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Photography

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Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205711499

ISBN10:
0205711499
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Pub. Date:
2/17/2010
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Pearson
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Customer Reviews

Cornerstone of a serious amateur photographer's collection  April 7, 2011
by


For introductory and advanced courses in photography. The London, Upton, Stone series has helped over 1,000,000 photography students capture their potential. And Photography, 10e is the most comprehensive, up-to-date resource for today's photography students. Great book on manual photography for beginners. For those impatient enough: if you are to buy one book that would teach you photography - this should be the one. This textbook has survived seven editions and it has enough information to make your head hurt. I got a used copy from ecampus few weeks ago and the textbook was in great condition and shipped extremely quickly.






Awesome Book!!  September 8, 2010
by


I used this book for my Photography 101 course and it has been very useful. I wish I had known about renting textbooks before I bought this one for 130 dollars!!






Photography: 5 out of 5 stars based on 2 user reviews.

Summary

For introductory and advanced courses in Photography.

This best-selling introductory photography text teaches students how to use the medium confidently and effectively by emphasizing both technique and visual awareness.

Comprehensive in scope, this book features superb instructional illustrations and examples in its clear presentation of both black and white and color photography. London offers extensive coverage of digital imaging and the latest technological developments, such as Web page design and formatting photos on CD-ROMs

The London, Upton, Stone series has helped over 1,000,000 photography students capture their potential. And Photography, 10e is the most comprehensive, up-to-date resource for today's photography students. No other text teaches students the skills they need to use the medium confidently and effectively, while emphasizing both technique, visual awareness, and the latest technologies. This is the text that students will want to keep for years to come.

For those impatient enough: if you are to buy one book that would teach you photography - this should be the one.

Author Biography

Jim Stone is an Associate Professor of Photography at the University of New Mexico. His photographs have been collected by the Museum of Modern Art and The Smithsonian American Art Museum, among many others. Books of his work include Stranger Than Fiction (Light Work, 1993),Historiostomy (Piltdown Press, 2001), and Why My Pictures are Good (Nazraeli Press, 2005).

He has also published six higher education titles that are widely used in university courses: A User¹s Guide to the View Camera, Darkroom Dynamics, Photography, Photography: The Essential Way, A Short Course in Photography, and A Short Course in Digital Photography.

Barbara London has authored and co-authored many photography books from their first editions to their current ones, including Photography, Photography: The Essential Way, A Short Course in Photography, A Short Course in Digital Photography, The Photograph Collector's Guide, and more.


John Upton, Professor Emeritus, was for many years Chair of Photography at Orange Coast College, one of the largest photography departments in the U.S. He has curated a number of exhibitions, including Color as Form: A History of Color Photography. His work is included in many private and public collections, including the New York Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.

Table of Contents

Preface...................................................viii

 

Chapter 1: Getting Started...........................2

 

Introducing the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Getting Your Camera Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Focusing and Setting the Exposure . . . . . . . . . . .6

Taking Your Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

What Will You Photograph? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Some Basic Guidelines to Get You Started . . . . . . . . .9

Photographing People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Photographing Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

 

Chapter 2: Camera.....................................14

 

Basic Camera Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

The Shutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

The Shutter and Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

The Shutter and Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

Conveying Motion in a Still Photograph . . . . . . . . . .22

The Aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

The Aperture and Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

The Aperture and Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

Using Shutter and Aperture Together . . . . . . . .28

Choosing a Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Keeping the Camera Steady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Photographer at Work

Photojournalist James Nachtwey . . . . . . . . .34

 

Chapter 3: Lens........................................36

 

From Pinhole to Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

Lens Focal Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Normal Focal Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

Long Focal Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

Short Focal Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

Zoom Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48

Special-Purpose Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

Focusing Your Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

Manual Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

Automatic Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Focus and Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

Controlling Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Zone Focusing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

Focusing on the Hyperfocal Distance . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

Guidelines for Buying a Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

Getting the Most from Your Camera

and Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

Photographer at Work:

Documentary Photographer

Mary Ellen Mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

 

Chapter 4: Exposure, Sensors, and Film ....66

 

Exposure Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

Equivalent Exposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

How Exposure Meters Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

In-Camera Exposure Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70

Automatic Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

How to Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

An Overall Reading of a Scene with Average Tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Using Different Types of Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Metering High-Contrast Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74

Exposing for Specific Tones and Bracketing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . .76

Hard-to-Meter Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

Responding to Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Silver and Pixels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Selecting and Using Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

Exposure Latitude and Dynamic Range . . . . . . .80

How Much Can Exposures Vary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

Film and Sensor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

Speed and ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

Grain and Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

Using Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

Polarizing Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86

Extending Beyond Visible Light . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Infrared Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Using Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88

Photographer at Work:

Advertising Photographer

Clint Clemens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

 

Chapter 5: Developing a Negative .....................92

 

How to Process Black-and-White Roll Film . . . . . . . . . .. . . .94

Equipment and Supplies You’ll Need . . . . . . . . . . . .94

Processing Chemicals

and How to Handle Them . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

Chemical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

Processing Black-and-White Roll Film Step by Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98

How Film Processing Affects Your Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104

Exposure and Development: Under, Normal, Over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

 

Chapter 6: Printing in a Darkroom ......................108

 

Black-and-White Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

Equipment and Supplies for Printing . . . . . . . . . . .110

The Enlarger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112

Printing Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114

Making a Black-and-White Print Step by Step . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .116

A Contact Sheet: A Whole Roll at Once . . . . . . . . . .116

Setting Up an Enlargement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118

A Test Strip for Your Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120

A Trial Print–and Then a Final Print . . . . . . . . . .121

Processing a Black-and-White Print . . . . . . . . . . . .122

Evaluating Density and Contrast in a Print . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . .126

Controlling Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

Graded- and Variable-Contrast Papers . . . . . . . . .128

Dodging and Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130

Cropping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132

Archival Processing for Maximum

Permanence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

Toning for Color and Other Effects . . . . . . . . . .134

 

Chapter 7: Color .........................................136

 

Color: Additive or Subtractive . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

Color Photographs: Three Image Layers . . . . .139

Color Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

Color Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142

Color Changes throughout the Day . . . . . . . . . . . .142

Color Casts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

Color Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Filters to Balance Color with Film . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

Making a Color Print From a Negative . . . . . . .148

Equipment and Materials You’ll Need . . . . . . . . . . .148

Exposing a Test Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149

Judging Color Balance in a Print Made from a Negative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150

Photographer at Work:

Another Angle on Sports—

Walter Iooss, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

 

Chapter 8: Setting up a Digital Darkroom .........154

 

Hardware and Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

Capturing Detail: Resolution and Bit Depth . . . . . .157

Photographs Are Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158

Color Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Color or Black and White? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162

Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Anatomy of a Digital Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164

Three Histograms for Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165

Importing Your Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166

Downloading from a Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166

Making a Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

Setting Up a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168

Workflow Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

Photographer at Work:

Digital Storyteller Pedro Meyer . . . . . . . . .170

 

Chapter 9: Image Editing .............................172

 

Digital Post-Processing: Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

Choosing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

Your Work Area and Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

An Image-Editing Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

A Step-by-Step Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

Adjusting Color and Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178

Different Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178

Using Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

Adjusting All or Part of an Image . . . . . . . . . .182

Selection Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Using Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183

Other Editing Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

High Dynamic Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Filters for Special Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185

Sharpening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186

Retouching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

Compositing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Photographer at Work:

RetouchShoppe—

Scalese and Villarreal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190

 

Chapter 10: Digital Printing ......................192

 

Printers and Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

Printer Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194

Drivers and RIPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195

Profiles and Soft Proofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196

Papers and Inks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197

Printing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

Panoramic Photographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

Printing in Black and White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200

Displaying Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202

The Internet–Gallery and Resource . . . . . . . . . . .202

Ethics: How Far Can You Go? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203

 

Chapter 11: Organizing and Storing Your Work .....204

 

Image Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206

Size Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206

Metadata: Data About Your Files . . . . . . . . . . .207

Software to Keep You Organized . . . . . . . . . . .208

Archiving Digital Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

Archiving Film and Prints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210

 

Chapter 12: Print Finishing and Display .........212

 

Spotting to Remove Minor Flaws . . . . . . . . . . .214

Mounting a Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215

Equipment and Supplies You’ll Need . . . . . . . . . . .215

Dry Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

Cutting an Overmat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218

Framing and Glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219

 

Chapter 13: Lighting ................................. 220

 

Direction of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222

Degree of Diffusion:

From Hard to Soft Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224

Available Light—Outdoors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226

Available Light—Indoors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227

Artificial Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228

Lights and Other Lighting Equipment . . . . . . . . . .228

Qualities of Artificial Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229

The Main Light: The Dominant Source . . . . . . .230

The Fill Light: To Lighten Shadows . . . . . . . . .232

Lighting with Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234

Flash Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235

Basic Flash Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

Manual Flash Exposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238

Automatic Flash Exposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239

Fill Flash: To Lighten Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240

Controlling Background Brightness . . . . . . . . . . . .242

Simple Portrait Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244

Multiple-Light Portrait Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . .246

Lighting Textured Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248

Lighting Reflective Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249

Lighting Translucent Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

Using Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251

Photographer at Work

Dance Photographer Lois Greenfield . . . .252

 

Chapter 14: Extending the Image ..........254

 

Using Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256

Pictures Very Large and Very Small . . . . . . . . . . . .256

Multiple Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258

More is Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258

Fabricated to be Photographed . . . . . . . . . . . .260

The Photograph as Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

Using Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264

Making a Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265

Alternative Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

Cyanotype Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

Platinum and Palladium Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

Gum Bichromate Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268

A Sabattier Image: Part Positive, Part Negative . . . .  . .269

A Photogram: A Cameraless Picture . . . . . . . . . . .270

Pinhole Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272

How to Make a Close-Up Photograph . . . . . . .274

Close-Up Exposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275

Copying Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276

 

Chapter 15: View Camera ........................278

 

Inside a View Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280

View Camera Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282

Rise and Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284

Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286

Swing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288

Using a View Camera to Control the Image . . .290

Controlling the Plane of Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291

Controlling Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292

Equipment You’ll Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294

What to Do First—and Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295

Loading and Processing Sheet Film . . . . . . . . .296

 

Chapter 16: The Zone System .................298

 

The Zone System Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300

Using the Zone Scale While Metering . . . . . . .302

Placing a Tone, Seeing Where Other Tones Fall . . .302

How Development Controls Contrast . . . . . . . .304

Putting It All Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306

Roll Film and Color Film . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

 

Chapter 17: Seeing Photographs ............. 308

 

Basic Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310

Framing the Subject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312

Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314

Basic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

Spot/Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316

Shape/Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318

Emphasis/Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320

More Choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322

Using Contrasts of Sharpness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322

Using Contrasts of Light and Dark . . . . . . . . . . . .324

Placing the Subject within the Frame . . . . . . . . . . .326

Perspective and Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328

Looking at—and Talking About— Photographs . . . . . . . . . . .330

Showing Your Work to Editors and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332

 

Chapter 18: History of Photography ...............334

 

The Invention of Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . .336

Daguerreotype: “Designs on Silver Bright” . . . . . . . . . . . . .337

Calotype: Pictures on Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338

Collodion Wet-Plate: Sharp and Reproducible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339

Gelatin Emulsion/Roll-Film Base: Photography for Everyone . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340

Color Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341

Early Portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342

Early Travel Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344

Early Images of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345

Time and Motion in Early Photographs . . . . . .346

The Photograph as Document . . . . . . . . . . . . .347

Photography and Social Change . . . . . . . . . . . .348

Photojournalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350

Photography as Art in the 19th Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354

Pictorial Photography and the Photo-Secession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355

The Direct Image in Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356

The Quest for a New Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357

Photography as Art in the 1950s and 1960s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358

Photography as Art in the 1970s and 1980s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360

Digital Photography Becomes Mainstream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .362

A Gallery of Contemporary Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364

 

Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396

Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402

 



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