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Cengage Advantage Books: Philosophy in Context A Historical Introduction,9780495004707
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Cengage Advantage Books: Philosophy in Context A Historical Introduction

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780495004707

ISBN10:
0495004707
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/9/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $66.95

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Summary

In this CENGAGE ADVANTAGE BOOKS version of PHILOSOPHY IN CONTEXT: A HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION makes this often-times daunting subject approachable and engaging through it's easy-to-understand examination of paradigmatic philosophies and philosophers.

Table of Contents

PREFACE ix
Chapter 1 PHILOSOPHY AND THE SEARCH FOR WISDOM 1(14)
What to Expect from This Book
2(1)
Areas of Philosophy
2(1)
Philosophical Archetypes
3(2)
Are Philosophers Always Men?
5(1)
Philosophy and the Search for Truth
6(1)
"Isn't All This Just a Matter of Opinion?"
7(2)
Wisdom, Knowledge, and Belief
9(2)
Knowledge
9(1)
Belief
9(1)
Ignorance Is Not An Option
10(1)
OVERVIEW OF CLASSICAL THEMES
11(4)
Nature and Convention
12(1)
Contemporary Lessons from the Past
12(1)
The Search for Excellence
13(1)
The Search for Happiness
13(2)
Chapter 2 THE PRESOCRATIC SOPHOS 15(12)
From Sophos to Philosopher
15(1)
The Search for a Common Principle
16(1)
Rational Discourse
16(2)
The Problem of Change
18(1)
The Logos
18(2)
Appearance and Reality
20(1)
The One
20(2)
Being and Change
21(1)
The Many
22(1)
Mind
23(1)
Atoms and the Void
23(2)
Reason and Necessity
25(1)
Nature and Convention
25(1)
Commentary
25(2)
Chapter 3 THE SOPHIST: PROTAGORAS 27(10)
The Advent of Professional Educators
28(1)
The Sophists
29(2)
Power and Education
30(1)
Relativism
31(1)
Protagoras the Pragmatist
31(2)
Moral Realism: Might Makes Right
33(1)
The Doctrine of the Superior Individual
34(1)
Commentary
35(2)
Chapter 4 THE WISE MAN: SOCRATES 37(23)
The General Character of Socrates
38(5)
Barefoot in Athens
39(1)
A Most Unusual Father and Husband
40(1)
The Archetypal Individual
41(2)
The Teacher and His Teachings
43(1)
The Dialectic
43(2)
Socratic Irony
44(1)
Socrates at Work
45(4)
Sophos versus Sophist
46(3)
The Unexamined Life
49(3)
Socratic Ignorance
50(1)
The Power of Human Wisdom
51(1)
The Physician of the Soul
52(3)
No One Knowingly Does Evil
53(1)
Virtue Is Wisdom
53(2)
The Trial and Death of Socrates
55(3)
The Death of Socrates
57(1)
Commentary
58(2)
Chapter 5 THE PHILOSOPHER-KING: PLATO 60(24)
Plato's Life and Work
61(2)
The Decline of the Aristocracy
61(1)
Plato's Disillusionment
62(1)
The Academy
63(1)
Plato's Epistemology
63(2)
Plato's Dualistic Solution
64(1)
Knowledge and Being
65(1)
The Theory of Forms
65(5)
What Are Forms?
66(1)
Why Plato Needed the Forms
67(1)
Knowledge and Opinion
68(1)
What Happens When We Disagree?
68(2)
The Divided Line
70(2)
Levels of Awareness
71(1)
The Simile of the Sun
72(1)
The Allegory of the Cave
73(2)
The Rule of the Wise
75(1)
The Republic
76(4)
The Search for Justice
77(1)
Function and Happiness
77(1)
The Ideal State
78(1)
The Parts of the Soul
79(1)
The Cardinal Virtues
79(1)
Societies and Individuals
80(3)
The Origin of Democracy
80(1)
The Pendulum of Imbalance
81(1)
The Tyranny of Excess
82(1)
Commentary
83(1)
Chapter 6 THE NATURALIST: ARISTOTLE 84(22)
Works
85(1)
Aristotle's Life
85(1)
The Lyceum
86(1)
The Naturalist
87(1)
Natural Changes
88(3)
Form
88(2)
Matter
90(1)
Change
90(1)
Aristotle's Hierarchy of Explanations
91(1)
The Four Causes
92(2)
Material Cause
92(1)
Formal Cause
93(1)
Efficient Cause
93(1)
Final Cause
94(1)
Entelechy
94(1)
Psyche as Entelechy
95(1)
The Hierarchy of Souls
95(1)
Natural Happiness
96(4)
The Good
97(1)
Teleological Thinking
97(1)
The Science of the Good
98(1)
Eudaimonia
99(1)
The Good Life Is a Process
100(1)
Hitting the Mark
100(4)
The Principle of the Mean
101(1)
Character and Habit
102(1)
Application of the Mean
103(1)
Commentary
104(2)
Chapter 7 THE STOIC: EPICTETUS AND MARCUS AURELIUS 106(22)
Hedonism
107(2)
The Meaning of Life Is Pleasure
107(2)
Epicureanism
109(1)
Quality of Life
109(1)
The Cynical Origins of Stoicism
110(2)
Stoic Admiration
112(1)
The Slave and the Emperor
113(1)
Epictetus: From Slave to Sage
113(1)
Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher-King
114(1)
The Fated Life
115(3)
The Stoic Logos
116(1)
The Disinterested Rational Will
117(1)
Stoic Wisdom
118(5)
Control versus Influence
118(1)
Some Things Are Not in Our Control
119(1)
Some Things Are in Our Control
120(1)
Relationships
121(1)
Everything Has a Price
122(1)
Suffering and Courage
122(1)
Stoicism Today: Logotherapy
123(1)
The World of Epictetus
124(1)
Commentary
125(3)
Chapter 8 THE SCHOLAR: THOMAS AQUINAS 128(25)
The God-Centered Universe
129(1)
The Seeds of Change
129(1)
Augustine: Between Two Worlds
130(3)
Pride and Philosophy
132(1)
The Life of Thomas Aquinas
133(3)
The Dominican
134(1)
The University of Paris
134(1)
Albertus Magnus: The Universal Teacher
135(1)
The Task of the Scholar
136(1)
The Wisdom of the Scholar
136(2)
Why Do People Argue About Spiritual Matters?
138(1)
God and Natural Reason
138(1)
Proving the Existence of God
139(4)
The First Way: Motion
139(1)
The Second Way: Cause
140(1)
The Third Way: Necessity
141(1)
The Fourth Way: Degree
142(1)
The Fifth Way: Design
143(1)
Commentary on the Five Ways
143(2)
Complications for Natural Theology
145(2)
The Problem of Evil
145(2)
Commentary
147(2)
OVERVIEW OF MODERN THEMES
149(4)
Reason, Reformation, and Revolution
149(1)
The Reformation
150(1)
The Copernican Revolution
150(2)
Where Are We, Then?
152(1)
Chapter 9 THE RATIONALIST: RENÉ DESCARTES 153(20)
The Problem of Authority
153(1)
René Descartes: The Solitary Intellect
154(2)
Rationalism
156(1)
Against Disorganized Thinking
156(1)
The Method of Doubt
157(3)
The Cartesian "I" and Methodic Doubt
158(1)
Standard of Truth
159(1)
Innate Ideas
159(1)
The Cartesian Genesis
160(3)
The Doubting Self
160(1)
Maybe It's All a Dream?
161(1)
The Evil Genius
162(1)
Cogito, ergo sum
162(1)
The Innate Idea of God
163(4)
The Perfect Idea of Perfection
164(2)
Descartes' Ontological Argument
166(1)
Reconstructing the World
167(1)
The Cartesian Bridge
167(3)
Cartesian Dualism
168(1)
The Mind-Body Problem
169(1)
From Cosmos To Machine
170(1)
Commentary
171(2)
Chapter 10 THE SKEPTIC: DAVID HUME 173(26)
John Locke
174(6)
Experience Is the Origin of All Ideas
175(1)
Locke's Rejection of Innate Ideas
176(1)
Locke's Dualism
177(1)
Primary and Secondary Qualities
178(1)
Locke's Egocentric Predicament
178(2)
George Berkeley
180(2)
David Hume: The Scottish Skeptic
182(4)
The Skeptical Masterpiece
183(1)
An Honest Man
183(3)
Hume's Skeptical Empiricism
186(3)
Impressions and Ideas
186(1)
The Empirical Criterion of Meaning
187(1)
The Self
187(1)
Personal Immortality
188(1)
The Limits of Reason
189(1)
The Limits of Science
190(1)
The Limits of Theology
191(2)
The Limits of Ethics
193(4)
The Facts, Just the Facts
194(1)
Moral Sentiments
195(1)
Rejection of Egoism
196(1)
Commentary
197(2)
Chapter 11 THE UNIVERSALIST: IMMANUEL KANT 199(22)
The Professor
200(1)
The Solitary Writer
200(2)
A Scandal in Philosophy
202(1)
Kant's Copernican Revolution
203(5)
Critical Philosophy
205(1)
Phenomena and Noumena
206(1)
Transcendental Ideas
206(1)
The Objectivity of Experience
207(1)
The Metaphysics of Morals
208(4)
The Moral Law Within
209(1)
The Good Will
210(1)
Inclinations, Wishes, Acts of Will
211(1)
Moral Duty
212(3)
Hypothetical Imperatives
213(1)
The Categorical Imperative
213(1)
The Kingdom of Ends
214(1)
A Kantian Theory of Justice
215(3)
What About Family Justice?
217(1)
Commentary
218(3)
Chapter 12 THE UTILITARIAN: JOHN STUART MILL 221(18)
Social Hedonism
222(1)
Philosophy and Social Reform
223(1)
The Principle of Utility
224(4)
The Hedonic Calculus
225(1)
The Egoistic Foundation of Social Concern
225(2)
The Question Is, Can They Suffer?
227(1)
John Stuart Mill
228(3)
Mill's Crisis
229(1)
Redemption and Balance
230(1)
Refined Utilitarianism
231(2)
Higher Pleasures
232(1)
Lower Pleasures
232(1)
Altruism and Happiness
233(3)
Utilitarian Social Logic
234(1)
Happiness and Mere Contentment
235(1)
Mill's Persistent Optimism
236(1)
Commentary
237(2)
Chapter 13 THE MATERIALIST: KARL MARX 239(18)
The Prophet
239(5)
Marx's Hegelian Roots
240(1)
Other Influences
241(1)
The Wanderer
242(1)
Friedrich Engels
243(1)
Vindication
243(1)
Dialectical Materialism
244(4)
Mystification and Materialism
245(2)
Economic Determinism
247(1)
Critique of Capitalism
248(5)
The Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
249(1)
Co-Option
250(1)
Class Struggle
251(1)
Seeds of Destruction
252(1)
Alienation
253(2)
Psychic Alienation
254(1)
Species-Life
255(1)
Commentary
255(2)
Chapter 14 THE PRAGMATIST: WILLIAM JAMES 257(21)
An American Original
257(4)
The Education of a Philosopher
258(1)
The Philosopher as Hero
259(1)
The Philosopher as Advocate
260(1)
Charles Sanders Peirce
261(1)
Peirce's "Pragmaticism"
261(1)
Pragmatic Theory of Meaning
262(1)
Pragmatism
262(9)
Pragmatic Method and Philosophy
263(1)
The Temper of Belief
264(2)
The Will to Believe
266(1)
Truth Happens to an Idea
266(1)
The Dilemma of Determinism
267(1)
The Inner Sense of Freedom
268(2)
Morality and the Good
270(1)
The Heroic Life
270(1)
Pragmatic Religion
271(2)
A Religious Dilemma
272(1)
Ultramarginal Life
273(1)
Truth Is Always Personal
273(2)
Danger Signs
274(1)
Commentary
275(3)
Chapter 15 THE EXISTENTIALISTS: SØREN KIERKEGAARD AND JEAN-PAUL SARTRE 278(22)
Søren Kierkegaard
279(4)
The Family Curse
279(1)
The Universal Formula
280(1)
The Christian
281(1)
That Individual
282(1)
Truth as Subjectivity
283(4)
Objectivity as Untruth
284(1)
The Present Age
285(1)
An Age of Virtual Equality
285(2)
Sartre and the Age of Forlornness
287(1)
Jean-Paul Sartre
287(3)
Nausea
288(1)
Existence Is Absurd
288(1)
The Celebrity Philosopher
289(1)
Freedom and Anguish
290(7)
Forlornness
291(1)
Condemned to Be Free
292(1)
Anguish
293(2)
Despair
295(1)
Optimistic Toughness
296(1)
Commentary
297(3)
Chapter 16 THE ANTI-PHILOSOPHER: FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE 300(20)
The Outsider
301(4)
Beyond the Academy
302(1)
Tragic Optimism
303(1)
Zarathustra Speaks
303(1)
The Last Philosopher
304(1)
Truth Is a Matter of Perspective
305(1)
Attack on Objectivity
306(1)
The Will to Power
307(1)
The Diseases of Modernity
308(4)
The Problem of Morality
308(1)
The Problem of Being Moralistic
309(1)
The Problem of Utilitarianism
310(1)
The Problem of Altruism
310(1)
The Problem of Generalized Accounts
311(1)
God Is Dead
312(1)
Nihilism
313(1)
Overman
313(1)
Slave Morality
314(2)
Ressentiment
315(1)
Master Morality
316(1)
Amor Fati
317(1)
Commentary
318(2)
Chapter 17 PHILOSOPHY AS A WAY OF LIFE 320(16)
The Reemergence of Other Voices
322(1)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Public Philosophic Activist
323(3)
Character Is Destiny
324(1)
The Value of Moral Tension
325(1)
Peter Singer: "The Dangerous Philosopher"
326(3)
The Singer Solution to World Poverty
327(2)
Martha C. Nussbaum: "Lawyer for Humanity"
329(2)
Philosophy for the Sake of Humanity
330(1)
Philosophy as a Way of Life
331(3)
To Live Like a Philosopher
333(1)
A Vision for You
334(1)
Commentary
335(1)
NOTES 336(14)
GLOSSARY 350(10)
CREDITS 360(1)
INDEX 361


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