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Photography

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780321011084

ISBN10:
0321011082
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1997
Publisher(s):
Varsitybooks.Com

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Summary

This best-selling, comprehensive guide to photography featuring superb instructional illustrations is the most cutting-edge photography book on the market. It offers extensive coverage of digital imaging with the latest technological developments, such as Web page design and formatting photos on CD-ROMs. Chapter topics explore the process of getting started, camera, lens, film and light, exposure, processing the negative, mounting and finishing, color, digital camera, digital darkroom, lighting, special techniques, view camera, zone system, seeing photographs, and the history of photography. Step-by-step instructions include a " Lights Out" feature to help learners better identify darkroom techniques. For anyone with a personal or professional interest in photography.

Table of Contents

Preface vi
1 Getting Started
1(12)
Camera and Film
2(1)
Loading Film into the Camera
3(1)
Focusing and Setting the Exposure
4(2)
Exposing the Film
6(1)
What Will You Photograph?
7(6)
Photographing People
8(2)
Photographing Where You Are
10(3)
2 Camera
13(22)
Basic Camera Controls
14(2)
The Shutter
16(4)
The Shutter and Light
16(2)
The Shutter and Motion
18(2)
The Aperture
20(4)
The Aperture and Light
20(2)
The Aperture and Depth of Field
22(2)
Using Shutter and Aperture Together
24(2)
The Major Types of Cameras
26(2)
Choosing a Camera
28(2)
Special-Purpose Cameras
30(1)
Keeping the Camera Steady
31(1)
Photographer at Work: Dance Photography
32(3)
3 Lens
35(28)
From Pinhole to Lens
36(2)
Lens Focal Length
38(9)
Normal-Focal-Length Lenses
40(2)
Long-Focal-Length Lenses
42(2)
Short-Focal-Length Lenses
44(2)
Zoom Lenses
46(1)
Special-Purpose Lenses
47(1)
Focusing Your Lens
48(2)
Automatic Focus
48(1)
Manual Focus
49(1)
Focus and Depth of Field
50(6)
Controlling Depth of Field
52(2)
Zone Focusing and Focusing on the Hyperfocal Distance
54(2)
Perspective
56(4)
Using Perspective
58(2)
Choosing Lenses
60(1)
Getting the Most from Your Camera and Lens
61(2)
4 Light and Film
63(26)
Selecting and Using Film
64(10)
Film Speed
66(1)
Film Speed and Grain
67(1)
Fast Film--When Speed is Essential
68(2)
Medium-Speed and Slow Films--For Maximum Detail
70(2)
Instant Films
72(2)
How Film Responds to Light
74(8)
Characteristic Curves
76(2)
How Black-and-White Film Records Color
78(2)
Infrared Film
80(2)
Using Filters
82(7)
Filters for Black-and-White Film
84(1)
A Polarizing Filter to Reduce Reflections
85(1)
Filters for Special Effects
86(3)
5 Exposure
89(16)
Exposure Basics
90(4)
How Exposure Meters Work
90(2)
Built-in Meters
92(1)
Automatic Exposure
93(1)
How to Meter
94(9)
An Overall Reading for an Average Scene
94(2)
Metering Scenes with High Contrast
96(2)
Exposing for Specific Tones
98(2)
Hard-to-Meter Scenes
100(2)
Substitution Readings
102(1)
Using Exposure
103(2)
6 Developing the Negative
105(26)
How to Process Black-and-White Roll Film
106(4)
Equipment and Chemicals You'll Need
106(2)
Handling Chemicals
108(1)
Chemical Safety
109(1)
Processing Black-and-White Roll Film Step by Step
110(6)
Processing Black-and-White Roll Film--A Summary
115(1)
How Film Processing Affects Your Picture
116(6)
How Developer Affects a Negative
116(1)
How Fixer Affects a Negative
117(1)
How Time and Temperature Affect Development
118(2)
The Importance of Proper Agitation and Fresh Solutions
120(2)
Exposure and Development: Under, Normal, Over
122(2)
Push Processing
124(3)
Intensification and Reduction
127(1)
Photographer at Work: Another Angle on Sports
128(3)
7 Printing the Positive
131(30)
Black-and-White Printing: Equipment and Materials You'll Need
132(6)
The Enlarger
134(2)
Printing Papers
136(2)
Making a Black-and-White Print Step by Step
138(10)
A Contact Sheet: A Whole Roll at Once
138(2)
Setting Up an Enlargement
140(2)
A Test Strip for Your Final Print
142(1)
A Trial Print--And Eventually a Final Print
143(1)
Processing a Black-and-White Print
144(3)
Processing Black-and-White Prints--A Summary
147(1)
Evaluating Density and Contrast in a Print
148(2)
Papers that Control Contrast
150(4)
Graded-Contrast Papers
150(2)
Variable-Contrast Papers
152(2)
Dodging and Burning In
154(2)
Cropping
156(1)
Archival Processing for Maximum Permanence
157(1)
Toning for Color and Other Effects
158(3)
8 Finishing and Mounting
161(8)
Spotting to Remove Minor Flaws
162(1)
Mounting a Print
163(3)
Equipment and Materials You'll Need
163(1)
Dry Mounting
164(2)
Cutting an Overmat
166(3)
9 Special Techniques
169(22)
Making Close-Up Photographs
170(4)
Close-Up Equipment
172(1)
Close-Up Exposures: Greater than Normal
173(1)
Copying Techniques
174(2)
Pinhole Photography
176(2)
Special Printing Techniques
178(4)
A Photogram: A Cameraless Picture
178(2)
A Sabattier Print: Part Negative, Part Positive
180(2)
Alternative Processes
182(6)
Hand-Applied Emulsions
182(2)
Image Transfer
184(1)
Hand Coloring
185(1)
Mixed Media
186(2)
Making an Image on High-Contrast Film
188(3)
10 Color
191(32)
Color: Additive or Subtractive
192(1)
Color Photographs: Three Image Layers
193(1)
Choosing a Color Film
194(1)
Instant Color Film
195(1)
Exposure Latitude: How Much Can Exposures Vary?
196(2)
Color Balance
198(10)
Color Temperature and the Color Balance of Film
198(2)
Filters to Balance Color
200(2)
Color Casts
202(2)
Color Changes throughout the Day
204(2)
Shifted Colors from Reciprocity Effect
206(2)
Developing Color Film
208(2)
Making a Color Print from a Negative
210(8)
Equipment and Materials You'll Need
210(2)
Exposing a Test Print
212(2)
Judging Density in a Print Made from a Negative
214(1)
Judging Color Balance in a Print Made from a Negative
215(2)
More about Color Balance/Print Finishing
217(1)
Making a Color Print from a Transparency
218(2)
Judging a Print Made from a Transparency
219(1)
Photographer at Work: Advertising Photography
220(3)
11 Lighting
223(30)
Direction of Light
224(2)
Degree of Diffusion: From Hard to Soft Light
226(2)
Available Light--Outdoors
228(1)
Available Light--Indoors
229(1)
Artificial Light
230(2)
Lights and Other Lighting Equipment
230(1)
Qualities of Artificial Light
231(1)
The Main Light: The Dominant Source
232(2)
The Fill Light: To Lighten Shadows
234(2)
Lighting with Flash
236(8)
Flash Equipment
237(1)
Basic Flash Techniques
238(2)
Automatic Flash Exposures
240(1)
Manual Flash Exposures
241(1)
Fill Flash: Flash Plus Daylight
242(2)
Simple Portrait Lighting
244(2)
Multiple-Light Portrait Setups
246(2)
Lighting Textured Objects
248(1)
Lighting Reflective Objects
249(1)
Lighting Translucent Objects
250(1)
Using Lighting
251(2)
12 Digital Imaging
253(28)
Digital Imaging: An Overview
254(1)
Pictures into Pixels
255(1)
Equipment Needed for Digital Imaging
256(4)
Capture
257(1)
Storage and Transmission
258(1)
Printing
259(1)
Editing a Digital Image
260(8)
Changing a Selected Area
262(2)
Enhancing Reality
264(2)
Going Beyond Reality
266(2)
Photographer at Work: Merging Photography and Illustration
268(2)
Photographer at Work: A Photojournalist Uses Digital Imaging
270(2)
Digital Imaging Used for Personal Expression
272(2)
Digital Imaging Used for Advertising
274(1)
Digital Imaging Encounters Ethics
275(1)
Pictures on the Internet
276(2)
Pictures on a CD-ROM
278(3)
13 View Camera
281(22)
Inside a View Camera
282(2)
View Camera Movements
284(8)
Rise and Fall
284(2)
Shift
286(2)
Tilt
288(2)
Swing
290(2)
Using a View Camera to Control the Image
292(4)
Controlling the Plane of Focus
293(1)
Controlling Perspective
294(2)
Equipment You'll Need
296(1)
What to Do First--and Next
297(1)
Loading and Processing Sheet Film
298(2)
Using a View Camera
300(3)
14 Zone System
303(12)
The Zone System Scales
304(2)
Using the Zone Scale While Metering: Placing a Tone, Seeing Where Other Tones Fall
306(2)
How Development Controls Contrast
308(2)
Putting It All Together
310(2)
Photographer at Work: Using the Zone System
312(3)
15 Seeing Photographs
315(26)
Basic Choices
316(6)
Content
316(2)
Framing the Subject
318(2)
Backgrounds
320(2)
Basic Design
322(6)
Spot/Line
322(2)
Shape/Pattern
324(2)
Emphasis/Balance
326(2)
More Choices
328(8)
Using Contrasts of Sharpness
328(2)
Using Contrasts of Light and Dark
330(2)
Placing the Subject Within the Frame
332(2)
Perspective and Point of View
334(2)
Looking at--and Talking About--Photographs
336(2)
Showing Your Work to Editors and Others
338(3)
16 History of Photography
341(29)
The Invention of Photography
342(1)
Daguerreotype: "Designs on Silver Bright"
343(1)
Calotype: Pictures on Paper
344(1)
Collodion Wet-Plate: Sharp and Reproducible
345(1)
Gelatin Emulsion/Roll-Film Base: Photography for Everyone
346(1)
Color Photography
347(1)
Early Portraits
348(2)
Early Travel Photography
350(1)
Early Images of War
351(1)
Time and Motion in Early Photographs
352(1)
The Photograph as Document
353(1)
Photography and Social Change
354(2)
Photojournalism
356(4)
Photography as Art in the 19th Century
360(1)
Pictorial Photography and the Photo-Secession
361(1)
The Direct Image in Art
362(1)
The Quest for a New Vision
363(1)
Photography as Art in the 1950s and Beyond
364(6)
Appendixes 370(13)
Troubleshooting 370(12)
Metric Conversions 382(1)
Glossary 383(5)
Bibliography 388(4)
Credits 392(1)
Index 393


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