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Praised for its unique combination of accessibility and comprehensiveness, Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, Tenth Edition, provides an excellent selection of ninety-five classical and contemporary readings--on twenty key problems in philosophy--carefully organized so that they present pro/con dialogues that allow students to compare and contrast the philosophers' positions.
Each of the readings is accompanied by study questions, end-of-reading reflective questions, and an individual introduction featuring a biographical sketch of the philosopher. A tutorial on logic and argument, a time line, boldfaced key terms, a detailed glossary, and an appendix on reading and writing philosophy papers further enhance the text's pedagogical value. In addition, each major section opens with a substantial introduction and ends with a short bibliography.
The late Louis P. Pojman was Professor of Philosophy at the United States Military Academy at West Point and the author, editor, or coeditor of more than twenty books.
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of numerous books, including Bioethics, Third Edition (2016), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fifth Edition, (2015), Philosophy Here and Now, Second Edition (2015), and Living Philosophy (2014), all published by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
Each part opens with an Introduction and ends with Key Terms and Suggestions for Further Reading. *=New to this Edition Preface Time Line I. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? The Good of Philosophy Philosophical Terrain Thinking Philosophically Reasons and Arguments Fallacious Reasoning Identifying Arguments Some Applications Exercises in Critical Reasoning Study and Discussion Questions 1. Plato: Socratic Wisdom 2. Plato: The Allegory of the Cave 3. John Locke: Of Enthusiasm and the Quest for Truth 4. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy II. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION II.A. Is Belief in God Rationally Justified? Arguments for the Existence of God The Cosmological Argument Pro 5. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways 6. William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argument and the Anthropic Principle Contra 7. Paul Edwards: A Critique of the Cosmological Argument The Teleological Argument Pro 8. William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker Contra 9. David Hume: A Critique of the Teleological Argument The Ontological Argument Pro et Contra 10. St. Anselm and Gaunilo: The Ontological Argument 11. William Rowe: An Analysis of the Ontological Argument II.B. Why Is There Evil? 12. Fyodor Dostoevsky: Why Is There Evil? 13. B.C. Johnson: Why Doesn't God Intervene to Prevent Evil? 14. John Hick: There Is a Reason Why God Allows Evil 15. William L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism II.C. Is Faith Compatible with Reason? 16. Blaise Pascal: Yes, Faith Is a Logical Bet 17. W.K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief 18. William James: The Will to Believe 19. Antony Flew, R.M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell: A Debate on the Rationality of Religious Belief 20. Alvin Plantinga: Religious Belief Without Evidence 21. S°ren Kierkegaard: Faith and Truth 22. Bertrand Russell: Can Religion Cure Our Troubles? III. KNOWLEDGE III.A. What Can We Know? Classical Theories of Knowledge 23. renÚ Descartes: Cartesian Doubt and the Search for Foundational Knowledge 24. John Locke: The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge 25. George Berkeley: An Idealist Theory of Knowledge 26. David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas 27. G.E. Moore: Proof of an External World III.B. Truth, Rationality, and Cognitive Relativism 28. Bertrand Russell: The Correspondence Theory of Truth 29. William James: The Pragmatic Theory of Truth 30. Richard Rorty: Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity 31. Daniel Dennett: Postmodernism and Truth * III.C. Feminist Perspectives on Knowledge * 32. Eve Browning Cole: Philosophy and Feminist Criticism * 33. Alison Ainley: Feminist Philosophy III.D. Induction 34. David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding 35. Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Induction IV. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM IV.A. What Am I? A Mind or a Body? 36. RenÚDescartes: Substance Dualism 37. Gilbert Ryle: Exorcising Descartes' "Ghost in the Machine" 38. J.P. Moreland: A Contemporary Defense of Dualism 39. Paul Churchland: On Functionalism and Materialism 40. J.J.C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes 41. Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? 42. Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem 43. David Chalmers: Property Dualism 44. John Searle: Minds, Brains, and Computers 45. Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalism IV.B. Who Am I? Do We Have Personal Identity? 46. John Locke: Our Psychological Properties Define the Self 47. David Hume: We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical V. FREEDOM OF THE WILL AND DETERMINISM Contra 48. Baron d'Holbach: We Are Completely Determined Pro 49. William James: The Dilemma of Determinism 50. Roderick M. Chisholm: Human Freedom and the Self Pro et Contra 51. Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person 52. David Hume: Liberty and Necessity VI. ETHICS VI.A. Are There Any Moral Absolutes or Is Morality Completely Relative? 53. Ruth Benedict: Morality Is Relative 54. James Rachels: Morality Is Not Relative VI.B. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should We Be Moral? 55. Plato: Why Should I Be Moral?: Gyges' Ring and Socrates' Dilemma 56. Louis P. Pojman: Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand 57. Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism VI.C. Which Is the Correct Ethical Theory? 58. Immanuel Kant: The Moral Law 59. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism * 60. Bernard Williams: Against Utilitarianism 61. Aristotle: The Ethics of Virtue 62. Virginia Held: The Ethics of Care 63. Alison M. Jaggar: Feminist Ethics 64. Annette C. Baier: The Need for More than Justice 65. Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics 66. James Rachels: The Divine Command Theory * 67. Thomas Nagel: Moral Luck VII. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND JUSTICE VII.A. What is the Most Just Form of Government? 68. Robert Paul Wolff: In Defense of Anarchism 69. Thomas Hobbes: The Absolutist Answer: The Justification of the State Is the Security It Affords 70. John Locke: The Democratic Answer: The Justification of the State Is Its Promotion of Security and Natural Human Rights 71. John Stuart Mill: A Classical Liberal Answer: Government Must Promote Freedom 72. John Rawls: The Contemporary Liberal Answer 73. Robert Nozick: Against Liberalism * VIII.B. What is Social Justice? * 74. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Nonviolence and Racial Justice * 75. Susan Moller Okin: Justice, Gender, and Family * 76. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women VIII. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE? 77. Epicurus: Moderate Hedonism 78. Epictetus: Stoicism: Enchiridion 79. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd 80. Julian Baggini: Living Life Forwards 81. Louis P. Pojman: Religion Gives Meaning to Life 82. Thomas Nagel: The Absurd 83. Bertrand Russell: Reflections on Suffering IX. CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS IX.A. Is Abortion Morally Permissible? Contra 84. Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral 85. Francis J. Beckwith: Arguments from Bodily Rights Pro 86. Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion 87. Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion Pro et Contra 88. Jane English: The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument IX.B. Is the Death Penalty Morally Permissible? Pro 89. Burton Leiser: The Death Penalty Is Permissible Contra 90. Hugo Adam Bedau: No, the Death Penalty Is Not Morally Permissible IX.C. Should Society Permit Same-Sex Marriage? * 91. Maggie Gallagher: What Marriage Is For: Children Need Mothers and Fathers Contra 92. Jonathan Rauch: For Better or Worse? IX.D. Do We Have Obligations to the Poor and Hungry? Pro 93. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality Contra 94. Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat Appendix: How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper Glossary