9780736033152

Physical Dimensions of Aging-2E

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780736033152

  • ISBN10:

    0736033157

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/27/2004
  • Publisher: HUMAN KINETICS PUBLISHERS

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Summary

The physical aging process progresses every dayand so does our understanding of it. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition,will keep students and professionals up to date on the outcomes of the latest research studies and their implications for the elderly in the real world. Physical aging affects us cognitively, psychologically, socially, and spiritually. The book discusses how people age physically and how this aging affects other dimensions of life.The second edition of Physical Dimensions of Aginghas been updated to integrate research findings on physical aging from more than 100 different journals in myriad fields, creating interdisciplinary coverage on the topic. It provides students and professionals with what they need to know about physical aging in order to conduct clinical research and to work with clients and patients. In doing so, it retains its landmark status as the definitive reference on aging.Moreover, Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition,focuses less on explaining the measurement techniques and research design and more on the outcome of the studies and their practical implications for everyday living. This approach will enable professionals and students to do the following:-Understand the physical aging process and its effects on other dimensions of life.-Apply the latest research in working with adults and the elderly.-Become more effective in their professions. The structure of this new edition is more conducive to learning and features the following:-Chapter objectives-Key terms-Sidebars of capsule research studies-Testimonials, vignettes, and other tidbits that tie the research information to the real world-Review questions to assist students in synthesizing and remembering the information-Short lists of recommended reading for those who want to pursue the topic in more detail-A glossary at the end of the book This second edition is organized into five parts. Part Iprovides an introduction to aging, to the field of gerontology, and to the research process for studying individual differences. Part IIdescribes the physical changes in structure, capacity, and endurance. Part IIIoverviews the factors related to motor coordination, motor control, and skill learning for older adults. Part IVaddresses physicalpsychosocial relationships, including health, exercise, and cognitive function as well as health-related expectations of quality of life for older adults. Part Vhighlights physical performance and achievement especially to showcase the results from consistent effort and hard work of physically elite older adults as inspiration for others.At a time when many people are telling older adults what they can't do, professionals should be telling them what they can do. Physical Dimensions of Aging, Second Edition,will equip professionals to do so.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Part I An Introduction to Aging
Quantity and Quality of Life
3(28)
What Is Aging?
4(1)
How Is Aging Described?
5(9)
What Causes Aging?
14(4)
Can the Aging Process Be Slowed?
18(5)
How Does Physical Aging Affect Quality of Life?
23(3)
Quality of Life Components
26(2)
Health and Fitness Contributions in Different Age Categories
28(3)
Individual Differences
31(24)
Assessment of Individual Differences
32(2)
Sources of Individual Differences
34(6)
How Research Design Affects Our View of Individual Differences
40(3)
Can the Process of Studying People Influence Individual Differences?
43(2)
Biological Age
45(5)
Importance of Individual Differences in Understanding Aging Research
50(5)
Part II Physical Changes in Structure, Capacity, and Endurance
Physical Development and Decline
55(32)
Changes in Body Shape
56(5)
Changes in Body Composition
61(6)
Changes in Bone
67(10)
Aging Joints: Coping With the Interface of Aging Bones, Muscles, and Tendons
77(5)
Skin: Taking the Brunt of the Environment for Years
82(5)
Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function
87(20)
Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular System
88(11)
Aging Effects on the Respiratory System
99(2)
Preventing or Postponing Aging Effects on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
101(6)
Muscular Strength and Power
107(24)
Strength and Power
108(1)
Changes in Muscular Strength With Age
109(1)
Why Strength Decreases With Aging
110(6)
Resistance Training for Strength
116(5)
Muscular Power
121(10)
Part III Motor Coordination, Motor Control, and Skill
Balance, Posture, and Locomotion
131(26)
Defining the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
132(2)
Theoretical Framework of Balance and Mobility
134(1)
Intrinsic Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
135(2)
Age-Associated Changes in the Systems Contributing to Balance and Mobility
137(3)
Posture
140(1)
Evaluating the Multiple Dimensions of Balance
140(6)
Locomotion
146(3)
Age-Associated Changes in Gait
149(1)
Measuring Gait
150(1)
Falling---When Balance Fails
150(1)
Can Falling of the Elderly Be Prevented?
151(6)
Behavioral Speed
157(20)
Response Speed
158(4)
Age-Sensitive Factors That Affect Response Speed
162(3)
Reaction Time and Variability
165(2)
Other Factors Influencing Speed of Processing
167(1)
Theories of Response Slowing
167(4)
Neurobiological Explanations of Age-Related Slowing
171(2)
Movement Time
173(1)
Functional Significance of Behavioral Speed
174(3)
Motor Coordination and Control
177(34)
Definitions of Coordination, Control, and Learning
178(1)
Age-Related Sensorimotor Changes That Affect Coordination and Control
179(2)
Theoretical Strategies to Explain Coordination, Control, and Learning
181(1)
How Coordination and Control Are Accomplished
181(3)
Upper Limb and Hand Control
184(7)
Aging Effects on Two Important Functional Tasks: Driving and Handwriting
191(7)
Learning Physical Skills
198(4)
Mechanisms of Learning: Neural Plasticity
202(1)
Compensatory Strategies for Losses of Coordination
203(1)
Psychological and Emotional Factors That Influence Coordination and Learning
204(7)
Part IV Physical--Psychosocial Relationships
Health, Exercise, and Cognitive Function
211(22)
Concepts of Physical Activity, Health and Fitness, and Cognitive Function
212(1)
Effects of Health and Physical Activity on Cognitive Function
213(9)
Mechanisms by Which Physical Activity May Benefit Cognition
222(7)
Process by Which Fitness May Benefit Cognitive Function
229(2)
Implications of a Physical Activity--Cognition Relationship for Older Adults
231(2)
Health-Related Quality of Life
233(28)
Quality of Life
234(1)
Well-Being
235(13)
Physical Function, Physical Activity, Fitness, and Exercise
248(2)
Influence of Exercise on Well-Being
250(4)
Characteristics of Exercise Related to Well-Being
254(7)
Part V Physical Performance and Achievement
Physical Function of Older Adults
261(26)
Definitions of Physical Function
262(1)
Hierarchy of Physical Function in Older Adults
262(13)
Determining Physical Function in the Elderly
275(5)
Role of Physical Activity in Postponing Disability and Facilitating Independent Living
280(2)
Exercise Interventions and Physical Function
282(2)
Expectations for Physical Performance of the Old and Oldest-Old
284(3)
Physically Elite Older Adults
287(30)
Who Are the ``Physically Elite'' Older Adults?
288(1)
Masters Athletes
288(1)
Studying the Elite Physical Performance of Masters Athletes
289(2)
Masters Athletes' Record Performances
291(14)
Estimating Age-Related Changes in Physiological Functional Capacity
305(4)
Nonphysiological Factors That Influence Maximum Sport Performance
309(4)
Social Support Systems and the Positive Secular Trend
313(2)
How Do They Do It?
315(2)
Glossary 317(8)
References 325(42)
Index 367(6)
About the Authors 373

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