Preface to the Third Edition | p. xiii |

Preface to the Second Edition | p. xv |

Preface to the First Edition | p. xvii |

Authors | p. xix |

Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams | p. 1 |

Equilibrium | p. 1 |

Single-Component Systems | p. 4 |

Gibbs Free Energy as a Function of Temperature | p. 4 |

Pressure Effects | p. 7 |

Driving Force for Solidification | p. 9 |

Binary Solutions | p. 11 |

Gibbs Free Energy of Binary Solutions | p. 11 |

Ideal Solutions | p. 13 |

Chemical Potential | p. 15 |

Regular Solutions | p. 17 |

Activity | p. 21 |

Real Solutions | p. 23 |

Ordered Phases | p. 24 |

Intermediate Phases | p. 26 |

Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems | p. 28 |

Binary Phase Diagrams | p. 31 |

Simple Phase Diagram | p. 31 |

Systems with a Miscibility Gap | p. 32 |

Ordered Alloys | p. 33 |

Simple Eutectic Systems | p. 34 |

Phase Diagrams Containing Intermediate Phases | p. 34 |

Gibbs Phase Rule | p. 34 |

Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubility | p. 39 |

Equilibrium Vacancy Concentration | p. 40 |

Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium | p. 42 |

Ternary Equilibrium | p. 45 |

Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions | p. 50 |

Computation of Phase Diagrams | p. 52 |

Pure Stoichiometric Substances | p. 52 |

Solution Phases | p. 56 |

Substitutional Solutions | p. 56 |

Kinetics of Phase Transformations | p. 57 |

Exercises | p. 58 |

References | p. 60 |

Further Reading | p. 61 |

Diffusion | p. 63 |

Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion | p. 65 |

Interstitial Diffusion | p. 67 |

Interstitial Diffusion as a Random Jump Process | p. 67 |

Effect of Temperature-Thermal Activation | p. 69 |

Steady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |

Nonsteady-State Diffusion | p. 72 |

Solutions to the Diffusion Equation | p. 74 |

Homogenization | p. 74 |

Carburization of Steel | p. 76 |

Substitutional Diffusion | p. 78 |

Self-Diffusion | p. 78 |

Vacancy Diffusion | p. 83 |

Diffusion in Substitutional Alloys | p. 84 |

Diffusion in Dilute Substitutional Alloys | p. 92 |

Atomic Mobility | p. 93 |

Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys | p. 95 |

Diffusion in Ternary Alloys | p. 98 |

High-Diffusivity Paths | p. 100 |

Diffusion along Grain Boundaries and Free Surfaces | p. 100 |

Diffusion along Dislocations | p. 103 |

Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems | p. 104 |

Exercises | p. 106 |

References | p. 109 |

Further Reading | p. 110 |

Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure | p. 111 |

Interfacial Free Energy | p. 112 |

Solid/Vapor Interfaces | p. 113 |

Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids | p. 117 |

Low-Angle and High-Angle Boundaries | p. 118 |

Special High-Angle Grain Boundaries | p. 121 |

Equilibrium in Polycrystalline Materials | p. 124 |

Thermally Activated Migration of Grain Boundaries | p. 129 |

Kinetics of Grain Growth | p. 137 |

Interphase Interfaces in Solids | p. 140 |

Interface Coherence | p. 141 |

Fully Coherent Interfaces | p. 141 |

Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 143 |

Incoherent Interfaces | p. 144 |

Complex Semicoherent Interfaces | p. 145 |

Second-Phase Shape: Interfacial Energy Effects | p. 147 |

Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 147 |

Partially Coherent Precipitates | p. 148 |

Incoherent Precipitates | p. 150 |

Precipitates on Grain Boundaries | p. 151 |

Second-Phase Shape: Misfit Strain Effects | p. 152 |

Fully Coherent Precipitates | p. 152 |

Incoherent Inclusions | p. 155 |

Platelike Precipitates | p. 156 |

Coherency Loss | p. 157 |

Glissile Interfaces | p. 160 |

Solid/Liquid Interfaces | p. 165 |

Interface Migration | p. 167 |

Diffusion-Controlled and Interface-Controlled Growth | p. 170 |

Exercises | p. 176 |

References | p. 178 |

Further Reading | p. 179 |

Solidification | p. 181 |

Nucleation in Pure Metals | p. 181 |

Homogeneous Nucleation | p. 182 |

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate | p. 186 |

Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 188 |

Nucleation of Melting | p. 192 |

Growth of a Pure Solid | p. 193 |

Continuous Growth | p. 193 |

Lateral Growth | p. 194 |

Heat Flow and Interface Stability | p. 197 |

Alloy Solidification | p. 200 |

Solidification of Single-Phase Alloys | p. 200 |

Eutectic Solidification | p. 212 |

Off-Eutectic Alloys | p. 218 |

Peritectic Solidification | p. 220 |

Solidification of Ingots and Castings | p. 221 |

Ingot Structure | p. 222 |

Segregation in Ingots and Castings | p. 225 |

Continuous Casting | p. 226 |

Solidification of Fusion Welds | p. 230 |

Solidification during Quenching from the Melt | p. 235 |

Metallic Glasses | p. 236 |

Thermodynamics and Kinetics | p. 237 |

Case Studies of some Practical Castings and Welds | p. 239 |

Casting of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels | p. 239 |

Casting of High-Speed Steels | p. 241 |

Exercises | p. 247 |

References | p. 249 |

Further Reading | p. 249 |

Diffusional Transformations in Solids | p. 251 |

Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids | p. 253 |

Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 259 |

Rate of Heterogeneous Nucleation | p. 263 |

Precipitate Growth | p. 265 |

Growth behind Planar Incoherent Interfaces | p. 266 |

Diffusion-Controlled Lengthening of Plates or Needles | p. 269 |

Thickening of Platelike Precipitates | p. 271 |

Overall Transformation Kinetics: TTT Diagrams | p. 273 |

Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys | p. 276 |

Precipitation in Aluminum-Copper Alloys | p. 277 |

Precipitation in Aluminum-Silver Alloys | p. 285 |

Quenched-In Vacancies | p. 286 |

Age Hardening | p. 288 |

Spinodal Decomposition | p. 290 |

Particle Coarsening | p. 295 |

Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite | p. 299 |

Case Study: Ferrite Nucleation and Growth | p. 304 |

Cellular Precipitation | p. 310 |

Eutectoid Transformations | p. 314 |

Pearlite Reaction in Fe-C Alloys | p. 314 |

Bainite Transformation | p. 319 |

Effect of Alloying Elements on Hardenability | p. 327 |

Continuous Cooling Diagrams | p. 332 |

Fibrous and Interphase Precipitation in Alloy Steels | p. 334 |

Rule of Scheil | p. 336 |

Massive Transformations | p. 337 |

Ordering Transformations | p. 342 |

Case Studies | p. 349 |

Titanium Forging Alloys | p. 349 |

Weldability of Low-Carbon and Microalloyed Rolled Steels | p. 353 |

Very Low-Carbon Bainitic Steel with High Strength and Toughness | p. 356 |

Very Fine Bainite | p. 357 |

Exercises | p. 360 |

References | p. 362 |

Further Reading | p. 364 |

Diffusionless Transformations | p. 367 |

Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations | p. 368 |

Solid Solution of Carbon in Iron | p. 371 |

Martensite Crystallography | p. 373 |

Bain Model of the fcc (???) bct Transformation | p. 375 |

Comparison of Crystallographic Theory with Experimental Results | p. 379 |

Theories of Martensite Nucleation | p. 380 |

Formation of Coherent Nuclei of Martensite | p. 381 |

Role of Dislocations in Martensite Nucleation | p. 384 |

Dislocation Strain Energy Assisted Transformation | p. 387 |

Martensite Growth | p. 391 |

Growth of Lath Martensite | p. 392 |

Plate Martensite | p. 394 |

Stabilization | p. 397 |

Effect of External Stresses | p. 397 |

Role of Grain Size | p. 397 |

Premartensite Phenomena | p. 398 |

Tempering of Ferrous Martensites | p. 399 |

Case Studies | p. 408 |

Carbon and Low-Alloy Quenched and Tempered Steels | p. 408 |

Controlled Transformation Steels | p. 409 |

TRIP-Assisted Steels | p. 411 |

"Shape-Memory" Metal: Nitinol | p. 415 |

Exercises | p. 417 |

References | p. 418 |

Further Reading | p. 420 |

Solutions to Exercises | p. 421 |

Index | p. 491 |

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