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For introductory Physical Geography courses. The only text to focus thematically on landscape appreciation, this best-seller fosters a solid understanding of Earth and its physical geography. Its clear, user-friendly writing style, superior art program, and abundant pedagogy appeal to a wide variety of students. This Animation Edition includes a CD-ROM with animations that help students understand difficult physical processes.
Table of Contents
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Chapter Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions, and Some Useful References.) 1. Introduction to Earth.
Geography as a Field of Learning. In this Book. The Environmental Spheres. The Solar System. The Size and Shape of Earth. The Geographic Grid. Earth Movements. The Annual March of the Seasons. Telling Time.
2. Portraying Earth.
The Nature of Maps. The Role of Globes. Map Projections. Automated Cartography. Isolines. The Global Positioning System. Geographic Information Systems. Remote Sensing. The Role of the Geographer.
3. Introduction to the Atmosphere.
Composition of the Atmosphere. Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere. Human-induced Atmospheric Change. Weather and Climate.
4. Insolation and Temperature.
The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape. Solar Energy. Basic Processes in Heating and Cooling the Atmosphere. The Heating of the Atmosphere. Spatial and Seasonal Variations in Heating. Temperature: A Measure of Heat. Mechanisms of Heat Transfer. Vertical Temperature Patterns. Global Temperature Patterns.
5. Atmospheric Pressure and Wind.
The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape. The Nature of Atmospheric Pressure. The Nature of Wind. Vertical Variations in Pressure and Wind. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Modifications of the General Circulation. Localized Wind Systems.
6. Atmospheric Moisture.
The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape. Water Vapor and the Hydrologic Cycle. Evaporation. Measures of Humidity. Condensation. The Buoyancy of Air. Precipitation. Global Distribution of Precipitation.
7. Transient Atmospheric Flows and Disturbances.
The Impact of Storms on the Landscape. Air Masses. Fronts. Atmospheric Disturbances.
8. Climatic Zones and Types.
Climate Classification. World Distribution of Major Climatic Types and Subtypes. The Global Pattern Idealized.
9. The Hydrosphere.
The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique. The Hydrologic Cycle. The Oceans. Permanent Ice. Surface Waters. Underground Water.
10. Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere.
The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape. The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms. Biogeochemical Cycles. Food Chains. The Search for a Meaningful Classification Scheme. Ecosystems and Biomes. Environmental Relationships.
11. Terrestrial Flora and Fauna.
Natural Distributions. Terrestrial Flora. Terrestrial Fauna. The Major Biomes. Human Modification of Natural Distribution Patterns.
Soil and Regolith. Soil-forming Factors. Soil Components. Soil Properties. Soil Chemistry. Soil Profiles. Pedogenic Regimes. Soil Classification. Global Distribution of Major Soils. Distribution of Soils in the United States.
13. Introduction to Landform Study.
The Unknown Interior. Composition of the Crust. Some Critical Concepts. The Study of Landforms. Internal and External Geomorphic Processes. The Question of Scale. The Pursuit of Pattern.
14. The Internal Processes.
The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape. Crustal Rearrangement. Plate Tectonics. Vulcanism. Diastrophism. Folding. Faulting. The Complexities of Crustal Configuration.
15. Preliminaries to Erosion: Weathering and Mass Wasting.
The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape. Weathering. Mass Wasting.
16. The Fluvial Processes.
The Impact of Fluvial Processes on the Landscape. Some Fundamental Concepts. Stream Systems. Stream Channels. The Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys. Stream Rejuvenation. Theories of Landform Development.
17. Solution Processes and Karst Topography.
The Impact of Solution Processes on the Landscape. Solution and Precipitation. Caverns and Related Features. Karst Topography. Hydrothermal Features.
18. The Topography of Arid Lands.
A Specialized Environment. Running Water in Waterless Regions. Ergs, Regs, and Hamadas. The Work of the Wind. Two Characteristic Desert Landform Assemblages.
19. Glacial Modification of Terrain.
The Impact of Glaciers on the Landscape. Glaciations Past and Present. Types of Glaciers. How Glaciers. How Glaciers Form. Continental Ice Sheets. Mountain Glaciers. The Periglacial Environment. Are We Still in an Ice Age?
20. Coastal Processes and Terrain.
The Impact of Waves and Currents on the Landscape. Coastal Processes. Coastal Landforms.
Appendix I: Families of Map Projections. Appendix II: Topographic Map Symbols. Appendix III: The Weather Station Model. Appendix IV: Meteorological Tables. Appendix V: The International System of Units (SI). Appendix VI: The Soil Taxonomy. NEW Appendix: Geoscience Animations. NEW Appendix: Relevant Internet Sites. Glossary. Index.