914(1)
Methylprednisolone
914(1)
Emergency Drugs for Poisoning
914(2)
Naloxone
915(1)
Flumazenil
915(1)
Activated Charcoal
915(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 57-3: Naloxone HCI
916(1)
Emergency Drugs for Shock
916(3)
Dopamine
916(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 57-4: Dopamine HCI
917(1)
Dobutamine
918(1)
Norepinephrine
918(1)
Epinephrine
918(1)
Albuterol
919(1)
Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride
919(1)
Dextrose 50%
919(1)
Glucagon
919(1)
Emergency Drugs for Hypertensive Crises and Pulmonary Edema
919(5)
Labetalol
919(1)
Sodium Nitroprusside
920(1)
Furosemide
920(1)
Prototype Drug Chart 57-5: Sodium Nitroprusside
921(1)
Morphine Sulfate
921(3)
Appendix A: Generic Drugs with Corresponding Canadian Trade Drug Names 924(3)
Appendix B: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) 927(5)
Appendix C: Selected Drug-Drug Interactions 932(2)
Appendix D: Selected Herb-Drug Interactions 934(2)
Appendix E: Selected Sugar-Free Products 936(1)
Appendix F: Selected Alcohol-Free Products 937(1)
Appendix G: Potential Weapons of Bioterrorism 938(2)
Appendix H: Abbreviations 940(2)
Appendix I: Examples of Internet Sites 942(1)
Appendix J: Top Prescribed Drugs in 2004 943(6)
References 949(10)
Index 959


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