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Physical Anthropology,9780078035036
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Physical Anthropology



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Pub. Date:
McGraw-Hill Education
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This is the 11th edition with a publication date of 4/15/2013.

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  • Physical Anthropology
    Physical Anthropology


Now in its 11th successful edition, Physical Anthropologycontinues to help students examine the dynamic relationship between humans and their environment. The plethora of new fossil finds and analyses in the field since the last edition are all reflected throughout this full color text. Students will come away with the skills needed to recognize illogical or factually incorrect statements made in the name of evolutionary theory in the popular media.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

About the Authors xvi

Acknowledgments xvii

List of Boxes xix

Chapter 1


The World of Physical Anthropology 2

Studies of Physical Anthropology 2
Physical Anthropology in the World ofAnthropology 2
Conclusion 3

The Nature of Science 4

Hypotheses and Testing Hypotheses 4
Science and Religion 5

Summary 6

Views on the Essence of Humans, Nature, and Time 7

Questioning the Old Ideas 7
Early Evolutionary Ideas 8
What Is the Age of the Earth? 10
Humans before Adam and Eve? 11

Box 1-1 William “Strata” Smith 11

Darwin’s Voyage of Discovery 12
Darwinian Natural Selection 13
Evolution and Anti-Evolution Movements 15

Box 1-2 The Scopes Trial 16

Box 1-3 Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District 18

Evolutionary Theory after Darwin: The Grand Synthesis 19

Summary 20

Key Terms 20

Study Questions 20

Critical Thinking Questions 21

Suggested Readings 21

Suggested Websites 22

Chapter 2


Discovering the Mechanisms of Heredity 24

Problems in the Study of Heredity 24
The Work of Gregor Mendel 24

Box 2-1 Gregor Mendel and the Discovery of the Laws ofHeredity 25

A Model of Genetic Events 26
What Is a Trait? 27
Mendelian Inheritance in Humans 28

Summary 30

Cytogenetics 31

The Chromosomes 31
Cell Division 32
Reexamining Mendelian Genetics 35

Summary 39

The Molecular Basis of Heredity 39

Molecules of Life 39
The Nucleic Acids 40

Box 2-2 Facts about DNA 42

Protein Synthesis 44

Summary 45

Key Terms 46

Study Questions 46

Critical Thinking Questions 47

Suggested Readings 47

Suggested Websites 47

Chapter 3


Medical Genetics 49

Blood-Type Systems 49
Human Inherited Abnormalities 51
Other Patterns of Inheritance 53

Box 3-1 Sex and the Olympics 54

Chromosomal Abnormalities 55

Summary 58

Genetics and Human Affairs 58

Genetics and Medicine 58
The Control of Human Biological Evolution 60

Box 3-2 Genetics and Insurance: An Ethical Dilemma 62

Summary 63

Advances in the Molecular Study of Genetics 63

What Is a Gene? 63
The Human Genome 64

Box 3-3 Landmarks in Genetics: The First DNA Sequence of an Animal Genome Is Decoded 65

Box 3-4 DNA Fingerprinting 66

Summary 66

Key Terms 66

Study Questions 67

Critical Thinking Questions 67

Suggested Readings 68

Suggested Websites 68

Chapter 4


A Model of Population Genetics 70

Populations 70
Genetic Equilibrium 71
Using the Genetic-Equilibrium Model 73

Summary 75

Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change 75

Mutations 75
Genetic Drift, Population Bottlenecking, and the Founder Principle 77

Box 4-1 The Case of the Island of the Colorblind 79

Box 4-2 The Case of Mad King George 80

Gene Flow 80
Nonrandom Mating 81
Differential Fertility 82

Box 4-3 The Population Genetics of Religious Isolates 83

Summary 84

Key Terms 84

Study Questions 84

Critical Thinking Questions 85

Suggested Readings 85

Suggested Websites 85

Chapter 5


Box 5-1 The Importance of Words 87

Natural Selection 87

Environment, Habitat, and Niche 88
The Mechanisms of Natural Selection 88
Types of Natural Selection 90
Natural Selection in Humans 91
Natural Selection and Sickle-Cell Anemia 93
Sexual Selection 96
Kin Selection 98

Summary 99

The Origin of Species 100

The Evolution of Subspecies 100

Box 5-2 Social Darwinism 101

The Evolution of Species 101
Specialized and Generalized Species 103
Rates of Speciation 104

Box 5-3 Eugenics and the Reduction of Variability 105

Some Basic Concepts in Evolutionary Theory 106

Summary 109

Key Terms 109

Study Questions 110

Critical Thinking Questions 110

Suggested Readings 110

Suggested Websites 111

Chapter 6


Taxonomy 113

Linnaeus’s Classification 113

Box 6-1 The Diversity of Life 114

The Taxonomic Hierarchy 114
The Basis of Modern Taxonomy 115
Determining Evolutionary Relationships 116

Box 6-2 The Feet of Whales 117

Cladistics 119

Box 6-3 Linnaean Systematics in the Twenty-First Century 121

Summary 121

People and the Animal World 122

The Animal Kingdom 122
The Phylum Chordata 122
The Vertebrates 122
The Mammals 124

Summary 129

Key Terms 130

Study Questions 130

Critical Thinking Questions 130

Suggested Readings 131

Suggested Websites 131

Chapter 7


The Primate Order 133

The Evolution of the Primates 133
Characteristics of the Primates 134
The Senses 134

Box 7-1 The Advantages of Color Vision 135

The Growth and Development of Primates 136

Summary 138

The Living Primates 139

The Lemuriformes 139
The Tarsiiformes 143
The New World Monkeys 144
The Old World Monkeys 145
The Apes 147
The Gibbons 148

Box 7-2 Talking about Apes and Humans 149

The Orangutan 150
The African Great Apes 151

Box 7-3 The Discovery of the Gorilla 152

Humans 155

Box 7-4 Vanishing Primates 156

Summary 156

Key Terms 157

Study Questions 157

Critical Thinking Questions 157

Suggested Readings 157

Suggested Websites 158

Chapter 8

Locomotor Patterns among the Primates 160
Comparative Anatomy of Primate Locomotion 162
The Hominoid Skeleton 163
Adaptations for Erect Bipedalism 165
Comparative Anatomy of the Hand 167

Summary 169

Comparative Anatomy of the Skull and the Brain 170

Positioning of the Skull on the Spine 170
The Sense Organs 170
The Evolution of the Brain 172
Primate Dentition 174

Box 8-1 The Ultrastructure of Tooth Enamel 176

The Jaw 179

Summary 181

Comparative Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology 181

Comparative Cytogenetics 182
Comparative Studies of Proteins 184
Comparative Genomics 186

Summary 187

Key Terms 187

Study Questions 188

Critical Thinking Questions 188

Suggested Readings 188

Suggested Websites 189

Chapter 9


Primate Behavior 191

Kinds of Primate Social Organization 191

Box 9-1 The Behavior of the Dwarf Lemur 193

Methods in the Study of Primate Behavior 194

Box 9-2 The Rhesus Monkeys of Cayo Santiago 195

Summary 196

Case Studies of Primate Behavior 196

Social Behavior of the Gibbon 196
Social Behavior of the Gelada 198
Social Behavior of the Savanna Baboon 200
Social Behavior of the Chimpanzee 206

Box 9-3 The Sexual Behavior of the Bonobo 209

Summary 211

Key Terms 211

Study Questions 211

Critical Thinking Questions 212

Suggested Readings 212

Suggested Websites 213

Chapter 10


Social Behavior of Human Foragers 215

The Structure of the Human Band 215
Age and Diet 217

Summary 219

Are Humans Unique? 219

Culture 220
Protoculture among Nonhuman
Primates 221
Human Universals 222
Communication 224
Language 225

Box 10-1 Bird and Human Communication: Alex the Parrot and the FOXP2 Gene 228

Intelligence in Nonhuman Primates 228

Summary 231

Key Terms 232

Study Questions 232

Critical Thinking Questions 232

Suggested Readings 232

Suggested Websites 233

Chapter 11


Box 11-1 Fossils of the Gods 235

Fossils and Their Interpretation 235

The Nature of Fossils 236
Biases in the Fossil Record 237
Differential Preservation 239
What Can Fossils Tell Us? 240
Taxonomy and the Fossil Record 241

Summary 244

Geological Time 244Stratigraphy 244

Box 11-2 What Is a Billion? 245

Box 11-3 The Piltdown Skull 247

Chronometric Dating Techniques 247
Radiometric Dating Techniques 248
Other Dating Techniques 251
The Geomagnetic Time Scale 252
The Geological Time Scale 252
Plate Tectonics 253
A Brief History of the Cenozoic 255

Box 11-4 Where Have All the Dinosaurs Gone? 256

Summary 258

Key Terms 259

Study Questions 259

Critical Thinking Questions 259

Suggested Readings 260

Suggested Websites 260

Chapter 12


Evolution of the Early Primates 262

The Earliest Primates 262
The Early True Primates and the Origins of the Prosimians 263

Summary 266

Evolution of the Anthropoidea 266

The Earliest Anthropoids 266
The Anthropoids of the Fayum 267
The Evolution of the New World Monkeys 269
The Evolution of the Old World Monkeys 269

Summary 271

Evolution of the Hominoidea 271

Hominoids of the Early Miocene 271
Continents in Collision 273
The Miocene Hominid Radiation 273
The Origins of the Modern Hominids 277

Box 12-1 What Gigantopithecus Had for Dinner 278

Summary 279

The Origin of the Hominins 279

Sahelanthropus tchadensis 280
Orrorin tugenensis 281
Ardipithecus kadabba 282
Ardipithecus ramidus 282

Summary 283

Key Terms 284

Study Questions 284

Critical Thinking Questions 284

Suggested Readings 285

Suggested Websites 285

Chapter 13


Discoveries of the Early Hominins 287

The Early Hominins of South Africa 287

Box 13-1 Naming Fossils 288

The Fossils of Olduvai Gorge 292
The Fossils of the Lake Turkana Basin 294
The Fossils of the Afar 297

Box 13-2 Was Lucy a Swinger? 298

The Laetoli Footprints 299
The Fossils of Chad 301
Drawing a Family Tree 301

Summary 302

Early Hominins: Interpretations of the Evidence 304

Australopithecines as Erect Bipeds 305

Box 13-3 What Is a Tool? 307

Early Hominin Tool Use 307
Early Hominin Dentition 309
The Early Hominin Brain 311
The Early Hominin Skull 312
Ecology and the Early Hominins 313

Summary 316

Key Terms 316

Study Questions 316

Critical Thinking Questions 317

Suggested Readings 317

Suggested Websites 318

Chapter 14


The Early Homo Fossil Record 320

The Genus Homo 320
Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis 322
Homo ergaster and Homo erectus 323

Box 14-1 The Disappearance of the Zhoukoudian Fossils 329

Homo antecessor 332
Homo heidelbergensis 332

Box 14-2 How Do You Spell and Pronounce “Neandert_l”? 335

Homo neandertalensis 335

Box 14-3 La Chapelle-aux-Saints 338

Summary 343

The Culture of Early Homo 344

Interpreting the Archaeological Evidence 344
The Culture of the Earliest Homo 345
Hunting, Scavenging, and Gathering 349
The Brain and Language in Prehistoric Populations 350
The Culture of the Neandertals 352

Box 14-4 Whom Are We Having for Dinner? The Roots of Cannibalism 356

Summary 357

Key Terms 357

Study Questions 358

Critical Thinking Questions 358

Suggested Readings 359

Suggested Websites 359

Chapter 15


Homo sapiens 361

The Distribution of Fossil Homo sapiens in the Old World 361
Ideas on the Origins of Homo sapiens 364

Box 15-1 Symbolism, Ochre, Shellfish, and the Origin ofModern Human Behavior and Cognition 365

The Migrations of Homo sapiens to Australia and the New World 366

Summary 369

The Culture of Homo sapiens 370

Humans’Relationship to the Environment 370
Upper Paleolithic Technology 370
Art of the Upper Paleolithic 372
Upper Paleolithic Cultural Traditions 373

Box 15-2 Upper Paleolithic Cave Art 375

Archaeology of the New World 376

Summary 378

Post-Pleistocene Homo sapiens 378

The Mesolithic: Transition from Hunting-Gathering to Farming 378
Box 15-3 “Man’s Best Friend” 379
The Origins of Farming 379
The Neolithic 380
The Rise of Civilization 381

Summary 382

Key Terms 383

Study Questions 383

Critical Thinking Questions 383

Suggested Readings 383

Suggested Websites 384

Chapter 16


Human Adaptability: Adjustments 386

Behavioral Adjustments 386
Acclimatory Adjustments 387

Box 16-1 How High Can People Live without BottledOxygen? 390

Developmental Adjustments 392

Summary 393

Human Adaptation 393

The Nature of Skin Color 393

Adaptation and Body Build 395

Summary 396

The Nature of Human Growth and Development 397

Growth and Development of the Human Body 398
Puberty 401
Control of Growth and Development 404
The Secular Trend in Growth and Development 406

Box 16-2 Aging 407

The Adult Skeleton 408

Summary 409

Key Terms 410

Study Questions 410

Critical Thinking Questions 410

Suggested Readings 411

Suggested Websites 411

Chapter 17


The Distribution of Variability 413

Clinal Distributions 413
Variability in Frequency of Genetic Disease 414
Cultural Variation 415

Summary 417

Box 17-1 Skeletal Evidence of Cultural Practices 418

The Classification of Human Variation 418
Folk Taxonomies of Race 418
Attempts at Scientific Classifications of Human Variation 420
The Genetic Relationship between Human Populations 426
Race as Illusion 428
Race and Medicine 429
Human Variation and Intelligence 430
Human Variation and Cultural Capabilities 431

Summary 432

Key Terms 433

Study Questions 433

Critical Thinking Questions 433

Suggested Readings 433

Suggested Websites 434

Chapter 18


Cultural Changes and Their Consequences 436

Urbanization and Industrialization 437
The Role of Disease in Human Evolution 441

Box 18-1 Human Technology as a Selective Agent 444

The Earth at Risk 445
What Can We Say about the Future? 450
Learning from Our Mistakes 451

Box 18-2 People Made to Order 451

Summary 452

Application of Anthropological Knowledge 452

Darwinian Medicine 453
Forensic Anthropology 454
Anthropology and You—A Personal Note to the Student 455

Summary 457

Key Terms 457

Study Questions 457

Critical Thinking Questions 458

Suggested Readings 458

Suggested Websites 458

Appendix: An Introduction to Skeletal Anatomy and the Anatomy of the Brain A–1

Glossary G–1

Glossary of Primate Higher Taxa G–20

Credits C–1

Index I–1

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