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Physical Geology Today combines a deep integration of plate tectonics with an emphasis on conceptual understanding in order to paint an integrated picture of how Earth works. Damian Nance and Brendan Murphy blend clear engaging prose with hundreds of meticulously crafted illustrations to tell a clear and accessible geologic story that introduces the right amount of terminology at the right time.
Damian Nance is Distinguished Professor of Geological Sciences at Ohio University. Damian has twice received the College of Arts and Sciences Outstanding Teacher Award, has been twice nominated for the University's Outstanding Graduate Faculty Award, and has toured as a distinguished lecturer for the Atlantic Provinces Intercollegiate Council for the Sciences. He has also worked for the Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratories, Exxon Production Research Company, and Cominco America. In addition to being the author of over 150 papers, Dr. Nance is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, former Editor of GSA Today, upcoming Editor of Lithosphere, and Associate Editor of Gondwana Research and Geoscience Frontiers.
Brendan Murphy is Professor of Earth Sciences at St. Francis Xavier University. Brendan is an engaged teacher who has supervised more than 50 undergraduate theses and still manages to maintain an active research program that has allowed him to publish over 165 papers. He has been honored for his service to the discipline with the Geologic Society of America's Distinguished Service Award and with the Geologic Association of Canada's J. Willis Ambrose Medal. Few geoscientists can match Dr. Murphy's record of excellence in professional endeavor, dedication to education, and record of service to the profession.
Dr. Nance and Dr. Murphy have collaborated together for 28 years, publishing their first joint paper in 1987. Since then, they have coauthored over 100 papers and two books.
Table of Contents
PART I: THE SOLID EARTH
Chapter 1 Foundations of Modern Geology
Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics
Chapter 3 Minerals
Chapter 4 Origin and Evolution of Igneous Rocks
Chapter 5 Weathering and Soils
Chapter 6 Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks
Chapter 7 Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
PART II: EVOLUTION OF THE SOLID EARTH
Chapter 8 Geologic Time
Chapter 9 Plates and Plate Boundaries
Chapter 10 Deformation and Mountain Building
Chapter 11 Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
PART III: SCULPTING THE SOLID EARTH
Chapter 12 Mass Wasting
Chapter 13 Running Water
Chapter 14 Groundwater
Chapter 15 Glaciers and Glaciation
Chapter 16 Deserts and Winds
Chapter 17 Coastlines and Coastal Processes
PART IV: EARTH'S RESOURCES
Chapter 18 Mineral Deposits and Industrial Materials
Chapter 19 Energy Resources
PART V: EARTH AND BEYOND
Chapter 20 Physical Geology and Climate Change
Chapter 21 The Planets
*Each chapter ends key terms, key concepts, and study questions Part I. The Solid Earth 1. Foundations of Modern Geology 1.1. Geology and the Scientific Method 1.2 The Birth of Geology 1.3 Geologic Time 1.4 Earth Materials: Minerals, Rocks, and Fossils 1.5 The Rock Cycle 1.6 Origin of Earth and the Solar System 1.7 Earth's Internal Heat 1.8 Earth as a System 1.9 What Does a Geologist Do? SCIENCE REFRESHER: Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry and Physics IN DEPTH: Origin of the Universe--The Big Bang Theory LIVING ON EARTH: Earth's Seasons--A 4.5-Billion-Year Legacy? SCIENCE REFRESHER: The Flow of Heat 2. Plate Tectonics 2.1 Continental Drift 2.2 Paleomagnetism 2.3 Seafloor Spreading 2.4 Subduction 2.5 Moving Plates and Plate Boundaries 2.6 Hotspots: A Plate Tectonic Enigma LIVING ON EARTH: The Remarkable Journey of the Green Turtle IN DEPTH: Failed Rifts 3. Minerals 3.1 Elements: Building Blocks of Minerals 3.2 Minerals: Orderly Expressions of Matter 3.3 Physical Properties of Minerals 3.4 Silicate Rock-Forming Minerals 3.5 Nonsilicate Rock-Forming Minerals 3.6 Minerals and Rocks 3.7 Minerals and People 3.8 Minerals and Plate Tectonics LIVING ON EARTH: Origin of the Chemical Elements SCIENCE REFRESHER: Some Basic Definitions in Science SCIENCE REFRESHER: Solids, Liquids, and Gases 4. Origin and Evolution of Igneous Rocks 4.1. Igneous Rocks and the Rock Cycle 4.2. Magma Formation and Transport 4.3 Textures of Igneous Rocks 4.4 Classifying Igneous Rocks 4.5 Evolution of Igneous Rocks 4.6 Volcanic Eruptions 4.7 Igneous Rocks and Plate Tectonics SCIENCE REFRESHER: Heat, Temperature, and Magma LIVING ON EARTH: Volcanoes and the Air We Breathe IN DEPTH: Can Explosive Eruptions Be Predicted? 5. Weathering and Soils 5.1 Weathering 5.2 Mechanical Weathering 5.3 Chemical Weathering 5.4 Soils 5.5. Weathering, Soils, and Plate Tectonics SCIENCE REFRESHER: What Is an Acid? IN DEPTH: The Role of Oxidation in Earth's History LIVING ON EARTH: The Food Chain 6. Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks 6.1 From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks 6.3 Classifying Sedimentary Rocks 6.4 Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks 6.5 Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Facies 6.6 Sediments, Sedimentary Rocks, and Plate Tectonics LIVING ON EARTH: Salt of the Earth LIVING ON EARTH: King Coal SCIENCE REFRESHER: Settling Velocities 7. Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks 7.1 Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 7.2 Factors That Control Metamorphism 7.3 Types of Metamorphism 7.4 Metamorphic Textures 7.5 Classifying Metamorphic Rocks 7.6 Metamorphic Zones and Facies 7.7 Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics SCIENCE REFRESHER: Pressure Units IN DEPTH: Shock Metamorphism IN DEPTH: Metamorphism and the Rock Cycle PART II. EVOLUTION OF THE SOLID EARTH 8. Geologic Time 8.1 Measuring Geologic Time: Relative and Absolute Ages 8.2 A Short History of Geologic Time 8.3 Relative Dating: Determining Chronological Order 8.4 Correlating Rock Strata 8.5 Relative Dating and the Geologic Time Scale 8.6 Absolute Dating: Finding a Geologic Clock 8.7 Absolute Dating and the Geologic Time Scale 8.8 A Sense of Time 8.9 Geologic Time and Plate Tectonics LIVING ON EARTH: Radioactivity and Radon Gas SCIENCE REFRESHER: Types of Radioactive Decay SCIENCE REFRESHER: Linear versus Exponential Relationships IN DEPTH: The Quest for the Age of Earth 9. Plates and Plate Boundaries 9.1 Plates on Earth's Surface 9.2 Plates and Isostasy 9.3 Plate Boundaries 9.4 Divergent Boundaries: Creating Oceans 9.5 Convergent Boundaries: Recycling Crust and Building Continents 9.6 Transform Boundaries: Fracturing the Crust 9.7 Hotspots: Tracking Plate Movements 9.8 Plate Tectonics and Plate-Driving Mechanisms LIVING ON EARTH: The Bizarre World of the Mid-Ocean Ridges LIVING ON EARTH: Tsunami IN DEPTH: Ophiolites--Clues to the Structure of Oceanic Crust 10. Deformation and Mountain Building 10.1 Deformation 10.2 Orientation of Geologic Structures 10.3 Fractures 10.4 Folds 10.5 Unconformities Revisited 10.6 Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building 10.7 Mountain Building in the Geologic Past IN DEPTH: Partial Melting and the Making of Continental Crust--Nature's Ultimate Recycling Program LIVING ON EARTH: In the Shadow of the Himalayas 11. Earthquakes and Earth's Interior 11.1 Heat and Density: Clues to Earth's Interior 11.2 Earthquakes and Elastic Rebound 11.3 Seismic Waves 11.4 Journey to the Center of the Earth 11.5 Earth's Structure and Composition 11.6 Circulation in Earth's Interior 11.7 Plate Tectonics and the Fate of Subducted Slabs LIVING ON EARTH: Predicting Earthquakes--Some Lessons from California SCIENCE REFRESHER: Density, Volume, and Seismic Velocity SCIENCE REFRESHER: Wave Refraction IN DEPTH: Earth's Magnetism and Its Dynamic Core PART III. SCULPTING THE SOLID EARTH 12. Mass Wasting 12.1 Mass Wasting: Downslope Movement 12.2 Factors That Influence Mass Wasting 12.3 Mass Wasting Mechanisms 12.4 Minimizing Mass Wasting Hazards 12.5 Mass Wasting and Plate Tectonics SCIENCE REFRESHER: Surface Tension, Sand Castles, and the Goldilocks Solution IN DEPTH: Mass Wasting on the Moon and Mars LIVING ON EARTH: The Oso Landslide, Washington State 13. Running Water 13.1 Running Water and the Hydrologic Cycle 13.2 Streamflow 13.3 Stream Erosion 13.4 Stream Transport 13.5 Stream Deposition 13.6 Floods and Flood Prevention 13.7 Running Water and Plate Tectonics 13.8 Running Water on Other Worlds LIVING ON EARTH: The Death of the Aral Sea--An Environmental Disaster IN DEPTH: Dams and the Human Exploitation of Surface Water 14. Groundwater 14.1 Groundwater: A Vital Resource 14.2 The Water Table 14.3 Aquifers and Groundwater Flow 14.4 The Dissolving Power of Groundwater 14.5 Exploitation of Groundwater 14.6 Groundwater and Plate Tectonics 15. Glaciers and Glaciation 15.1 Glaciers and Glacier Ice 15.2 Glacial Erosion 15.3 Glacial Deposition 15.4 The Pleistocene Ice Age 15.5 Plate Tectonics and Glaciation 15.6 Ice on Other Worlds SCIENCE REFRESHER: Air Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere LIVING ON EARTH: The Origin of the Great Lakes IN DEPTH: Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scablands 16. Deserts and Winds 16.1 The Origins of Deserts 16.2 Weathering and Erosion in Deserts 16.3 Wind in Deserts 16.4 Desertification: Natural and Human Induced 16.5 Deserts and Plate Tectonics 16.6 Deserts on Mars SCIENCE REFRESHER: Ocean Currents and the Coriolis Effect IN DEPTH: Dust Devils LIVING ON EARTH: The Dust Bowl 17. Coastlines and Coastal Processes 17.1 Coastal Processes 17.2 Wind-Driven Waves 17.3 Tides 17.4 Coastal Erosion 17.5 Coastal Deposition 17.6 Coastlines 17.7 Coastal Management 17.8 Coastlines and Plate Tectonics SCIENCE REFRESHER: Wave Terminology LIVING ON EARTH: Sea Level and Polar Ice LIVING ON EARTH: Hurricanes and Storm Surges IN DEPTH: Sea Level and Plate Tectonics PART IV. EARTH'S RESOURCES 18. Mineral Deposits and Industrial Materials 18.1 Consumption of Minerals and Industrial Materials 18.2 Metals and Metallic Minerals 18.3 Nonmetallic Minerals and Industrial Materials 18.4 Formation of Mineral Deposits 18.5 Plate Tectonics and Mineral Deposits 18.6 Mineral Exploration 18.7 Future Demands on Mineral Resources IN DEPTH: Mechanisms of Mineral Concentration LIVING ON EARTH: The Environmental Impact of Mining 19. Energy Resources 19.1 Energy Use 19.2 Petroleum--Oil and Natural Gas 19.3 Coal 19.4 Nuclear Power 19.5 Renewable Energy 19.6 Plate Tectonics and Energy Resources IN DEPTH: Correlation and the Search for Oil and Gas LIVING ON EARTH: The Dilemma of Fracking IN DEPTH: Is Ice That Burns the Fuel of the Future? PART V. EARTH AND BEYOND 20. Physical Geology and Climate Change 20.1 Taking Earth's Pulse 20.2 The Greenhouse Effect: A Matter of Balance 20.3 The Carbon Cycle 20.4 Climate Change: A Geologic Perspective 20.5 Earth-Sun Geometry 20.6 Feedback Systems 20.7 Plate Tectonics and Climate Change 20.8 Putting It all Together: The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warmth LIVING ON EARTH: Camels in the Arctic! SCIENCE REFRESHER: The Physics of Global Warming IN DEPTH: Melting of the Arctic Ice--An Omen of Global Warming? 21. The Planets 21.1 Earth and Its Moon 21.2 The Terrestrial Planets and Their Moons 21.3 Plate Tectonics: A Planetary Perspective 21.4 The Jovian Planets, Their Moons, and the Kuiper Belt 21.5 Asteroids, Meteors, Meteorites, and Comets 21.6 Exoplanets and Other Solar Systems SCIENCE REFRESHER: Center of Mass IN DEPTH: Martian Life on Earth? LIVING ON EARTH: Visits from the Celestial Junkyard Appendix A: SI and Customary Units and Their Conversions Appendix B: Periodic Table of the Elements Glossary Credits Index