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Physical Geology : Earth Revealed

by ; ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780073256481

ISBN10:
007325648X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/12/2006
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math
List Price: $142.00

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This is the 7th edition with a publication date of 9/12/2006.
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Summary

Physical Geology: Earth Revealedis appropriate for introductory physical geology classes. This text, which includes the same information as the market-leadingPhysical Geology - 11th edition, by Plummer/Carlson, is for the instructor who prefers to cover plate tectonics early in the course.The seventh edition has been updated to include the most current information from the various sub-disciplines that comprise physical geology. The book's purpose is to clearly present geologic processes so that students can understand the logic of scientific methods. This text features an outstanding art program and a proven, accessible writing style.This text continues to be used as the official textbook to accompany the Annenberg CPB distributed telecourse for physical geology.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introducing Geology, the Essentials of Plate Tectonics, and Other Important Concepts
2(26)
Who Needs Geology?
4(6)
Supplying Things We Need
4(1)
Protecting the Environment
5(1)
Avoiding Geologic Hazards
5(4)
Understanding Our Surroundings
9(1)
Earth Systems
10(1)
An Overview of Physical Geology---Important Concepts
11(13)
Internal Processes: How the Earth's Internal Heat Engine Works
13(1)
Earth's Interior
13(1)
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
13(1)
Divergent Boundaries
14(1)
Convergent Boundaries
15(4)
Transform Boundaries
19(2)
Surficial Processes: The Earth's External Heat Engine
21(3)
Geologic Time
24(4)
Summary
25(3)
Earth's Interior and Geophysical Properties
28(26)
Introduction
30(1)
Evidence from Seismic Waves
30(3)
Earth's Internal Structure
33(7)
The Crust
33(1)
The Mantle
34(2)
The Core
36(4)
Isostasy
40(2)
Gravity Measurements
42(2)
Earth's Magnetic Field
44(4)
Magnetic Reversals
44(3)
Magnetic Anomalies
47(1)
Heat within the Earth
48(6)
Geothermal Gradient
48(1)
Heat Flow
49(1)
Summary
50(4)
The Sea Floor
54(24)
Origin of the Ocean
56(1)
Methods of Studying the Sea Floor
56(2)
Features of the Sea Floor
58(1)
Continental Shelves and Continental Slopes
58(2)
Submarine Canyons
60(2)
Turbidity Currents
61(1)
Passive Continental Margins
62(2)
The Continental Rise
63(1)
Abyssal Plains
63(1)
Active Continental Margins
64(1)
Oceanic Trenches
64(1)
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge
65(2)
Geologic Activity on the Ridge
65(2)
Biologic Activity on the Ridge
67(1)
Fracture Zones
67(1)
Seamounts, Guyots, and Aseismic Ridges
67(2)
Reefs
69(2)
Sediments of the Sea Floor
71(1)
Oceanic Crust and Ophiolites
71(3)
The Age of the Sea Floor
74(1)
The Sea Floor and Plate Tectonics
74(4)
Summary
74(4)
Plate Tectonics
78(37)
The Early Case for Continental Drift
81(3)
Skepticism about Continental Drift
83(1)
Paleomagnetism and the Revival of Continental Drift
84(2)
Recent Evidence for Continental Drift
85(1)
History of Continental Positions
86(1)
Seafloor Spreading
86(2)
Hess's Driving Force
86(1)
Explanations
87(1)
Plates and Plate Motion
88(1)
How Do We Know that Plates Move?
88(4)
Marine Magnetic Anomalies
88(3)
Another Test: Fracture Zones and Transform Faults
91(1)
Measuring Plate Motion Directly
92(1)
Divergent Plate Boundaries
92(5)
Transform Boundaries
97(1)
Convergent Plate Boundaries
97(6)
Ocean-Ocean Convergence
97(2)
Ocean-Continent Convergence
99(1)
Continent-Continent Convergence
100(3)
The Motion of Plate Boundaries
103(1)
Plate Size
103(1)
The Attractiveness of Plate Tectonics
104(1)
What Causes Plate Motions?
104(6)
Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots
106(4)
A Final Note
110(5)
Summary
110(5)
Mountain Belts and the Continental Crust
115(23)
Introduction
116(3)
Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts
119(5)
Size and Alignment
119(1)
Ages of Mountain Belts and Continents
119(1)
Thickness and Characteristics of Rock Layers
120(1)
Patterns of Folding and Faulting
121(1)
Metamorphism and Plutonism
121(1)
Normal Faulting
122(1)
Thickness and Density of Rocks
123(1)
Features of Active Mountain Ranges
124(1)
Evolution of Mountain Belts
124(9)
Orogenies and Plate Convergence
124(5)
Post-Orogenic Uplift and Block-Faulting
129(4)
The Growth of Continents
133(5)
Displaced Terranes
133(2)
Summary
135(3)
Geologic Structures
138(24)
Tectonic Forces at Work
140(2)
Stress and Strain in the Earth's Lithosphere
140(1)
How Do Rocks Behave When Stressed?
141(1)
Structures as a Record of the Geologic Past
142(2)
Geologic Maps and Field Methods
142(2)
Folds
144(5)
Geometry of Folds
145(2)
Further Description of Folds
147(2)
Fractures in Rock
149(13)
Joints
149(2)
Faults
151(8)
Summary
159(3)
Earthquakes
162(36)
Introduction
164(2)
Causes of Earthquakes
166(1)
Seismic Waves
167(2)
Body Waves
167(2)
Surface Waves
169(1)
Locating and Measuring Earthquakes
169(8)
Determining the Location of an Earthquake
169(3)
Measuring the Size of an Earthquake
172(3)
Location and Size of Earthquakes in the United States
175(2)
Effects of Earthquakes
177(7)
Tsunami
181(3)
World Distribution of Earthquakes
184(1)
First-Motion Studies of Earthquakes
184(1)
Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics
184(5)
Earthquakes at Plate Boundaries
186(3)
Subduction Angle
189(1)
Earthquake Prediction and Seismic Risk
189(9)
Summary
194(4)
Time and Geology
198(28)
The Key to the Past
200(1)
Relative Time
201(10)
Principles Used to Determine Relative Age
201(5)
Unconformities
206(2)
Correlation
208(3)
The Standard Geologic Time Scale
211(1)
Numerical Age
211(7)
Isotopic Dating
212(5)
Uses of Isotopic Dating
217(1)
Combining Relative and Numerical Ages
218(1)
Age of the Earth
219(7)
Comprehending Geologic Time
220(2)
Summary
222(4)
Atoms, Elements, and Minerals
226(28)
Minerals
228(2)
Introduction
228(2)
Atoms and Elements
230(8)
Ions and Crystalline Structures
231(4)
The Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron
235(2)
Nonsilicate Minerals
237(1)
Variations in Mineral Structures and Compositions
238(3)
The Physical Properties of Minerals
241(8)
Color
241(1)
Streak
241(1)
Luster
241(1)
Hardness
242(1)
External Crystal Form
243(2)
Cleavage
245(2)
Fracture
247(1)
Specific Gravity
247(1)
Special Properties
248(1)
Chemical Tests
249(1)
The Many Conditions of Mineral Formation
249(5)
Summary
251(3)
Volcanism and Extrusive Rocks
254(32)
Pyroclastic Debris and Lava Flows
256(1)
Living with Volcanoes
256(7)
Supernatural Beliefs
256(3)
The Growth of an Island
259(1)
Geothermal Energy
259(1)
Effect on Climate
259(1)
Volcanic Catastrophes
259(3)
Eruptive Violence and Physical Characteristics of Lava
262(1)
Extrusive Rocks and Gases
263(1)
Scientific Investigation of Volcanism
263(1)
Gases
263(1)
Extrusive Rocks
264(3)
Composition
264(1)
Extrusive Textures
265(2)
Types of Volcanoes
267(9)
Shield Volcanoes
268(3)
Cinder Cones
271(1)
Composite Volcanoes
271(4)
Volcanic Domes
275(1)
Lava Floods
276(4)
Submarine Eruptions
280(6)
Pillow Basalts
280(2)
Summary
282(4)
Igneous Rocks, Intrusive Activity, and the Origin of Igneous Rocks
286(28)
The Rock Cycle
288(2)
A Plate Tectonic Example
289(1)
Igneous Rocks
290(7)
Igneous Rock Textures
291(1)
Identification of Igneous Rocks
291(3)
Varieties of Granite
294(1)
Chemistry of Igneous Rocks
294(3)
Intrusive Bodies
297(2)
Shallow Intrusive Structures
297(1)
Intrusives that Crystallize at Depth
298(1)
Abundance and Distribution of Plutonic Rocks
299(1)
How Magma Forms
300(2)
Heat for Melting Rock
301(1)
Factors that Control Melting Temperatures
301(1)
How Magmas of Different Compositions Evolve
302(3)
Sequence of Crystallization and Melting
302(2)
Differentiation
304(1)
Partial Melting
304(1)
Assimilation
305(1)
Mixing of Magmas
305(1)
Explaining Igneous Activity by Plate Tectonics
305(9)
Igneous Processes at Divergent Boundaries
305(1)
Intraplate Igneous Activity
306(1)
Igneous Processes at Convergent Boundaries
307(4)
Summary
311(3)
Weathering and Soil
314(22)
Weathering, Erosion, and Transportation
316(1)
Weathering and Earth Systems
316(1)
Solar System
316(1)
Atmosphere
316(1)
Hydrosphere
317(1)
Biosphere
317(1)
How Weathering Alters Rocks
317(1)
Effects of Weathering
318(1)
Mechanical Weathering
319(2)
Pressure Release
319(1)
Frost Action
319(1)
Other Processes
320(1)
Chemical Weathering
321(6)
Role of Oxygen
322(1)
Role of Acids
322(1)
Solution Weathering
323(1)
Chemical Weathering of Feldspar
324(1)
Chemical Weathering of Other Minerals
325(1)
Weathering Products
326(1)
Factors Affecting Weathering
326(1)
Soil
327(9)
Soil Horizons
327(2)
Soil Classification
329(1)
Residual and Transported Soils
329(2)
Soils, Parent Material, Time, and Slope
331(1)
Organic Activity
331(1)
Soils and Climate
331(2)
Buried Soils
333(1)
Summary
333(3)
Mass Wasting
336(24)
Introduction to Mass Wasting
338(1)
Classification of Mass Wasting
339(3)
Rate of Movement
339(1)
Type of Material
339(1)
Type of Movement
339(3)
Controlling Factors in Mass Wasting
342(2)
Gravity
342(1)
Water
343(1)
Triggering Mechanisms
344(1)
Common Types of Mass Wasting
344(9)
Creep
344(2)
Flow
346(4)
Rockfalls and Rockslides
350(3)
Underwater Landslides
353(1)
Preventing Landslides
354(6)
Preventing Mass Wasting of Soil
354(2)
Preventing Rockfalls and Rockslides on Highways
356(2)
Summary
358(2)
Sediment and Sedimentary Rocks
360(32)
Sediment
363(4)
Transportation
363(1)
Deposition
364(1)
Preservation
365(1)
Lithification
365(2)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
367(1)
Detrital Rocks
367(4)
Breccia and Conglomerate
367(2)
Sandstone
369(1)
The Fine-Grained Rocks
370(1)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
371(5)
Carbonate Rocks
371(4)
Chert
375(1)
Evaporites
375(1)
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
376(1)
Coal
376(1)
The Origin of Oil and Gas
376(1)
Sedimentary Structures
377(4)
Fossils
381(1)
Formations
382(1)
Interpretation of Sedimentary Rocks
383(9)
Source Area
383(2)
Environment of Deposition
385(2)
Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks
387(2)
Summary
389(3)
Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, and Hydrothermal Rocks
392(24)
Introduction
394(1)
Factors Controlling the Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks
395(4)
Composition of the Parent Rock
396(1)
Temperature
396(1)
Pressure
397(1)
Fluids
398(1)
Time
399(1)
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
399(4)
Nonfoliated Rocks
399(2)
Foliated Rocks
401(2)
Types of Metamorphism
403(4)
Contact Metamorphism
403(1)
Regional Metamorphism
403(4)
Plate Tectonics and Metamorphism
407(2)
Foliation and Plate Tectonics
407(1)
Pressure-Temperature Regimes
407(2)
Hydrothermal Processes
409(7)
Hydrothermal Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
410(1)
Water at Convergent Boundaries
411(1)
Metasomatism
411(1)
Hydrothermal Rocks and Minerals
412(2)
Summary
414(2)
Streams and Floods
416(36)
Earth Systems---The Hydrologic Cycle
418(1)
Running Water
419(1)
Drainage Basins
420(1)
Drainage Patterns
420(1)
Factors Affecting Stream Erosion and Deposition
421(3)
Velocity
421(2)
Gradient
423(1)
Channel Shape and Roughness
423(1)
Discharge
423(1)
Stream Erosion
424(1)
Stream Transportation of Sediment
425(2)
Stream Deposition
427(9)
Bars
427(3)
Braided Streams
430(1)
Meandering Streams and Point Bars
430(1)
Flood Plains
431(2)
Deltas
433(2)
Alluvial Fans
435(1)
Flooding
436(7)
Urban Flooding
436(1)
Flash Floods
436(4)
Controlling Floods
440(1)
The Great Flood of 1993
440(3)
Stream Valley Development
443(2)
Downcutting and Base Level
443(1)
The Concept of a Graded Stream
444(1)
Lateral Erosion
445(1)
Headward Erosion
445(1)
Stream Terraces
445(2)
Incised Meanders
447(5)
Summary
449(3)
Ground Water
452(24)
Introduction
454(1)
Porosity and Permeability
454(1)
The Water Table
455(1)
The Movement of Ground Water
456(2)
Aquifers
458(1)
Wells
459(1)
Springs and Streams
460(3)
Contamination of Ground Water
463(4)
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge
467(1)
Effects of Groundwater Action
467(4)
Caves, Sinkholes, and Karst Topography
467(3)
Other Effects
470(1)
Hot Water Underground
471(5)
Geothermal Energy
472(1)
Summary
473(3)
Deserts and Wind Action
476(22)
Distribution of Deserts
478(1)
Some Characteristics of Deserts
479(3)
Desert Features in the Southwestern United States
482(4)
Wind Action
486(12)
Wind Erosion and Transportation
486(2)
Wind Deposition
488(7)
Summary
495(3)
Glaciers and Glaciation
498(32)
Introduction
500(1)
Glaciers---Where They Are, How They Form and Move
501(7)
Distribution of Glaciers
501(1)
Types of Glaciers
501(1)
Formation and Growth of Glaciers
501(3)
Movement of Valley Glaciers
504(2)
Movement of Ice Sheets
506(2)
Glacial Erosion
508(6)
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Alpine Glaciation
509(5)
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Continental Glaciation
514(1)
Glacial Deposition
514(5)
Moraines
515(3)
Outwash
518(1)
Glacial Lakes and Varves
519(1)
The Theory of Glacial Ages
519(11)
Direct Effects of Past Glaciation in North America
521(2)
Indirect Effects of Past Glaciation
523(3)
Evidence for Older Glaciation
526(1)
Summary
527(3)
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
530(20)
Introduction
532(1)
Water Waves
532(2)
Surf
533(1)
Near-Shore Circulation
534(2)
Wave Refraction
534(1)
Longshore Currents
534(1)
Rip Currents
534(2)
Beaches
536(1)
Longshore Drift of Sediment
537(3)
Human Interference with Sand Drift
538(2)
Sources of Sand on Beaches
540(1)
Coasts and Coastal Features
540(10)
Erosional Coasts
540(2)
Depositional Coasts
542(1)
Drowned Coasts
543(1)
Uplifted Coasts
544(1)
The Biosphere and Coasts
545(3)
Summary
548(2)
Geologic Resources
550(32)
Introduction
552(1)
Energy Resources
552(17)
Coal
553(3)
Petroleum and Natural Gas
556(6)
Coal Bed Methane
562(1)
Heavy Crude and Oil Sands
562(2)
Oil Shale
564(1)
Uranium
565(1)
Geothermal Power
566(2)
Renewable Energy Sources
568(1)
Metallic Resources
569(3)
Ores Formed by Igneous Processes
569(2)
Ores Formed by Surface Processes
571(1)
Mining
572(4)
Some Important Metals
573(3)
Nonmetallic Resources
576(2)
Construction Materials
576(1)
Fertilizers and Evaporites
577(1)
Other Nonmetallics
577(1)
The Human Perspective
578(4)
Summary
579(3)
Earth's Companions
582
The Earth in Space
584(4)
The Sun
584(1)
The Solar System
585(1)
The Milky Way and the Universe
586(2)
Origin of the Planets
588(3)
The Solar Nebula
588(2)
Formation of the Planets
590(1)
Formation of Moons
590(1)
Final Stages of Planet Formation
590(1)
Formation of Atmospheres
590(1)
Other Planetary Systems
591(1)
Portraits of the Planets
591(21)
Our Moon
592(1)
Description of the Moon
592(3)
Structure of the Moon
595(1)
Origin and History of the Moon
595(1)
Mercury
595(3)
Venus
598(2)
Mars
600(5)
Why Are the Terrestrial Planets So Different?
605(1)
Jupiter
606(3)
Saturn
609(1)
Uranus
610(1)
Neptune
610(1)
Pluto
611(1)
Minor Objects of the Solar System
612(3)
Meteors and Meteorites
612(1)
Meteorites
612(1)
Asteroids
613(1)
Comets
613(2)
Giant Impacts
615
Giant Meteor Impacts
615(1)
Summary
616
Appendix A Identification of Minerals 1(4)
Appendix B Identification of Rocks 5(3)
Appendix C The Elements Most Significant to Geology 8(1)
Appendix D Periodic Table of Elements 9(1)
Appendix E Selected Conversion Factors 10(1)
Appendix F Rock Symbols 11(1)
Appendix G Commonly Used Prefixes, Suffices, and Roots 12
Glossary 1(1)
Index 1


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