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This best-selling, comprehensive guide to photography-featuring superb instructional illustrations-is the most cutting-edge photography book on the market. It offers extensive coverage of digital imaging-with the latest technological developments, such as Web page design and formatting photos on CD-ROMs. Chapter topics explore the process of getting started, camera, lens, film and light, exposure, processing the negative, mounting and finishing, color, digital camera, digital darkroom, lighting, special techniques, view camera, zone system, seeing photographs, and the history of photography. Step-by-step instructions include a ";Lights Out"; feature to help learners better identify darkroom techniques. For anyone with a personal or professional interest in photography.
Table of Contents
1. GETTING STARTED.
Camera and Film. 2. CAMERA.
Loading Film into the Camera.
Focusing and Setting the Exposure.
Taking Your Picture.
What Will You Photograph?
Basic Camera Controls. 3. LENS.
Using Shutter and Aperture Together.
Choosing a Camera.
Keeping the Camera Steady.
Photographer at Work: Photojournalist James Nachtwey.
From Pinhole to Lens. 4. LIGHT AND FILM.
Lens Focal Length.
Focusing Your Lens.
Focus and Depth of Field.
How to Make a Close-up Photograph.
Guidelines for Buying a Lens.
Getting the Most from Your Camera and Lens.
Selecting and Using Film. 5. EXPOSURE.
How Film Responds to Light.
Photographer at Work: Another Angle on Sports—Walter Iooss.
Exposure Basics. 6. DEVELOPING THE NEGATIVE.
How to Meter.
How to Process Black-and-White Roll Film. 7. PRINTING THE POSITIVE.
Processing Black-and-White Roll Film Step by Step.
How Film Processing Affects Your Picture.
Exposure and Development: Under, Normal, Over.
Black-and-White Printing. 8. FINISHING AND MOUNTING.
Making a Black-and-White Print Step by Step.
Evaluating Density and Contrast in a Print.
Dodging and Burning.
Archival Processing for Maximum Permanence.
Toning for Color and Other Effects.
Spotting to Remove Minor Flaws. 9. COLOR.
Mounting a Print.
Color: Additive or Subtractive. 10. DIGITAL CAMERA.
Color Photographs: Three Image Layers.
Choosing a Color Film.
Developing Color Film.
Making a Color Print from a Negative.
Making a Color Print from a Transparency.
Photographer at Work: Advertising Photographer Chris Clemens.
A Computer with a Lens. 11. DIGITAL DARKROOM.
Using a Digital Camera.
Choosing a Digital Camera.
Digital Imaging: An Overview. 12. LIGHTING.
Scanning a Photograph.
The Digital Photograph.
Working Memory, Storage, and Transmission.
Your Work Area and Tools.
Adjusting the Image Overall.
Printing and Display.
Ethics and Digital Imaging.
Using Digital Imaging.
Photographer at Work: Merging Photography and Illustration—William Duke.
Direction of Light. 13. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES.
Degree of Diffusion: From Hard to Soft Light.
The Main Light: The Dominant Source.
The Fill Light: To Lighten Shadows.
Lighting with Flash.
Simple Portrait Lighting.
Multiple-Light Portrait Setups.
Lighting Textured Objects.
Lighting Reflective Objects.
Lighting Translucent Objects.
Photographer at Work: Dance Photographer Lois Greenfield.
Copying Techniques. 14. VIEW CAMERA.
Special Printing Techniques.
Inside a View Camera. 15. ZONE SYSTEM.
View Camera Movements.
Using a View Camera to Control the Image.
Equipment You'll Need.
What to Do First—and Next.
Loading and Processing Sheet Film.
The Zone System Scales. 16. SEEING PHOTOGRAPHS.
Using the Zone Scale While Metering.
How Development Controls Contrast.
Putting It All Together.
Photographer at Work: Using the Zone System—John Sexton.
Basic Choices. 17. HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
Looking at—and Talking About—Photographs.
Showing Your Work to Editors and Others.
The Invention of Photography. Appendices.
Daguerreotype: “Designs on Silver Bright.”
Collodion Wet-Plate: Sharp and Reproducible.
Gelatin Emulsion/Roll-Film Base: Photography for Everyone.
Early Travel Photography.
Early Images of War.
Time and Motion in Early Photographs.
The Photograph as Document.
Photography and Social Change.
Photography as Art in the 19th Century.
Pictorial Photography and the Photo-Secession.
The Direct Image in Art.
The Quest for New Vision.
Photography as Art in the 1950s and Beyond.
A Gallery of Contemporary Photography.
Troubleshooting: Finding the Problem/Finding the Solution.
More than a million copies ofPhotographyare now in print.Many people who have used this book have become professional photographers or photography instructors, or are continuing to pursue their personal interest in photography. Whatever your interest in photography is, this book is designed to teach the skills that you will need to use the medium confidently and effectively. The emphasis of this edition continues to be in two major areas--technique and visual awareness.The technical material helps you learn how to control the photographic process, or as Ansel Adams put it, to "understand the way that the lens 'sees' and the film 'sees.'" Equally important, this book can help you see by showing you the choices that other photographers have made and that you can make when you raise a camera to your eye. Clarity and convenience have always been a focus of this book.In this edition even more effort has been made to organize and format information into an easy guide for beginning photographers and a quick reference for those with experience. The easy-to-use format has been maintained, with each two facing pages completing a single idea, skill, or technique. Boldfaced topic sentences outline the text on every page. "More About . . ." boxes on many pages cross-reference related topics in other parts of the book. Computer icons call attention to related information about digital imaging or to information in the digital imaging chapters. The general organization of technical information has been maintained, with the addition of a technical update. General photographic techniques are covered completely in Chapters 1-8: camera, lens, film, exposure, developing and printing black-and-white film, and mounting. Chapters 10 and 11 expand and update information on digital imaging. Chapters 9, 12, 13, 14, and 15 cover color photography, lighting, special techniques (such as cyanotyping ), view camera use, and a specialized method of exposure and development--the Zone System. A fully illustrated "Troubleshooting Appendix," beginning on page 400, groups together technical problems, their causes, and ways to prevent them. Improving visual awareness is a major emphasis of the book.Many new demonstration photographs have been added to make topics easy to understand. Throughout the book you will find hundreds of illustrations by the best photographers showing how they have put to use various technical concepts. See for example: The photographs illustrating lens focal length on pages 45, 47, and 49, or how one photographer uses electronic flash plus available light on page 289. "Photographer at Work" pages throughout the book feature interviews with photographers who have developed successful careers in everything from dance photography (pages 290 291) to digital illustration (pages 256-257). Chapter 16, "Seeing Photographs" (pages 340-365), deals with composition, tonality, sharpness, and other visual elements that will help you make better pictures yourself, and see other people's photographs with a more sophisticated eye. Chapter 17 (pages 366-399) surveys the history of photography so that you can place today's photography--and your own--in an historical context. We are pleased to announce an expanded and interactive Website.You can visit the site at http://www.prenhall.com/london . It contains many features, including: Simulations and demonstrations of various photographic processes A study guide Chat rooms Links to other photography e-sites An instructor's manual and integrated student lab manual/journal are available, which include: sample assignments processing and exposure records