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PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (UPDATED)(TEXT),9780072904437
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PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (UPDATED)(TEXT)

by
Edition:
8TH
ISBN13:

9780072904437

ISBN10:
0072904437
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
MCG
List Price: $72.35
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Table of Contents

About the Authors ii
Preface x
The Learning System xii
Introduction to Physical Geology
2(24)
Who Needs Geology?
4(7)
Avoiding Geologic Hazards
6(1)
Supplying Things We Need
7(1)
Protecting the Environment
8(3)
Understanding Our Surroundings
11(1)
An Overview of Physical Geology---Important Concepts
11(10)
Internal Processes: How the Earth's Internal Heat Engine Works
14(1)
The Earth's Interior
15(1)
The Theory of Plate Tectonics
16(2)
Surficial Processes: The Earth's External Heat Engine
18(3)
Geologic Time
21(1)
Summary
22(1)
Terms to Remember*
23(1)
Testing Your Knowledge*
23(1)
Expanding Your Knowledge*
24(1)
Exploring Resources*
24(1)
Interacting with Journey Through Geology CD-ROM*
25(1)
Atoms, Elements, and Minerals
26(26)
Atoms and Elements
28(3)
Chemical Activity
30(1)
Ions
30(1)
Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust
31(1)
Crystallinity
32(5)
The Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron
33(4)
Minerals
37(3)
Crystalline Solids
37(1)
Natural and Inorganic Substances
37(1)
Definite Chemical Composition
37(1)
The Important Minerals
38(2)
The Physical Properties of Minerals
40(7)
Color
40(1)
Streak
40(1)
Luster
40(1)
Hardness
40(1)
External Crystal Form
41(2)
Cleavage
43(2)
Fracture
45(1)
Specific Gravity
45(1)
Other Properties
46(1)
Simple Chemical Tests
46(1)
The Rock Cycle
47(2)
Summary
49(3)
Igneous Rocks, Intrusive Activity, and the Origin of Igneous Rocks
52(24)
Igneous Rocks
55(4)
Identification of Igneous Rocks
55(3)
Varieties of Granite
58(1)
Chemistry of Igneous Rocks
58(1)
Intrusive Bodies
59(4)
Shallow Intrusive Structures
60(1)
Intrusives That Crystallize at Depth
61(2)
Abundance and Distribution of Plutonic Rocks
63(1)
How Magma Forms
63(3)
Heat for Melting Rock
64(1)
Factors That Control Melting Temperatures
64(2)
How Magmas of Different Compositions Evolve
66(4)
Differentiation and Bowen's Reaction Theory
66(2)
Partial Melting
68(1)
Assimilation
69(1)
Mixing of Magmas
69(1)
Explaining Igneous Activity by Plate Tectonics
70(3)
Igneous Processes at Divergent Boundaries
70(1)
Intraplate Igneous Activity
70(1)
Igneous Processes at Convergent Boundaries
71(2)
Summary
73(3)
Volcanism and Extrusive Rocks
76(26)
Effects on Humans
78(5)
The Growth of Hawaii
78(1)
Geothermal Energy
78(1)
Effect on Climate
78(3)
Volcanic Catastrophes
81(1)
Eruptive Violence and Physical Characteristics of Lava
82(1)
Extrusive Rocks and Gases
83(1)
Scientific Investigation of Volcanism
83(1)
Gases
84(1)
Extrusive Rocks
84(3)
Types of Volcanoes
87(8)
Shield Volcanoes
88(1)
Cinder Cones
88(2)
Composite Volcanoes
90(3)
Volcanic Domes
93(2)
Lava Floods
95(1)
Submarine Eruptions
96(3)
Pillow Basalts
97(2)
Summary
99(3)
Weathering and Soil
102(18)
Weathering, Erosion, and Transportation
104(1)
How Weathering Alters Rocks
104(1)
Effects of Weathering
104(1)
Mechanical Weathering
104(4)
Frost Action
104(2)
Abrasion
106(1)
Pressure Release
107(1)
Chemical Weathering
108(5)
Role of Oxygen
108(1)
Role of Acid
109(1)
Solution Weathering
110(1)
Chemical Weathering of Feldspar
111(1)
Chemical Weathering of Other Minerals
112(1)
Weathering and Climate
113(1)
Weathering Products
113(1)
Soil
113(5)
Soil Horizons
114(1)
Residual and Transported Soils
114(1)
Soils, Parent Rock, Time, and Slope
115(1)
Organic Activity
116(1)
Soils and Climate
116(1)
Buried Soils
117(1)
Summary
118(2)
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
120(30)
Sediment
122(4)
Transportation
122(1)
Deposition
123(1)
Preservation
124(1)
Lithification
125(1)
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
126(1)
Clastic Rocks
126(4)
Breccia and Conglomerate
126(1)
Sandstone
127(1)
The Fine-Grained Rocks
128(2)
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
130(5)
Carbonate Rocks
130(3)
Chert
133(1)
Evaporites
134(1)
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
135(1)
Coal
135(1)
The Origin of Oil and Gas
135(1)
Sedimentary Structures
135(4)
Formations
139(1)
Interpretation of Sedimentary Rocks
140(6)
Source Area
140(2)
Environment of Deposition
142(3)
Plate Tectonics and Sedimentary Rocks
145(1)
Summary
146(4)
Metamorphism, Metamorphic Rocks, and Hydrothermal Rocks
150(22)
Factors Controlling the Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks
152(4)
Composition of the Parent Rock
152(1)
Temperature
153(1)
Pressure
153(2)
Fluids
155(1)
Time
156(1)
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
156(1)
Types of Metamorphism
156(6)
Contact Metamorphism
156(2)
Regional Metamorphism
158(4)
Plate Tectonics and Metamorphism
162(1)
Hydrothermal Processes
163(6)
Hydrothermal Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
163(2)
Metasomatism
165(1)
Hydrothermal Rocks and Minerals
166(1)
Sources of Water
167(2)
Summary
169(3)
Time and Geology
172(26)
The Key to the Past
174(1)
Relative Time
174(9)
Principles Used to Determine Relative Age
174(5)
Correlation
179(3)
The Standard Geologic Time Scale
182(1)
Unconformities
183(3)
Disconformities
183(2)
Angular Unconformities
185(1)
Nonconformities
186(1)
Numerical Age
186(4)
Isotopic Dating
186(4)
Uses of Isotopic Dating
190(1)
Combining Relative and Numerical Ages
190(1)
Age of the Earth
191(4)
Comprehending Geologic Time
191(4)
Summary
195(3)
Mass Wasting
198(22)
Classification of Mass Wasting
200(3)
Rate of Movement
200(1)
Type of Material
200(2)
Type of Movement
202(1)
Controlling Factors in Mass Wasting
203(2)
Gravity
204(1)
Water
204(1)
Common Types of Mass Wasting
205(10)
Creep
205(1)
Debris Flow
206(6)
Rockfalls and Rockslides
212(3)
Preventing Landslides
215(3)
Preventing Mass Wasting of Debris
215(1)
Preventing Rockfalls and Rockslides on Highways
216(2)
Summary
218(2)
Streams and Floods
220(38)
The Hydrologic Cycle
222(1)
Channel Flow and Sheet Flow
222(2)
Drainage Basins
224(1)
Drainage Patterns
224(1)
Factors Affecting Stream Erosion and Deposition
225(3)
Velocity
225(1)
Gradient
226(1)
Channel Shape and Roughness
226(1)
Discharge
227(1)
Stream Erosion
228(1)
Stream Transportation of Sediment
229(1)
Stream Depositon
230(12)
Bars
230(1)
Braided Streams
231(4)
Meandering Streams and Point Bars
235(2)
Flood Plains
237(2)
Deltas
239(2)
Alluvial Fans
241(1)
Flooding
242(6)
Urban Flooding
242(3)
Flash Floods
245(1)
Controlling Floods
246(1)
The Great Flood of 1993
247(1)
Stream Valley Development
248(4)
Downcutting and Base Level
248(2)
The Concept of a Graded Stream
250(1)
Lateral Erosion
251(1)
Headward Erosion and Stream Piracy
251(1)
Stream Terraces
252(1)
Incised Meanders
253(2)
Superposed Streams
255(1)
Summary
255(3)
Ground Water
258(24)
Porosity and Permeability
260(1)
The Water Table
260(2)
The Movement of Ground Water
262(1)
Aquifers
263(1)
Wells
264(2)
Springs and Streams
266(1)
Pollution of Ground Water
266(6)
Balancing Withdrawal and Recharge
272(2)
Effects of Ground-Water Action
274(3)
Caves, Sinkholes, and Karst Topography
274(2)
Other Effects
276(1)
Hot Water Underground
277(2)
Geothermal Energy
278(1)
Summary
279(3)
Glaciers and Glaciation
282(32)
The Theory of Glacial Ages
284(1)
Glaciers---Where They Are, How They Form and Move
284(10)
Distribution of Glaciers
284(1)
Types of Glaciers
285(1)
Formation and Growth of Glaciers
285(3)
Movement of Valley Glaciers
288(5)
Movement of Ice Sheets
293(1)
Glacial Erosion
294(5)
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Alpine Glaciation
295(3)
Erosional Landscapes Associated with Continental Glaciation
298(1)
Glacial Deposition
299(4)
Moraines
300(2)
Outwash
302(1)
Glacial Lakes and Varves
303(1)
Effects of Past Glaciation
303(8)
The Glacial Ages
303(2)
Direct Effects of Past Glaciation in North America
305(5)
Indirect Effects of Past Glaciation
310(1)
Evidence for Older Glaciation
310(1)
Summary
311(3)
Deserts and Wind Action
314(22)
Distribution of Deserts
316(1)
Some Characteristics of Deserts
316(3)
Desert Features in the Southwestern United States
319(3)
Wind Action
322(10)
Wind Erosion and Transportation
324(3)
Wind Deposition
327(5)
Summary
332(4)
Waves, Beaches, and Coasts
336(20)
Water Waves
338(2)
Surf
339(1)
Nearshore Circulation
340(1)
Wave Refraction
340(1)
Longshore Currents
340(1)
Rip Currents
341(1)
Beaches
341(1)
Longshore Drift of Sediment
342(2)
Human Interference with Sand Drift
344(1)
Sources of Sand on Beaches
344(1)
Coasts and Coastal Features
344(9)
Erosional Coasts
345(3)
Depositional Coasts
348(1)
Drowned Coasts
349(3)
Uplifted Coasts
352(1)
Coasts Shaped by Organisms
352(1)
Summary
353(3)
Geologic Structures
356(26)
Tectonic Forces at Work
358(3)
Stress and Strain in the Earth's Crust
358(1)
Behavior of rocks to Stress and Strain
359(1)
Present Deformation of the Crust
360(1)
Structures as a Record of the Geologic Past
361(2)
Geologic Maps and Field Methods
361(2)
Folds
363(4)
Geometry of Folds
363(3)
Interpreting Folds
366(1)
Fractures in Rock
367(12)
Joints
368(2)
Faults
370(9)
Summary
379(3)
Earthquakes
382(32)
Causes of Earthquakes
384(2)
Seismic Waves
386(1)
Body Waves
386(1)
Surface Waves
386(1)
Locating and Measuring Earthquakes
386(9)
Determining the Location of an Earthquake
389(1)
Measuring the Size of an Earthquake
390(3)
Location and Size of Earthquakes in the United States
393(2)
Effects of Earthquakes
395(6)
Tsunamis
399(2)
World Distribution of Earthquakes
401(3)
First-Motion Studies of Earthquakes
404(1)
Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics
404(4)
Earthquakes at Plate Boundaries
405(3)
Subduction Angle
408(1)
Earthquake Prediction
408(1)
Earthquake Control
409(2)
Summary
411(3)
The Earth's Interior
414(22)
Evidence from Seismic Waves
416(1)
The Earth's Internal Structure
417(6)
The Earth's Crust
418(1)
The Mantle
418(2)
The Core
420(3)
Isostasy
423(2)
Gravity Measurements
425(2)
The Earth's Magnetic Field
427(5)
Magnetic Reversals
428(1)
Magnetic Anomalies
429(3)
Heat Within the Earth
432(1)
Geothermal Gradient
432(1)
Heat Flow
433(1)
Summary
433(3)
The Sea Floor
436(22)
Origin of the Ocean
438(1)
Methods of Studying the Sea Floor
439(1)
Features of the Sea Floor
440(1)
Continental Shelves and Continental Slopes
440(2)
Submarine Canyons
442(1)
Turbidity Currents
443(1)
Passive Continental Margins
443(1)
The Continental Rise
443(1)
Abyssal Plains
444(1)
Active Continental Margins
444(1)
Oceanic Trenches
445(1)
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge
445(4)
Geologic Activity on the Ridge
446(1)
Biologic Activity on the Ridge
446(3)
Fracture Zones
449(1)
Seamounts, Guyots, and Aseismic Ridges
449(1)
Reefs
450(2)
Sediments of the Sea Floor
452(1)
Oceanic Crust and Ophiolites
452(2)
The Age of the Sea Floor
454(1)
The Sea Floor and Plate Tectonics
455(1)
Summary
455(3)
Plate Tectonics
458(38)
The Early Case for Continental Drift
460(3)
Skepticism about Continental Drift
462(1)
Paleomagnetism and the Revival of Continental Drift
463(2)
Recent Evidence for Continental Drift
464(1)
History of Continental Positions
465(1)
Sea-Floor Spreading
465(2)
Hess's Driving Force
466(1)
Explanations
466(1)
Plates and Plate Motion
467(1)
How Do We Know That Plates Move?
468(4)
Marine Magnetic Anomalies
468(3)
Another Test: Fracture Zones and Transform Faults
471(1)
Measuring Plate Motion Directly
472(1)
Divergent Plate Boundaries
472(3)
Transform Boundaries
475(1)
Convergent Plate Boundaries
476(5)
Ocean-Ocean Convergence
477(1)
Ocean-Continent Convergence
478(2)
Continent-Continent Convergence
480(1)
Backarc Spreading
481(1)
The Motion of Plate Boundaries
482(1)
Plate Size
482(1)
The Attractiveness of Plate Tectonics
482(1)
What Causes Plate Motions?
483(5)
Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots
486(2)
The Relationship Between Plate Tectonics and Ore Deposits
488(4)
A Final Note
492(1)
Summary
492(4)
Mountain Belts and the Continental Crust
496(24)
Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts
499(6)
Size and Alignment
499(1)
Ages of Mountain Belts and Continents
499(2)
Thickness and Characteristics of Rock Layers
501(1)
Patterns of Folding and Faulting
502(2)
Metamorphism and Plutonism
504(1)
Normal Faulting
504(1)
Thickness and Density of Rocks
504(1)
Features of Active Mountain Ranges
505(1)
The Evolution of a Mountain Belt
505(9)
The Accumulation Stage
505(1)
The Orogenic Stage
506(3)
The Uplift and Block-faulting Stage
509(5)
The Growth of Continents
514(4)
Suspect and Exotic Terranes
515(3)
Summary
518(2)
Geologic Resources
520(26)
Types of Resources
522(1)
Resources and Reserves
523(1)
Energy Use
523(1)
Oil and Natural Gas
523(5)
The Occurrence of Oil and Gas
524(2)
Recovering the Oil
526(1)
How Much Oil Do We Have Left?
527(1)
Heavy Crude and Oil Sands
528(1)
Oil Shale
528(1)
Coal
529(3)
Varieties of Coal
529(1)
Occurrence of Coal
530(2)
Environmental Effects
532(1)
Reserves and Resources
532(1)
Uranium
532(1)
Alternative Sources of Energy
533(1)
Metals and Ores
533(1)
Origin of Metallic Ore Deposits
533(3)
Ores Associated with Igneous Rocks
534(1)
Ores Formed by Surface Processes
535(1)
Metal Ores and Plate Tectonics
536(1)
Mining
536(2)
Environmental Effects
537(1)
Some Important Metals
538(2)
Iron
538(1)
Copper
538(1)
Aluminum
538(1)
Lead
539(1)
Zinc
539(1)
Silver
539(1)
Gold
539(1)
Other Metals
540(1)
Nonmetallic Resources
540(2)
Construction Materials
540(1)
Fertilizers and Evaporites
541(1)
Other Nonmetallics
542(1)
Some Future Trends
542(1)
Summary
543(3)
Appendixes A-G 546(10)
Glossary 556(13)
Index 569


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