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Philosophy : The Power of Ideas,9780767420112

Philosophy : The Power of Ideas

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780767420112

ISBN10:
076742011X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/6/2001
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $100.50

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Summary

One of the most widely adopted texts in the field, Philosophy: The Power of Ideas offers a topical introduction to philosophy within an overarching historical framework. The goal of the authors is to make philosophy understandable while not oversimplifying the material, showing that philosophy contains powerful ideas that affect the lives of real people.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Powerful Ideas
1(14)
What Is Philosophy?
2(3)
Misconceptions about Philosophy
5(2)
The Tools of Philosophy: Argument and Logic
7(2)
The Divisions of Philosophy
9(1)
The Benefits of Philosophy
10(2)
Checklist
12(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
12(1)
Suggested Further Readings
13(2)
Part One METAPHYSICS AND EPISTEMOLOGY: EXISTENCE AND KNOWLEDGE 15(194)
The Pre-Socratics
16(14)
The Milesians
18(2)
Pythagoras
20(1)
Heraclitus and Parmenides
21(3)
Empedocles and Anaxagoras
24(2)
The Atomists
26(2)
Checklist
28(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
29(1)
Suggested Further Readings
29(1)
Socrates, Plato
30(25)
Socrates
30(2)
Plato
32(21)
Plato's Metaphysics: The Theory of Forms
32(3)
Plato's Theory of Knowledge
35(3)
Plato's Theory of Love and Becoming
38(2)
Republic
40(8)
Plato
Meno
48(5)
Plato
Checklist
53(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
53(1)
Suggested Further Readings
53(2)
Aristotle
55(11)
What Is It to Be?
56(2)
Actuality and Possibility
58(1)
Essence and Existence
59(1)
Ten Basic Categories
59(1)
The Three Souls
60(1)
Aristotle and the Theory of Forms
60(1)
Aristotle's Theory of Knowledge
61(1)
Logic
62(3)
Metaphysics
62(3)
Aristotle
Checklist
65(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
65(1)
Suggested Further Readings
65(1)
Philosophers of the Hellenistic and Christian Eras
66(22)
Metaphysics in the Roman Empire
67(9)
Plotinus
67(1)
The Rise of Christianity
68(1)
St. Augustine
69(2)
Augustine and Skepticism
71(3)
Hypatia
74(2)
The Middle Ages and Aquinas
76(10)
Confessions
81(5)
St. Augustine
Checklist
86(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
86(1)
Suggested Further Readings
86(2)
The Rise of Modern Metaphysics and Epistemology
88(32)
Descartes and Dualism
91(7)
Skepticism As the Key to Certainty
93(1)
The ``Clear and Distinct'' Litmus Test
94(4)
Hobbes and Materialism
98(2)
Perception
98(1)
Difficulties in Hobbes's Theory
99(1)
The Alternative Views of Conway, Spinoza, and Leibniz
100(5)
The Metaphysics of Anne Conway
100(2)
Spinoza
102(2)
Leibniz
104(1)
The Idealism of Locke and Berkeley
105(12)
John Locke and Representative Realism
106(1)
George Berkeley and Idealism
107(3)
Material Things As Clusters of Ideas
110(1)
Berkeley and Atheism
111(1)
Meditations on First Philosophy
112(2)
Rene Descartes
Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
114(3)
George Berkeley
Checklist
117(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
117(1)
Suggested Further Readings
118(2)
The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
120(27)
David Hume
121(5)
The Quarter Experiment
121(2)
Hume on the Self
123(1)
Hume on Cause and Effect
124(2)
Immanuel Kant
126(4)
The Ordering Principles of the Mind
126(3)
Things-in-Themselves
129(1)
The Nineteenth Century
130(14)
Main Themes of Hegel
130(3)
Arthur Schopenhauer
133(1)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
134(3)
David Hume
Critique of Pure Reason
137(1)
Immanuel Kant
The Philosophy of History
138(1)
George Hegel
The World As Will and Representation
139(5)
Arthur Schopenhauer
Checklist
144(1)
Question for Discussion and Review
145(1)
Suggested Further Readings
145(2)
The Continental Tradition
147(26)
Existentialism
148(4)
Two Existentialists
152(8)
Albert Camus
154(3)
Jean-Paul Sartre
157(2)
Sartre and Kant on Ethics
159(1)
You Are What You Do
160(1)
Phenomenology
160(10)
Edmund Husserl
160(2)
Martin Heidegger
162(4)
Existentialism and Humanism
166(3)
Jean-Paul Sartre
The Myth of Sisyphus
169(1)
Albert Camus
Checklist
170(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
170(1)
Suggested Further Readings
171(2)
The Pragmatic and Analytic Traditions
173(36)
Pragmatism
174(3)
Analytic Philosophy
177(16)
What Analysis Is
177(1)
A Brief Overview of Analytic Philosophy
177(4)
Language and Science
181(3)
Experience, Language, and the World
184(5)
Antirepresentationalism
189(2)
Wittgenstein's Turnaround
191(2)
The Philosophy of Mind
193(12)
Dualism
193(1)
Behaviorism
194(2)
Identity Theory
196(1)
Functionalism
197(2)
The Elimination of Metaphysics
199(3)
A. J. Ayer
Sensations and Brain Processes
202(2)
J. J. C. Smart
Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth
204(1)
Richard Rorty
Checklist
205(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
206(1)
Suggested Further Readings
206(3)
Part Two MORAL AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 209(130)
Moral Philosophy
210(55)
Skepticism, Relativism, and Subjectivism
211(1)
Egoism
212(1)
Hedonism
213(1)
The Five Main Ethical Frameworks
214(1)
The Early Greeks
214(8)
Plato
215(3)
A Complete Ethical Theory
218(1)
Aesara, the Lucanian
219(1)
Aristotle
220(2)
Epicureanism and Stoicism
222(4)
Epicureanism
223(1)
The Stoics
224(2)
Christianizing Ethics
226(7)
St. Augustine
226(1)
St. Hildegard of Bingen
227(2)
Heloise and Abelard
229(3)
St. Thomas Aquinas
232(1)
Hobbes and Hume
233(4)
Hobbes
233(1)
Hume
234(1)
Value Judgments Are Based on Emotion, Not Reason
235(1)
Benevolence
236(1)
Can There Be Ethics after Hume?
237(1)
Kant
237(3)
The Supreme Principle of Morality
238(1)
Why You Should Do What, You Should Do
239(1)
The Utilitarians
240(4)
Bentham
240(2)
Mill
242(2)
Friedrich Nietzsche
244(16)
Gorgias
245(3)
Plato
Epicurus to Menoeceus
248(2)
Epicurus
The Encheiridion
250(2)
Epictetus
Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals
252(2)
Immanuel Kant
Utilitarianism
254(3)
John Stuart Mill
Beyond Good and Evil
257(3)
Friedrich Nietzsche
Checklist
260(2)
Questions for Discussion and Review
262(1)
Suggested Further Readings
263(2)
Political Philosophy
265(43)
Plato and Aristotle
266(3)
Plato
266(2)
Aristotle
268(1)
Natural Law Theory and Contractarian Theory
269(6)
Augustine and Aquinas
269(1)
Hobbes
270(5)
Two Other Contractarian Theorists
275(8)
John Locke
275(4)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
279(4)
American Constitutional Theory
283(2)
Natural Law and Rights in the Declaration of Independence
283(1)
Natural Law and Rights in the U.S. Constitution
284(1)
The Right to Privacy
285(1)
Classic Liberalism and Marxism
285(19)
Adam Smith
286(1)
Utilitarianism and Natural Rights
286(1)
Harriet Taylor
286(1)
John Stuart Mill
287(2)
Marxism
289(5)
Marxism and Communism
294(1)
Anarchism
295(1)
Leviathan
296(4)
Thomas Hobbes
On Liberty
300(2)
John Stuart Mill
Communist Manifesto
302(2)
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Checklist
304(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
305(1)
Suggested Further Readings
306(2)
Recent Moral and Political Philosophy
308(31)
G. E. Moore
308(2)
Normative Ethics and Metaethics
310(1)
W. D. Ross
311(1)
Emotivism and Beyond
312(3)
John Rawls, a Contemporary Liberal
315(4)
The Fundamental Requirements of the Just Society
316(1)
The Veil of Ignorance and the Original Position
316(1)
The Two Principles of Social Justice
317(1)
The Rights of Individuals
317(1)
Why Should I Accept Rawl's Provisions?
318(1)
Robert Nozick's Libertarianism
319(3)
A Minimal State Is Justified
320(1)
Only the ``Night-Watchman'' State Does Not Violate Rights
320(2)
The Rights of Individuals
322(1)
Communitarian Responses to Rawls
322(4)
Alasdair MacIntyre and Virtue Ethics
323(3)
Herbert Marcuse, a Contemporary Marxist
326(2)
``Isms''
328(8)
Killing and Starving to Death
330(3)
James Rachels
A Theory of Justice
333(1)
John Rawls
Anarchy, State, and Utopia
334(2)
Robert Nozick
Checklist
336(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
336(1)
Suggested Further Readings
337(2)
Part Three PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION: REASON AND FAITH 339(48)
Philosophy and Belief in God
340(47)
Two Christian Greats
341(6)
Anselm
341(3)
Aquinas
344(3)
Mysticism
347(3)
Seventeenth-Century Perspectives
350(5)
Descartes
350(2)
Leibniz
352(3)
Eighteenth-Century Perspectives
355(6)
Hume
355(4)
Kant
359(2)
Nineteenth-Century Perspectives
361(9)
Newman
361(1)
Kierkegaard
362(1)
Nietzsche
363(2)
James
365(5)
Twentieth-Century Perspectives
370(13)
God and Logical Positivism
370(2)
Mary Daly: The Unfolding of God
372(3)
Who Needs Reasons for Believing in God?
375(1)
Proslogion
376(1)
St. Anselm
Summa Theologica
377(1)
St. Thomas Aquinas
The Gay Science
378(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche
Theology and Falsification
379(1)
Antony Flew
After the Death of God the Father
380(3)
Mary Daly
Checklist
383(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
384(1)
Suggested Further Readings
385(2)
Part Four OTHER VOICES 387(158)
Feminist Philosophy
388(49)
The First Wave
388(3)
The Second Wave
391(42)
Androgyny As an Alternative
396(2)
Problems with Androgyny As an Ideal
398(2)
Feminist Moral Theory
400(3)
Justice, Gender, and the Family: Susan Moller Okin
403(2)
Sexism and Language
405(2)
Division of Labor Analysis
407(1)
Pornography
407(1)
The Importance of Recognizing Diversity
408(1)
Feminist Epistemology
409(2)
Ecofeminism
411(3)
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
414(1)
Mary Wollstonecraft
The Second Sex
415(3)
Simone de Beauvoir
Sexism: The Male Monopoly on History and Thought
418(4)
Marielouise Janssen-Jurreit
Should the History and Philosophy of Science Be X-Rated?
422(2)
Sandra Harding
Justice, Gender, and the Family
424(6)
Susan Moller Okin
The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism
430(3)
Karen J. Warren
Checklist
433(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
434(1)
Suggested Further Readings
435(2)
An Era of Suspicion
437(21)
Jurgen Habermas
438(3)
Michel Foucault
441(2)
Structuralism versus Deconstruction
443(5)
Jacques Derrida
444(4)
Richard Rorty
448(8)
The History of Sexuality
450(1)
Michel Foucault
Madness and Civilization
451(1)
Michel Foucault
Toward a Rational Society
452(3)
Jurgen Habermas
Philosophy and Social Hope
455(1)
Richard Rorty
Checklist
456(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
456(1)
Suggested Further Readings
456(2)
Eastern Influences
458(49)
Hinduism
459(3)
Buddhism
462(5)
Buddha
462(5)
Taoism
467(8)
Lao Tzu
467(5)
Chuang Tzu
472(3)
Confucianism
475(9)
Confucius
475(4)
Mencius
479(4)
Hsun Tzu
483(1)
Zen Buddhism in China and Japan
484(9)
Hui Neng
484(3)
Buddhism in Japan
487(1)
Murasaki Shikibu
488(3)
Dogen Kigen
491(2)
The Philosophy of the Samurai (c. 1100-1900)
493(11)
The Influence of Confucius
495(2)
The Influence of Zen Buddhism
497(2)
Analects
499(2)
Confucius
The Eightfold Noble Path
501(3)
Buddha
Checklist
504(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
505(1)
Suggested Further Readings
505(2)
Postcolonial Thought
507(38)
Historical Background
509(2)
Africa
511(5)
Oral and Traditional Philosophy
513(3)
The Americas
516(8)
African American Thought
519(3)
Latin American Thought
522(2)
South Asia
524(17)
Satyagraha
525(2)
Metaphysics
527(1)
On African Socialism
528(2)
Leopold Sedar Senghor
The Sword That Heals
530(1)
Martin Luther King Jr.
Existentialism and the Crisis of Philosophy
531(2)
Carlos Astrada
Man without Theory
533(3)
Francisco Miro Quesada
Feminism on the Border: From Gender Politics to Geopolitics
536(2)
Sonia Saldivar-Hull
Satyagraha
538(2)
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Towards Universal Man
540(1)
Rabindranath Tagore
Checklist
541(1)
Questions for Discussion and Review
542(1)
Suggested Further Readings
543(2)
Photo Credits 545(2)
Glossary/Index 547


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