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Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life, Second Edition, is a hybrid text/reader that helps students understand, appreciate, and even do philosophy. The book emphasizes philosophical writing, reinforced with step-by-step coaching in how to write argumentative essays and supported by multiple opportunities to hone critical thinking. It shows students how philosophy applies to their own lives and brings the subject to life with engaging chapter-ending literary selections, abundant illustrations, and a wealth of pedagogical features.
* A comprehensive introductory chapter lays the groundwork for philosophical thinking
* Six types of text boxes--"Philosophy Now," "Philosophers at Work," "Philosophy Lab," "What Do You Believe," "Writing to Understand: Critiquing Philosophical Views," and "Writing to Understand: Arguing Your Own Views" demonstrate the value and relevance of philosophy
* Additional pedagogical elements make the material even more engaging and accessible. These include marginal critical-thinking questions, marginal quotes, a timeline, key terms (boldfaced at their first appearance and listed and defined at the end of each chapter), marginal definitions, and a glossary.
* Charts, tables, and color photos keep students visually engaged
* Fictional or narrative selections--followed by "Probing Questions"--at the end of each chapter explore and dramatize the philosophical issues discussed
* A "How to Write a Philosophy Paper" appendix offers concise, step-by-step guidance in crafting an effective philosophical essay
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including The Power of Critical Thinking, Fifth Edition, (2015), Living Philosophy: A Historical Introduction to Philosophical Ideas (2014), Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Ninth Edition (2013), The Moral Life, Fifth Edition (2013), and Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases (2012), all published by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
Preface CHAPTER 1. PHILOSOPHY AND YOU 1.1 PHILOSOPHY: THE QUEST FOR UNDERSTANDING The Good of Philosophy Philosophical Terrain 1.2 SOCRATES AND THE EXAMINED LIFE PLATO: The Republic 1.3 THINKING PHILOSOPHICALLY Reasons and Arguments Reading Philosophy Fallacious Reasoning Argument Exercises Narrative: Plato, The Trial and Death of Socrates CHAPTER 2. GOD AND RELIGION 2.1 OVERVIEW: GOD AND PHILOSOPHY Why Religion Matters Overview: The Philosopher's Quest Belief and Disbelief 2.2 ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD Cosmological Arguments AQUINAS: Summa Theologica CRAIG: Reasonable Faith Design Arguments PALEY: Natural Theology HUME: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Ontological Arguments ANSELM: Proslogium KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 2.3 GOD AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL Rowe's Argument from Evil ROWE: Philosophy of Religion The Free Will Defense SWINBURNE: Is There a God? The Soul-Making Defense HICK: Evil and the God of Love 2.4 THEISM AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE ST. TERESA OF AVILA: The Life of Teresa of Jesus MACKIE: The Miracle of Theism ROWE: Philosophy of Religion SWINBURNE: The Existence of God 2.5 BELIEF WITHOUT REASON James: Pragmatic Faith JAMES: "The Will to Believe" MARTIN: Atheism: A Philosophical Justification Pascal: Betting on God PASCAL: Pensées and Other Writings 2.6 EASTERN RELIGIONS Buddhism Hinduism Daoism CHUANG TZU: All Things Are One LAO-TZU: Tao-te ching CHAPTER 3. MORALITY AND THE MORAL LIFE 3.1 OVERVIEW: ETHICS AND THE MORAL DOMAIN Ethics and Morality Moral Theories Religion and Morality SHAFER-LANDAU: Whatever Happened to Good and Evil? 3.2 MORAL RELATIVISM Subjective Relativism Cultural Relativism 3.3 MORALITY BASED ON CONSEQUENCES Utilitarianism MILL: "What Utilitarianism Is" Ethical Egoism 3.4 MORALITY BASED ON DUTY AND RIGHTS KANT: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals 3.5 MORALITY BASED ON CHARACTER ARISTOTLE: Nicomachean Ethics SHAFER-LANDAU: The Fundamentals of Ethics 3.6 FEMINIST ETHICS AND THE ETHICS OF CARE JAGGAR: "Feminist Ethics" CROSTHWAITE: "Gender and Bioethics" HELD: The Ethics of Care BAIER: "The Need for More Than Justice" 3.7 ALBERT CAMUS: AN EXISTENTIALIST VOICE CAMUS: The Myth of Sisyphus Fiction: Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas" 3.8 CONFUCIANISM CONFUCIUS: Analects CHAPTER 4. MIND AND BODY 4.1 OVERVIEW: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM 4.2 SUBSTANCE DUALISM DESCARTES: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason SCHICK: Doing Philosophy DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy SEARLE: Mind 4.3 MIND-BODY IDENTITY SMART: "Sensations and Brain Processes" CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind NAGEL: "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?" 4.4 THE MIND AS SOFTWARE FODOR: "The Mind-Body Problem" BLOCK: "Troubles with Functionalism" SEARLE: Mind 4.5 THE MIND AS PROPERTIES CHALMERS: The Conscious Mind Fiction: Terry Bisson, "They're Made Out of Meat" CHAPTER 5. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM 5.1 OVERVIEW: THE FREE WILL PROBLEM 5.2 DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM D'HOLBACH: "Of the System of Man's Free Agency" JAMES: "The Dilemma of Determinism" 5.3 COMPATIBILISM LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding STACE: Religion and the Modern Mind ROWE: "Two Concepts of Freedom" 5.4 LIBERTARIANISM VAN INWAGEN: An Essay on Free Will TAYLOR: Metaphysics 5.5 SARTRE'S PROFOUND FREEDOM SARTRE: "Existentialism Is a Humanism" Fiction: Thomas D. Davis, "A Little Omniscience Goes a Long Way" CHAPTER 6. KNOWLEDGE AND SKEPTICISM 6.1 OVERVIEW: THE PROBLEM OF KNOWLEDGE 6.2 THE RATIONALIST ROAD Plato's Rationalism PLATO: Meno Descartes' Doubt DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy Descartes' Certainty DESCARTES: Meditations on First Philosophy 6.3 THE EMPIRICIST TURN Locke LOCKE: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Berkeley BERKELEY: Of the Principles of Human Knowledge Hume HUME: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 6.4 THE KANTIAN COMPROMISE KANT: Critique of Pure Reason 6.5 A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE ON KNOWLEDGE AINLEY: "Feminist Philosophy" ANTONY: "Embodiment and Epistemology" ANDERSON: "Feminist Epistemology" COLE: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism Fiction: Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass CHAPTER 7. AESTHETICS 7.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY OF BEAUTY 7.2 WHAT IS ART? 7.3 AESTHETIC VALUE 7.4 PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND HUME ARISTOTLE: The Poetics HUME: Of the Standard of Taste Fiction: Edgar Allan Poe, "The Oval Portrait" CHAPTER 8. THE JUST SOCIETY 8.1 OVERVIEW: JUSTICE AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 8.2 PLATO'S THEORY: JUSTICE AS MERIT PLATO: The Republic 8.3 SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORIES Hobbes HOBBES: Leviathan Locke LOCKE: Second Treatise of Government Rawls RAWLS: A Theory of Justice 8.4 SOCIALIST THEORIES MARX AND ENGELS: Manifesto of the Communist Party 8.5 FEMINISM AND SOCIAL JUSTICE OKIN: Justice, Gender, and the Family MILLER: Political Philosophy Fiction: William Golding, Lord of the Flies CHAPTER 9. THE MEANING OF LIFE 9.1 OVERVIEW: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE 9.2 PESSIMISM: LIFE HAS NO MEANING TOLSTOY: My Confession SCHOPENHAUER: On the Sufferings of the World BAGGINI: What's It All About? 9.3 OPTIMISM: LIFE CAN HAVE MEANING Meaning from Above TOLSTOY: My Confession BAGGINI What's It All About? Meaning from Below EDWARDS: The Encyclopedia of Philosophy Fiction: Voltaire, "The Good Brahmin"