9780190207038

Philosophy Here and Now Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190207038

  • ISBN10:

    0190207035

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 9/15/2015
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life, Second Edition, is a hybrid text/reader that helps students understand, appreciate, and even do philosophy. The book emphasizes philosophical writing, reinforced with step-by-step coaching in how to write argumentative essays and supported by multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking. It shows students how philosophy applies to their own lives and brings the subject to life with engaging chapter-ending literary selections, abundant illustrations, and a wealth of pedagogical features.

FEATURES

* A comprehensive introductory chapter lays the groundwork for philosophical thinking

* Six types of text boxes--"Philosophy Now," "Philosophers at Work," "Philosophy Lab," "What Do You Believe," "Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical Views," and "Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views" demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy

* Additional pedagogical elements make the material even more engaging and accessible. These include marginal critical-thinking questions, marginal quotes, a timeline, key terms (boldfaced at their first appearance and listed and defined at the end of each chapter), marginal definitions, and a glossary.

* Charts, tables, and color photos keep students visually engaged

* Fictional or narrative selections--followed by "Probing Questions"--at the end of each chapter explore and dramatize the philosophical issues discussed

* A "How to Write a Philosophy Paper" appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay

Author Biography


Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including The Power of Critical Thinking, Fifth Edition, (2015), Living Philosophy: A Historical Introduction to Philosophical Ideas (2014), Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Ninth Edition (2013), The Moral Life, Fifth Edition (2013), and Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases (2012), all published by Oxford University Press.

Table of Contents


Preface
CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHY AND YOU
1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING
The Good of Philosophy
Philosophical Terrain
1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE
PLATO: The Republic
1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY
Reasons and Arguments
Reading Philosophy
Fallacious Reasoning
Argument Exercises
Narrative: Plato, The Trial and Death of Socrates
CHAPTER 2. GOD AND RELIGION
2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY
Why Religion Matters
Overview: The Philosopher's Quest
Belief and Disbelief
2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
Cosmological Arguments
AQUINAS: Summa Theologica
CRAIG: Reasonable Faith
Design Arguments
PALEY: Natural Theology
HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
Ontological Arguments
ANSELM: Proslogium
KANT: Critique of Pure Reason
2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL
Rowe's Argument from Evil
ROWE: Philosophy of Religion
The Free Will Defense
SWINBURNE: Is There a God?
The Soul-Making Defense
HICK: Evil and the God of Love
2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE
ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus
MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism
ROWE: Philosophy of Religion
SWINBURNE: The Existence of God
2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON
James: Pragmatic Faith
JAMES: "The Will to Believe"
MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification
Pascal: Betting on God
PASCAL: Pensées and Other Writings
2.6 EASTERN RELIGIONS
Buddhism
Hinduism
Daoism
CHUANG TZU: All Things Are One
LAO-TZU: Tao-te ching
CHAPTER 3. MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE
3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN
Ethics and Morality
Moral Theories
Religion and Morality
SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened to Good and Evil?
3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM
Subjective Relativism
Cultural Relativism
3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES
Utilitarianism
MILL: "What Utilitarianism Is"
Ethical Egoism
3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS
KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals
3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER
ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics
SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics
3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE
JAGGAR: "Feminist Ethics"
CROSTHWAITE: "Gender and Bioethics"
HELD: The Ethics of Care
BAIER: "The Need for More Than Justice"
3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE
CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus
Fiction: Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"
3.8 CONFUCIANISM
CONFUCIUS: Analects
CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY
4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM
4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM
DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason
SCHICK: Doing Philosophy
DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy
SEARLE: Mind
4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY
SMART: "Sensations and Brain Processes"
CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind
NAGEL: "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?"
4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE
FODOR: "The Mind-Body Problem"
BLOCK: "Troubles with Functionalism"
SEARLE: Mind
4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES
CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind
Fiction: Terry Bisson, "They're Made Out of Meat"
CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM
5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM
5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM
D'HOLBACH: "Of the System of Man's Free Agency"
JAMES: "The Dilemma of Determinism"
5.3 COMPATIBILISM
LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind
ROWE: "Two Concepts of Freedom"
5.4 LIBERTARIANISM
VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will
TAYLOR: Metaphysics
5.5 SARTRE'S PROFOUND FREEDOM
SARTRE: "Existentialism Is a Humanism"
Fiction: Thomas D. Davis, "A Little Omniscience Goes a Long Way"
CHAPTER 6. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM
6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE
6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD
Plato's Rationalism
PLATO: Meno
Descartes' Doubt
DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy
Descartes' Certainty
DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy
6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN
Locke
LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Berkeley
BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge
Hume
HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE
KANT: Critique of Pure Reason
6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE
AINLEY: "Feminist Philosophy"
ANTONY: "Embodiment and Epistemology"
ANDERSON: "Feminist Epistemology"
COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism
Fiction: Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass
CHAPTER 7. AESTHETICS
7.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY
7.2 WHAT IS ART?
7.3 AESTHETIC VALUE
7.4 PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND HUME
ARISTOTLE: The Poetics
HUME: Of the Standard of Taste
Fiction: Edgar Allan Poe, "The Oval Portrait"
CHAPTER 8. THE JUST SOCIETY
8.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
8.2 PLATO'S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT
PLATO: The Republic
8.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES
Hobbes
HOBBES: Leviathan
Locke
LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government
Rawls
RAWLS: A Theory of Justice
8.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES
MARX AND ENGELS: Manifesto of the Communist Party
8.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family
MILLER: Political Philosophy
Fiction: William Golding, Lord of the Flies
CHAPTER 9. THE MEANING OF LIFE
9.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE
9.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING
TOLSTOY: My Confession
SCHOPENHAUER: On the Sufferings of the World
BAGGINI: What's It All About?
9.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING
Meaning from Above
TOLSTOY: My Confession
BAGGINI What's It All About?
Meaning from Below
EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Fiction: Voltaire, "The Good Brahmin"

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