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Preface to the Third Edition | p. xiii |
Preface to the Second Edition | p. xv |
Preface to the First Edition | p. xvii |
Authors | p. xix |
Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams | p. 1 |
Equilibrium | p. 1 |
Single-Component Systems | p. 4 |
Gibbs Free Energy as a Function of Temperature | p. 4 |
Pressure Effects | p. 7 |
Driving Force for Solidification | p. 9 |
Binary Solutions | p. 11 |
Gibbs Free Energy of Binary Solutions | p. 11 |
Ideal Solutions | p. 13 |
Chemical Potential | p. 15 |
Regular Solutions | p. 17 |
Activity | p. 21 |
Real Solutions | p. 23 |
Ordered Phases | p. 24 |
Intermediate Phases | p. 26 |
Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems | p. 28 |
Binary Phase Diagrams | p. 31 |
Simple Phase Diagram | p. 31 |
Systems with a Miscibility Gap | p. 32 |
Ordered Alloys | p. 33 |
Simple Eutectic Systems | p. 34 |
Phase Diagrams Containing Intermediate Phases | p. 34 |
Gibbs Phase Rule | p. 34 |
Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubility | p. 39 |
Equilibrium Vacancy Concentration | p. 40 |
Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium | p. 42 |
Ternary Equilibrium | p. 45 |
Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions | p. 50 |
Computation of Phase Diagrams | p. 52 |
Pure Stoichiometric Substances | p. 52 |
Solution Phases | p. 56 |
Substitutional Solutions | p. 56 |
Kinetics of Phase Transformations | p. 57 |
Exercises | p. 58 |
References | p. 60 |
Further Reading | p. 61 |
Diffusion | p. 63 |
Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion | p. 65 |
Interstitial Diffusion | p. 67 |
Interstitial Diffusion as a Random Jump Process | p. 67 |
Effect of Temperature-Thermal Activation | p. 69 |
Steady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |
Nonsteady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |
Solutions to the Diffusion Equation | p. 74 |
Homogenization | p. 74 |
Carburization of Steel | p. 76 |
Substitutional Diffusion | p. 78 |
Self-Diffusion | p. 78 |
Vacancy Diffusion | p. 83 |
Diffusion in Substitutional Alloys | p. 84 |
Diffusion in Dilute Substitutional Alloys | p. 92 |
Atomic Mobility | p. 93 |
Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys | p. 95 |
Diffusion in Ternary Alloys | p. 98 |
High-Diffusivity Paths | p. 100 |
Diffusion along Grain Boundaries and Free Surfaces | p. 100 |
Diffusion along Dislocations | p. 103 |
Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems | p. 104 |
Exercises | p. 106 |
References | p. 109 |
Further Reading | p. 110 |
Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure | p. 111 |
Interfacial Free Energy | p. 112 |
Solid/Vapor Interfaces | p. 113 |
Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids | p. 117 |
Low-Angle and High-Angle Boundaries | p. 118 |
Special High-Angle Grain Boundaries | p. 121 |
Equilibrium in Polycrystalline Materials | p. 124 |
Thermally Activated Migration of Grain Boundaries | p. 129 |
Kinetics of Grain Growth | p. 137 |
Interphase Interfaces in Solids | p. 140 |
Interface Coherence | p. 141 |
Fully Coherent Interfaces | p. 141 |
Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 143 |
Incoherent Interfaces | p. 144 |
Complex Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 145 |
Second-Phase Shape: Interfacial Energy Effects | p. 147 |
Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 147 |
Partially Coherent Precipitates | p. 148 |
Incoherent Precipitates | p. 150 |
Precipitates on Grain Boundaries | p. 151 |
Second-Phase Shape: Misfit Strain Effects | p. 152 |
Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 152 |
Incoherent Inclusions | p. 155 |
Platelike Precipitates | p. 156 |
Coherency Loss | p. 157 |
Glissile Interfaces | p. 160 |
Solid/Liquid Interfaces | p. 165 |
Interface Migration | p. 167 |
Diffusion-Controlled and Interface-Controlled Growth | p. 170 |
Exercises | p. 176 |
References | p. 178 |
Further Reading | p. 179 |
Solidification | p. 181 |
Nucleation in Pure Metals | p. 181 |
Homogeneous Nucleation | p. 182 |
Homogeneous Nucleation Rate | p. 186 |
Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 188 |
Nucleation of Melting | p. 192 |
Growth of a Pure Solid | p. 193 |
Continuous Growth | p. 193 |
Lateral Growth | p. 194 |
Heat Flow and Interface Stability | p. 197 |
Alloy Solidification | p. 200 |
Solidification of Single-Phase Alloys | p. 200 |
Eutectic Solidification | p. 212 |
Off-Eutectic Alloys | p. 218 |
Peritectic Solidification | p. 220 |
Solidification of Ingots and Castings | p. 221 |
Ingot Structure | p. 222 |
Segregation in Ingots and Castings | p. 225 |
Continuous Casting | p. 226 |
Solidification of Fusion Welds | p. 230 |
Solidification during Quenching from the Melt | p. 235 |
Metallic Glasses | p. 236 |
Thermodynamics and Kinetics | p. 237 |
Case Studies of some Practical Castings and Welds | p. 239 |
Casting of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels | p. 239 |
Casting of High-Speed Steels | p. 241 |
Exercises | p. 247 |
References | p. 249 |
Further Reading | p. 249 |
Diffusional Transformations in Solids | p. 251 |
Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids | p. 253 |
Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 259 |
Rate of Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 263 |
Precipitate Growth | p. 265 |
Growth behind Planar Incoherent Interfaces | p. 266 |
Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening of Plates or Needles | p. 269 |
Thickening of Platelike Precipitates | p. 271 |
Overall Transformation Kinetics: TTT Diagrams | p. 273 |
Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys | p. 276 |
Precipitation in Aluminum-Copper Alloys | p. 277 |
Precipitation in Aluminum-Silver Alloys | p. 285 |
Quenched-In Vacancies | p. 286 |
Age Hardening | p. 288 |
Spinodal Decomposition | p. 290 |
Particle Coarsening | p. 295 |
Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite | p. 299 |
Case Study: Ferrite Nucleation and Growth | p. 304 |
Cellular Precipitation | p. 310 |
Eutectoid Transformations | p. 314 |
Pearlite Reaction in Fe-C Alloys | p. 314 |
Bainite Transformation | p. 319 |
Effect of Alloying Elements on Hardenability | p. 327 |
Continuous Cooling Diagrams | p. 332 |
Fibrous and Interphase Precipitation in Alloy Steels | p. 334 |
Rule of Scheil | p. 336 |
Massive Transformations | p. 337 |
Ordering Transformations | p. 342 |
Case Studies | p. 349 |
Titanium Forging Alloys | p. 349 |
Weldability of Low-Carbon and Microalloyed Rolled Steels | p. 353 |
Very Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel with High Strength and Toughness | p. 356 |
Very Fine Bainite | p. 357 |
Exercises | p. 360 |
References | p. 362 |
Further Reading | p. 364 |
Diffusionless Transformations | p. 367 |
Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations | p. 368 |
Solid Solution of Carbon in Iron | p. 371 |
Martensite Crystallography | p. 373 |
Bain Model of the fcc (???) bct Transformation | p. 375 |
Comparison of Crystallographic Theory with Experimental Results | p. 379 |
Theories of Martensite Nucleation | p. 380 |
Formation of Coherent Nuclei of Martensite | p. 381 |
Role of Dislocations in Martensite Nucleation | p. 384 |
Dislocation Strain Energy Assisted Transformation | p. 387 |
Martensite Growth | p. 391 |
Growth of Lath Martensite | p. 392 |
Plate Martensite | p. 394 |
Stabilization | p. 397 |
Effect of External Stresses | p. 397 |
Role of Grain Size | p. 397 |
Premartensite Phenomena | p. 398 |
Tempering of Ferrous Martensites | p. 399 |
Case Studies | p. 408 |
Carbon and Low-Alloy Quenched and Tempered Steels | p. 408 |
Controlled Transformation Steels | p. 409 |
TRIP-Assisted Steels | p. 411 |
"Shape-Memory" Metal: Nitinol | p. 415 |
Exercises | p. 417 |
References | p. 418 |
Further Reading | p. 420 |
Solutions to Exercises | p. 421 |
Index | p. 491 |
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