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Praised for its unique combination of accessibility and comprehensiveness, Philosophy: The Quest for Truth provides an excellent selection of ninety-one classical and contemporary readings--on nineteen key problems in philosophy--carefully organized so that they present pro/con dialogues that allow students to compare and contrast the philosophers' positions. Each of the readings is accompanied by study questions, end-of-reading reflective questions, and an individual introduction featuring a biographical sketch of the philosopher. A tutorial on logic and argument, a time line, boldfaced key terms, a detailed glossary, and an appendix on reading and writing philosophy papers further enhance the text's pedagogical value. In addition, each major section opens with a substantial introduction and ends with a short bibliography.
The late Louis P. Pojman was Professor of Philosophy at the United States Military Academy at West Point and the author, editor, or coeditor of more than twenty books.
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books including Philosophy Here and Now, The Moral Life, Fifth Edition, and The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition, all published in 2013 by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
Each part opens with an Introduction and ends with Key Terms and Suggestions for Further Reading. *=New to this edition Preface Time Line I. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? 1. Plato: Socratic Wisdom 2. Plato: The Allegory of the Cave 3. John Locke: Of Enthusiasm and the Quest for Truth 4. Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy Excursus: A Little Bit of Logic Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Inference to the Best Explanation Identifying Arguments Some Applications Fallacies of Reasoning Exercises in Critical Reasoning Study and Discussion Questions II. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION II.A. Is Belief in God Rationally Justified? Arguments for the Existence of God The Cosmological Argument Pro 5. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways 6. William Lane Craig: The Kalam Cosmological Argument and the Anthropic Principle Contra 7. Paul Edwards: A Critique of the Cosmological Argument The Teleological Argument Pro 8. William Paley: The Watch and the Watchmaker Contra 9. David Hume: A Critique of the Teleological Argument The Ontological Argument Pro et Contra 10. St. Anselm and Gaunilo: The Ontological Argument 11. William Rowe: An Analysis of the Ontological Argument II.B. Why Is There Evil? 12. Fyodor Dostoevsky: Why Is There Evil? 13. B.C. Johnson: Why Doesn't God Intervene to Prevent Evil? 14. John Hick: There Is a Reason Why God Allows Evil * 15. William L. Rowe: The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism II.C. Is Faith Compatible with Reason? 16. Blaise Pascal: Yes, Faith Is a Logical Bet 17. W.K. Clifford: The Ethics of Belief 18. William James: The Will to Believe 19. Antony Flew, R.M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell: A Debate on the Rationality of Religious Belief 20. Alvin Plantinga: Religious Belief Without Evidence 21. S°ren Kierkegaard: Faith and Truth 22. Michael Martin: Holy Spirit Epistemology 23. Bertrand Russell: Can Religion Cure Our Troubles? III. KNOWLEDGE III.A. What Can We Know? Classical Theories of Knowledge 24. RenÚ Descartes: Cartesian Doubt and the Search for Foundational Knowledge 25. John Locke: The Empiricist Theory of Knowledge 26. George Berkeley: An Idealist Theory of Knowledge 27. David Hume: The Origin of Our Ideas * 28. G.E. Moore: Proof of an External World III.B. Truth, Rationality, and Cognitive Relativism 29. Bertrand Russell: The Correspondence Theory of Truth 30. William James: The Pragmatic Theory of Truth 31. Richard Rorty: Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity 32. Daniel Dennett: Postmodernism and Truth 33. Harvey Siegel: Relativism III.C. Induction 34. David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding 35. Wesley C. Salmon: The Problem of Induction IV. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND: THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM IV.A. What Am I? A Mind or a Body? 36. RenÚ Descartes: Substance Dualism 37. Gilbert Ryle: Exorcising Descartes' "Ghost in the Machine" 38. J.P. Moreland: A Contemporary Defense of Dualism 39. Paul Churchland: On Functionalism and Materialism *40. J.J.C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes 41. Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? 42. Jerry A. Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem 43. David Chalmers: Property Dualism 44. John Searle: Minds, Brains, and Computers 45. Ned Block: Troubles with Functionalism IV.B. Who Am I? Do We Have Personal Identity? 46. John Locke: Our Psychological Properties Define the Self 47. David Hume: We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical 48. Buddhist Scripture: Questions to King Milinda V. FREEDOM OF THE WILL AND DETERMINISM Contra 49. Baron d'Holbach: We Are Completely Determined Pro 50. William James: The Dilemma of Determinism 51. Peter van Inwagen: The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will 52. Roderick M. Chisholm: Human Freedom and the Self Pro et Contra 53. W.T. Stace: Compatibilism 54. Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person 55. David Hume: Liberty and Necessity VI. ETHICS VI.A. Are There Any Moral Absolutes or Is Morality Completely Relative? 56. Ruth Benedict: Morality Is Relative 57. James Rachels: Morality Is Not Relative VI.B. Ethics and Egoism: Why Should We Be Moral? 58. Plato: Why Should I Be Moral?: Gyges' Ring and Socrates' Dilemma 59. Louis P. Pojman: Egoism and Altruism: A Critique of Ayn Rand 60. Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism VI.C. Which Is the Correct Ethical Theory? 61. Immanuel Kant: The Moral Law 62. John Stuart Mill: Utilitarianism 63. Aristotle: The Ethics of Virtue * 64. Alison M. Jaggar: Feminist Ethics * 65. Annette C. Baier: The Need for More than Justice 66. Jean-Paul Sartre: Existentialist Ethics 67. James Rachels: The Divine Command Theory VII. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY 68. Robert Paul Wolff: In Defense of Anarchism 69. Thomas Hobbes: The Absolutist Answer: The Justification of the State Is the Security It Affords 70. John Locke: The Democratic Answer: The Justification of the State Is Its Promotion of Security and Natural Human Rights 71. John Stuart Mill: A Classical Liberal Answer: Government Must Promote Freedom 72. John Rawls: The Contemporary Liberal Answer * 73. Robert Nozick: Against Liberalism VIII. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF LIFE? 74. Epicurus: Moderate Hedonism 75. Epictetus: Stoicism: Enchiridion 76. Albert Camus: Life Is Absurd 77. Julian Baggini: Living Life Forwards 78. Louis P. Pojman: Religion Gives Meaning to Life 79. Thomas Nagel: The Absurd 80. Bertrand Russell: Reflections on Suffering IX. CONTEMPORARY MORAL PROBLEMS IX.A. Is Abortion Morally Permissible? Contra 81. Don Marquis: Why Abortion Is Immoral * 82. Francis J. Beckwith: Arguments from Bodily Rights Pro 83. Mary Anne Warren: On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion 84. Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion Pro et Contra 85. Jane English: The Moderate Position: Beyond the Personhood Argument IX.B. Is the Death Penalty Morally Permissible? Pro 86. Burton Leiser: The Death Penalty Is Permissible Contra 87. Hugo Adam Bedau: No, the Death Penalty Is Not Morally Permissible *IX.C. Should Society Permit Same-Sex Marriage? * 88. Sam Schulman: Gay Marriage--and Marriage * 89. Jonathan Rauch: For Better or Worse? IX.D. Do We Have Obligations to the Poor and Hungry? Pro 90. Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence and Morality Contra 91. Garrett Hardin: Living on a Lifeboat Appendix: How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper Glossary