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The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach with Free Philosophy Powerweb,9780072833522
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The Philosophical Journey: An Interactive Approach with Free Philosophy Powerweb

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780072833522

ISBN10:
0072833521
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/18/2002
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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Summary

One of the most enthusiastically received introductory books in recent years, The Philosophical Journey is a topically organized text presented in an interactive format designed to get students' philosophical intuitions flowing. The book's guiding metaphor of "explorers on a journey" makes readers active participants in ongoing discoveries. The message of this book is that philosophy is a vital activity and way of thinking that can be practiced and developed.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the Philosophical Journey: Where Are We Going and How Will We Get There?

1.0 Overview of the Journey

Philosophy and Aerobics

Philosophy and Love

Philosophy and Peanut Butter

Philosophy and Colds

What Do Philosophers Study?

What is the Practical Value of Philosophy?

Philosophy as a Journey

Guideposts for your Journey

Scouting the Territory

Charting the Terrain - What are the Issues?

Choosing a Path - What are my Options?

What Do I Think?

Key to the Questionnaire

Leading Questions

Surveying the Case For...

A Reading From...

Looking Through X's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses Of X

Boxed Exercises

1.1 Socrates and the Search for Wisdom

Socrates' Life and Mission

Reading: Plato, from Apology

Socrates' Method

Reading: Plato, from Republic

Socrates' Teaching

1.2 Plato's Allegory of the Cave

Reading: Plato, from Republic

Evaluating Philosophical Claims and Theories

The Nature of Arguments

Review for Chapter 1

CHAPTER 2 The Search for Knowledge

2.0 Overview of the Problem of Knowledge

Scouting the Territory: What Can I Know?

Charting the Terrain of Knowledge: What Are the Issues?

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Knowledge?

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Knowledge, Doubt, Reason, and Experience

Key to the Questionnaire on Knowledge

2.1 Skepticism

Leading Questions: Skepticism

Surveying the Case for Skepticism

Early Greek Skeptics

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Reading: Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy (1)
Reading: Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy (2)

David Hume (1711-1776)

Reading: David Hume, from Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1)
Reading: David Hume, from Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (2)
Reading: David Hume, from Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (3)
Reading: David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature

Looking Through the Skeptic's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Skepticism

2.2 Rationalism

Leading Questions: Rationalism

Surveying the Case for Rationalism

The Three Anchor Points of Rationalism

The Rationalists' Answers to the Three Epistemological Questions

Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.)

Plato (c. 428-348 B.C.)

Reading: Plato, from Phaedo

Renee Descartes

Reading: Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy

Looking Through the Rationalist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Rationalism

2.3 Empiricism

Leading Questions: Empiricism

Surveying the Case for Empiricism

The Three Anchor Points of Empiricism

The Empiricists' Answers to the Three Epistemological Questions

John Locke (1632-1704)

Reading: John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Reading: George Berkeley, from A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

Knowledge

David Hume

David Hume, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

Summary of Rationalism and Empiricism

Looking Through the Empiricist's Lens

Examing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Empiricism

2.4 Kantian Constructivism

Leading Questions: Constructivism

Surveying the Case for Kantian Constructivism

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Reading: Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason (1)
Reading: Immanuel Kant, from Critique of Pure Reason (2)

Looking Through Kant's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Kantian Constructivism

2.5 Epistemological Relativism

Leading Questions: Epistemological Relativism

Surveying the Case for Relativism

Reading: Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil

Epistemological Cultural Relativism: Carlos Castaneda

Reading: Carlos Castaneda, from The Teachings of Don Juan

Preview of Coming Attractions

Looking Through the Relativist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Relativism

2.6 Rethinking the Western Tradition: Pragmatism

Leading Questions: Pragmatism

Surveying the Case for Pragmatism

Reading: William James, from Pragmatism's Conception of Truth

Looking Through the Pragmatist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Pragmatism

2.7 Rethinking the Western Tradition: Feminist Epistemology

Leading Questions: Feminist Epistemology

Surveying the Case for Feminist Epistemology

Reading: Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall, from Women, Knowledge, and Reality

Issues and Themes in Feminist Epistemology

Feminist Epistemology and the Problem of Relativism

Reading: Lorraine Code, from What Can She Know?

Looking Through the Lens of Feminist Epistemology

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Feminist Epistemology

Review for Chapter 2

CHAPTER 3: The Search for Ultimate Reality

3.0 Overview of Metaphysics

Scouting the Territory: What is Reality?

Charting the Terrain of Metaphysics: What are the Issues?

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Metaphysics?

Conceptual Tools: The Basics of Metaphysics

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on What is Most Real

3.1 Overview: The Mind-Body Problem

Scouting the Territory: What is the Mind? What is the Body?

Reading: Hugh Elliot, from Tantalus

Charting the Terrain of the Mind-Body Problem: What Are the Issues?

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning the Mind and the Body?

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Mind and Body

Key to the Mind-Body Questionnaire

3.2 Dualism

Leading Questions: Dualism

Surveying the Case for Dualism

Descartes's Arguments for Mind-Body Dualism

Reading: Rene Descartes, from Discourse on the Method
Reading: Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy (1)
Reading: Rene Descartes, from Meditations on First Philosophy (2)

Looking Through the Dualist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Dualism

3.3 Physicalism

Leading Questions: Physicalism

Surveying the Case for Physicalism

Reading: Jeffrey Olen, from Persons and Their World

Looking Through the Physicalist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Physicalism

3.4 Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence

Leading Questions: Functionalism and Artificial Intelligence

The Amazing Chess-Playing Machine

Surveying the Case for Functionalism

Reading: Jerry Fodor, The Mind-Body Problem

Surveying the Case for Artificial Intelligence

Reading: Marvin Minskey, Why People Think Computers Can't

Looking Through the Lens of Functionalism and Strong AI

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Functionalims and Strong AI

3.5 Overview: Freedom and Determinism

Scouting the Territory: Freedom and Determinism

Charting the Terrain of Freedom and Determinism: What Are the Issues?

Conceptual Tools: Thinking About Freedom

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Human Freedom?

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Freedom and Determinism

Key to the Questionnaire on Freedom and Determinism

3.6 Hard Determinism

Leading Questions: Hard Determinism

The Debate Over Determinism

Reading: B.F. Skinner, from Walden Two

Surveying the Case for Hard Determinism

The Problems with Libertarianism

The Positive Case for Determinism

The Denial of Moral Responsibility

Reading: Samuel Butler, from Erewhon
Reading: Clarence Darrow, from The Leopold and Loeb Trial

Benedict (Baruch) Spinoza (1632-1677)

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

Reading: B.F. Skinner, from A Lecture on 'Having' a Poem

Looking Through the Hard Determinist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Hard Determinism

3.7 Libertarianism

Leading Questions: Libertarianism

Surveying the Case for Libertarianism

The Problems with Determinism

The Positive Arguments for Libertarianism

Agency Theory

Reading: Richard Taylor, from Metaphysics

Radical Existential Freedom

Reading: Jean-Paul Sartre, from Being and Nothingness
Reading: Jean-Paul Sartre, from Dirty Hands

Looking Through the Libertarian's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Libertarianism

3.8 Compatibilism

Leading Questions: Compatibilism

Surveying the Case for Compatibilism (Soft Determinism)

Reading: Walter T. Stace, from Religion and the Modern Mind

Looking Through the Compatibilist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Compatibilism

Review for Chapter 3

CHAPTER 4: The Search for God

4.0 Overview of Philosophy of Religion

Scouting the Territory: The Impact of Religion

Reading: Peter Kreeft, from Does God Exist?

Charting the Terrain of Religion: What Are the Issues?

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Religious Belief?

Conceptual Tools: Arguments for the Existence of God

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on the Existence of God

Key to the Questionnaire on the Existence of God

4.1 The Cosmological Argument for God

Leading Questions: The Cosmological Arguement

Surveying the Case for the Cosmological Argument

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

Reading: St. Thomas Aquinas, from Summa Theologica
Richard Taylor, from Metaphysics

Looking Through the Lens of the Cosmological Argument

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument

4.2 The Design Argument for God

Leading Questions: The Argument from Design

Surveying the Case for the Design Argument

William Paley (1743-1805)

Reading: William Paley, from Natural Theology

Science and Cosmic Design

David Hume

Reading: David Hume, from Dialogues Concerning Human Religion

Looking Through the Lens of the Argument From Design

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Argument from Design

4.3 The Ontological Argument for God

Leading Questions: The Ontological Argument

Surveying the Case for the Ontological Argument

St. Anselm (1033-1109)

Reading: Anselm, from Proslogium

Looking Through the Lens of the Ontological Argument

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Ontological Argument

4.4 Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications of Religious Belief

Leading Questions: The Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications of Belief

Surveying the Case for Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

Reading: Blaise Pascal, from Thoughts

William James

Reading: William James, from The Will to Believe

Looking Through the Lens of the Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications of Religious Belief

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pragmatic and Subjective Justifications of Religious Belief

4.5 The Problem of Evil: Atheistic and Theistic Responses

Leading Questions: The Problem of Evil

Surveying the Case for Atheism: The Argument from Evil

Reading: Albert Camus, from The Plague

Religious Responses to the Argument from Evil

Reading: John Hick, from Evil and the God of Love
Reading: C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain

Looking Through the Atheist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Atheism

4.6 Rethinking the Western Tradition: Asian Religions

Leading Questions: Asian Religions

Surveying the Case for Hinduism

Reading: From the Upanishads

Surveying the Case for Buddhism

Reading: The Buddha, from Selected Teachings

Summary of Hindu and Buddhist Thought

Reading: Herman Hesse, from Siddhartha

Looking Through the Hindu's and the Buddha's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Hinduism and Buddhism

Review for Chapter 4

CHAPTER 5 The Search for Ethical Values

5.0 Overview of Ethics

Scouting the Territory: Why Be Moral?

Reading: Plato, from Republic

Charting the Terrain of Ethics: What Are the Issues?

Conceptual Tools: Philosophical Ethics and Religion

The Question, Why Be Moral? Reconsidered

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Ethics?

What Do I Think? Questionnaire Ethics, Actions, Consequences, Motives, and Character

Key to the Questionnaire on Ethics

5.1 Ethical Relativism versus Objectivism

Leading Questions: Ethical Relativism and Ethical Objectivisim

Surveying the Case for Ethical Relativism

Reading: Herodotus, from The Histories

Ruth Benedict (1857-1948)

Reading: Ruth Benedict, from Anthroplogy and the Abnormal

Looking Through the Lens of Ethical Relativism

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Ethical Relativism

Surveying the Case for Ethical Objectivism

Reading: James Rachels, from The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

Looking Through the Lens of Ethical Objectivism

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Ethical Objectivism

5.2 Ethical Egoism

Leading Questions: Ethical Egoism

Reading: W. Somerset Maugham, from Of Human Bondage

Surveying the Case for Ethical Egoism

Reading: Ayn Rand, from The Virtue of Selfishness

Looking Through the Egoist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Egoism

5.3 Utilitarianism

Leading Questions: Utilitarianism

Surveying the Case for Utilitarianism

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Reading: Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Reading: John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism: Objectivism or Relativism

The Consequences of Consequentialism: A Test Case

Reading: Alistair Norcross, from Comparing Harms: Headaches and Human Lives

The Problem of Justice and Rights

Looking Through the Utilitarian's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Utilitarianism

5.4 Kantian Ethics

Leading Questions: Kantian Ethics

Surveying the Case for Kantian Ethics

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Reading: Immanuel Kant, from Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals

Looking Through the Lens of Kantian Ethics

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Kantian Ethics

5.5 Virtue Ethics

Leading Questions: Virtue Ethics

Surveying the Case for Virtue Ethics

What is Virtue?

The Problems with the Utilitarian View

The Problems with the Kantian View

The Positive Case for Virtue Ethics

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

Reading: Aristotle, from Nicomachean Ethics

The Virtues in Confucian Thought

Reading: Confucius, from The Analects

A Contemporary Application of Virtue Ethics

Reading: Janet Smith, from Moral Character and Abortion

Summary of Virtue Ethics

Looking Through the Lens of Virtue Ethics

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Virtue Ethics

5.6 Rethinking the Western Tradition: Feminist Ethics

Leading Questions: Feminist Ethics

Surveying the Case for Feminist Ethics

Two Approaches to Feminist Ethics

Reading: Carol Gilligan, from In a Different Voice
Reading: Marilyn Friedman, from Liberating Care

Summary of Feminist Ethics

Looking Through the Lens of Feminist Ethics

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Feminist Ethics

Review for Chapter 5

CHAPTER 6 The Search for the Just Society

6.0 Overview of Political Philosophy

Scouting the Territory: Thinking About Government

Charting the Terrain of Political Philosophy: What Are the Issues?

Choosing a Path: What Are My Options Concerning Political Philosophy?

What Do I Think? Questionnaire on Political Philosophy

Key to the Quesionnaire on Political Philosophy

6.1 The Justification of Government

Leading Questions: The Justification of Government

Surveying the Case for Anarchism

Reading: Robert Paul Wolff, from In Defense of Anarchism

Looking Through the Anarchist's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Anarchism

Surveying the Case for Social Contract Theory

Reading: Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
Reading: John Locke, from An Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government
Reading: From The Decaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)

Looking Through the Lens of Social Contract Theory

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Social Contract Theory

6.2 The Question of Justice

Leading Questions: The Nature of Justice

Surveying the Case for Justice as Merit

Reading: Plato, from Republic

Looking Through Plato's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Plato's Theory of Justice

Surveying the Case for Justice as Conformity to the Natural Law

Reading: Thomas Aquinas, fron Summa Theologica

Looking Through the Lens of Natural Law Theory

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Natural Law Theory

Surveying the Case for Justice as Social Utility

John Stuart Mill

Reading: John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism

Looking Through Mill's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Mill's Theory of Justice

Surveying the Case for Justice as Fairness

John Rawls (born 1921)

Reading: John Rawls, from A Theory of Justice
Reading: Susan Moller Okin, from Justice, Gender, and the Family

Looking Through Rawls's Lens

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Rawls's Theory of Justice

6.3 The Individual and the State

Leading Questions: The Individual and the State

Surveying the Case for Classical Liberalism

John Stuart Mill

Reading: John Stuart Mill, from On Liberty

Looking Through the Lens of Classical Liberalism

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Classical Liberalism

Surveying the Case for Marxism

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Reading: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, from Communist Manifesto

Looking Through the Lens of Marxism

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Marxism

6.4 Civil Disobedience

Leading Questions: Civil Disobedience

Surveying the Case Against Civil Disobedience

Reading: Plato, from Crito

Looking Through the Lens of the Opponents of Civil Disobedience

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Opposition to Civil Disobedience

Surveying The Case for Civil Disobedience

Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)

Reading: Mohandas Gandhi, from Young India

Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968)

Reading: Martin Luthor King Jr., from Letter from Birmingham Jail

Looking Through the Lens of the Supporters of Civil Disobedience

Examining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Civil Disobedience Position

Review for Chapter 6

CHAPTER 7 Postscript: Philosophy and the Meaning of Life

Leading Questions

Scouting the Territory: Thinking About the Meaning of Life

Charting the Terrain of Questions about Meaning

Existentialism and the Meaning of Life

Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

Reading: Soren Kierkegaard, from Concluding Unscientific Postscript
Reading: Soren Kierkegaard, from The Journals

APPENDIX Reasoning Well: What to Do and What Not to Do

Deductive Arguments

Inductive Arguments

Informal Fallacies

Learning More about Arguments and Evidence

Review for Appendix



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