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## Summary

Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third Edition provides a comprehensive overview of specific types of phase transformations, supplemented by practical case studies of engineering alloys. This new edition now addresses computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams, which has undergone major changes in recent years. It also expands treatment of bainite transformation, nucleation, metallic glasses, steel, and Scheil's additivity rule for appreciating transformations during continuous cooling. Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, this text features an easy-to-follow style that integrates basic and advanced material, making it ideal for newcomers to the field.

## Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition | p. xiii |

Preface to the Second Edition | p. xv |

Preface to the First Edition | p. xvii |

Authors | p. xix |

Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams | p. 1 |

Equilibrium | p. 1 |

Single-Component Systems | p. 4 |

Gibbs Free Energy as a Function of Temperature | p. 4 |

Pressure Effects | p. 7 |

Driving Force for Solidification | p. 9 |

Binary Solutions | p. 11 |

Gibbs Free Energy of Binary Solutions | p. 11 |

Ideal Solutions | p. 13 |

Chemical Potential | p. 15 |

Regular Solutions | p. 17 |

Activity | p. 21 |

Real Solutions | p. 23 |

Ordered Phases | p. 24 |

Intermediate Phases | p. 26 |

Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems | p. 28 |

Binary Phase Diagrams | p. 31 |

Simple Phase Diagram | p. 31 |

Systems with a Miscibility Gap | p. 32 |

Ordered Alloys | p. 33 |

Simple Eutectic Systems | p. 34 |

Phase Diagrams Containing Intermediate Phases | p. 34 |

Gibbs Phase Rule | p. 34 |

Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubility | p. 39 |

Equilibrium Vacancy Concentration | p. 40 |

Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium | p. 42 |

Ternary Equilibrium | p. 45 |

Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions | p. 50 |

Computation of Phase Diagrams | p. 52 |

Pure Stoichiometric Substances | p. 52 |

Solution Phases | p. 56 |

Substitutional Solutions | p. 56 |

Kinetics of Phase Transformations | p. 57 |

Exercises | p. 58 |

References | p. 60 |

Further Reading | p. 61 |

Diffusion | p. 63 |

Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion | p. 65 |

Interstitial Diffusion | p. 67 |

Interstitial Diffusion as a Random Jump Process | p. 67 |

Effect of Temperature-Thermal Activation | p. 69 |

Steady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |

Nonsteady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |

Solutions to the Diffusion Equation | p. 74 |

Homogenization | p. 74 |

Carburization of Steel | p. 76 |

Substitutional Diffusion | p. 78 |

Self-Diffusion | p. 78 |

Vacancy Diffusion | p. 83 |

Diffusion in Substitutional Alloys | p. 84 |

Diffusion in Dilute Substitutional Alloys | p. 92 |

Atomic Mobility | p. 93 |

Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys | p. 95 |

Diffusion in Ternary Alloys | p. 98 |

High-Diffusivity Paths | p. 100 |

Diffusion along Grain Boundaries and Free Surfaces | p. 100 |

Diffusion along Dislocations | p. 103 |

Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems | p. 104 |

Exercises | p. 106 |

References | p. 109 |

Further Reading | p. 110 |

Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure | p. 111 |

Interfacial Free Energy | p. 112 |

Solid/Vapor Interfaces | p. 113 |

Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids | p. 117 |

Low-Angle and High-Angle Boundaries | p. 118 |

Special High-Angle Grain Boundaries | p. 121 |

Equilibrium in Polycrystalline Materials | p. 124 |

Thermally Activated Migration of Grain Boundaries | p. 129 |

Kinetics of Grain Growth | p. 137 |

Interphase Interfaces in Solids | p. 140 |

Interface Coherence | p. 141 |

Fully Coherent Interfaces | p. 141 |

Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 143 |

Incoherent Interfaces | p. 144 |

Complex Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 145 |

Second-Phase Shape: Interfacial Energy Effects | p. 147 |

Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 147 |

Partially Coherent Precipitates | p. 148 |

Incoherent Precipitates | p. 150 |

Precipitates on Grain Boundaries | p. 151 |

Second-Phase Shape: Misfit Strain Effects | p. 152 |

Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 152 |

Incoherent Inclusions | p. 155 |

Platelike Precipitates | p. 156 |

Coherency Loss | p. 157 |

Glissile Interfaces | p. 160 |

Solid/Liquid Interfaces | p. 165 |

Interface Migration | p. 167 |

Diffusion-Controlled and Interface-Controlled Growth | p. 170 |

Exercises | p. 176 |

References | p. 178 |

Further Reading | p. 179 |

Solidification | p. 181 |

Nucleation in Pure Metals | p. 181 |

Homogeneous Nucleation | p. 182 |

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate | p. 186 |

Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 188 |

Nucleation of Melting | p. 192 |

Growth of a Pure Solid | p. 193 |

Continuous Growth | p. 193 |

Lateral Growth | p. 194 |

Heat Flow and Interface Stability | p. 197 |

Alloy Solidification | p. 200 |

Solidification of Single-Phase Alloys | p. 200 |

Eutectic Solidification | p. 212 |

Off-Eutectic Alloys | p. 218 |

Peritectic Solidification | p. 220 |

Solidification of Ingots and Castings | p. 221 |

Ingot Structure | p. 222 |

Segregation in Ingots and Castings | p. 225 |

Continuous Casting | p. 226 |

Solidification of Fusion Welds | p. 230 |

Solidification during Quenching from the Melt | p. 235 |

Metallic Glasses | p. 236 |

Thermodynamics and Kinetics | p. 237 |

Case Studies of some Practical Castings and Welds | p. 239 |

Casting of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels | p. 239 |

Casting of High-Speed Steels | p. 241 |

Exercises | p. 247 |

References | p. 249 |

Further Reading | p. 249 |

Diffusional Transformations in Solids | p. 251 |

Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids | p. 253 |

Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 259 |

Rate of Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 263 |

Precipitate Growth | p. 265 |

Growth behind Planar Incoherent Interfaces | p. 266 |

Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening of Plates or Needles | p. 269 |

Thickening of Platelike Precipitates | p. 271 |

Overall Transformation Kinetics: TTT Diagrams | p. 273 |

Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys | p. 276 |

Precipitation in Aluminum-Copper Alloys | p. 277 |

Precipitation in Aluminum-Silver Alloys | p. 285 |

Quenched-In Vacancies | p. 286 |

Age Hardening | p. 288 |

Spinodal Decomposition | p. 290 |

Particle Coarsening | p. 295 |

Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite | p. 299 |

Case Study: Ferrite Nucleation and Growth | p. 304 |

Cellular Precipitation | p. 310 |

Eutectoid Transformations | p. 314 |

Pearlite Reaction in Fe-C Alloys | p. 314 |

Bainite Transformation | p. 319 |

Effect of Alloying Elements on Hardenability | p. 327 |

Continuous Cooling Diagrams | p. 332 |

Fibrous and Interphase Precipitation in Alloy Steels | p. 334 |

Rule of Scheil | p. 336 |

Massive Transformations | p. 337 |

Ordering Transformations | p. 342 |

Case Studies | p. 349 |

Titanium Forging Alloys | p. 349 |

Weldability of Low-Carbon and Microalloyed Rolled Steels | p. 353 |

Very Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel with High Strength and Toughness | p. 356 |

Very Fine Bainite | p. 357 |

Exercises | p. 360 |

References | p. 362 |

Further Reading | p. 364 |

Diffusionless Transformations | p. 367 |

Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations | p. 368 |

Solid Solution of Carbon in Iron | p. 371 |

Martensite Crystallography | p. 373 |

Bain Model of the fcc (???) bct Transformation | p. 375 |

Comparison of Crystallographic Theory with Experimental Results | p. 379 |

Theories of Martensite Nucleation | p. 380 |

Formation of Coherent Nuclei of Martensite | p. 381 |

Role of Dislocations in Martensite Nucleation | p. 384 |

Dislocation Strain Energy Assisted Transformation | p. 387 |

Martensite Growth | p. 391 |

Growth of Lath Martensite | p. 392 |

Plate Martensite | p. 394 |

Stabilization | p. 397 |

Effect of External Stresses | p. 397 |

Role of Grain Size | p. 397 |

Premartensite Phenomena | p. 398 |

Tempering of Ferrous Martensites | p. 399 |

Case Studies | p. 408 |

Carbon and Low-Alloy Quenched and Tempered Steels | p. 408 |

Controlled Transformation Steels | p. 409 |

TRIP-Assisted Steels | p. 411 |

"Shape-Memory" Metal: Nitinol | p. 415 |

Exercises | p. 417 |

References | p. 418 |

Further Reading | p. 420 |

Solutions to Exercises | p. 421 |

Index | p. 491 |

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