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The Physical Universe,9780073512167

The Physical Universe

by ;
Edition:
14th
ISBN13:

9780073512167

ISBN10:
0073512168
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/20/2011
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math
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Summary

This is an outstanding text with a long history that has been updated and given a fresh look. The Physical Universeis also accompanied by strong media component with the Connect online homework system, personal response system ("clicker") questions, more extensive online quizzing, and PowerPoint lectures. Aimed at presenting the essentials of physics, chemistry, earth science, and astronomy in a clear, easy-to-understand way, The Physical Universeshows students how science works, how scientists approach problems, and why science constantly evolves in its search for understanding. The text can also be packaged with its long time companion student study guide, which includes a review of chapter terms and concepts; self quizzing for extra practice; and additional solved problems.

Table of Contents

1 The Scientific Method

How Scientists Study Nature

1.1 The Scientific Method
1.2 Why Science Is Successful

The Solar System

1.3 A Survey of the Sky
1.4 The Ptolemaic System
1.5 The Copernican System
1.6 Kepler's Laws
1.7 Why Copernicus Was Right

Universal Gravitation

1.8 What Is Gravity?
1.9 Why the Earth Is Round
1.10 The Tides
1.11 The Discovery of Neptune

How Many of What

1.12 The SI System

2 Motion

Describing Motion

2.1 Speed
2.2 Vectors
2.3 Acceleration
2.4 Distance, Time, and Acceleration

Acceleration due to Gravity

2.5 Free Fall
2.6 Air Resistance

Force and Motion

2.7 First law of Motion
2.8 Mass
2.9 Second law of Motion
2.10 Mass and Weight
2.11 Third law of Motion

Gravitation

2.12 Circular Motion
2.13 Newton's Law of Gravity
2.14 Artificial Satellites

3 Energy

Work

3.1 The Meaning of Work
3.2 Power

Energy

3.3 Kinetic Energy
3.4 Potential Energy
3.5 Energy Transformations
3.6 Conservation of Energy
3.7 The Nature of Heat

Momentum

3.8 Linear Momentum
3.9 Rockets
3.10 Angular Momentum

Relativity

3.11 Special Relativity
3.12 Rest Energy
3.13 General Relativity

Energy and Civilization

3.14 The Energy Problem
3.15 The Future

4 Energy and the Future

The Energy Problem

4.1 Population and Prosperity
4.2 Energy Consumption
4.3 Global Warming
4.4 Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect

Fossil Fuels

4.5 Liquid Fuels
4.6 Natural Gas
4.7 Coal

Alternative Sources

4.8 A Nuclear World?
4.9 Clean Energy I
4.10 Clean Energy II
4.11 Energy Storage
4.12 Biofuels

Strategies for the Future

4.13 Conservation
4.14 What Governments Must Do

5 Matter and Heat

Temperature and Heat

5.1 Temperature
5.2 Heat
5.3 Metabolic Energy

Fluids

5.4 Density
5.5 Pressure
5.6 Buoyancy
5.7 Gas Laws

Kinetic Theory of Matter

5.8 Kinetic Theory of Gases
5.9 Molecular Motion and Temperature

Changes of State

5.10 Heat Transfer
5.11 Liquids and Solids
5.12 Evaporation and Boiling
5.13 Melting

Energy Transformations

5.14 Heat Engines
5.15 Thermodynamics
5.16 Fate of the Universe
5.17 Entropy

6 Electricity and Magnetism

Electric Charge

6.1 Positive and Negative Charge
6.2 What Is Charge?
6.3 Coulomb's Law
6.4 Force on an Uncharged Object

Electricity and Matter

6.5 Matter in Bulk
6.6 Conductors and Insulators
6.7 Superconductivity

Electric Current

6.8 The Ampere
6.9 Potential Difference
6.10 Ohm's Law
6.11 Electric Power

Magnetism

6.12 Magnets
6.13 Magnetic Field
6.14 Oersted's Experiment
6.15 Electromagnets

Using Magnetism

6.16 Magnetic Force on a Current
6.17 Electric Motors
6.18 Electromagnetic Induction
6.19 Transformers

7 Waves

Wave Motion

7.1 Water Waves
7.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
7.3 Describing Waves
7.4 Standing Waves

Sound Waves

7.5 Sound
7.6 Doppler Effect
7.7 Musical Sounds

Electromagnetic Waves

7.8 Electromagnetic Waves
7.9 Types of EM Waves
7.10 Light "Rays"

Wave Behavior

7.11 Reflection
7.12 Refraction
7.13 Lenses
7.14 The Eye
7.15 Color
7.16 Interference
7.17 Diffraction

8 The Nucleus

Atom and Nucleus

8.1 Rutherford Model of the Atom
8.2 Nuclear Structure

Radioactivity

8.3 Radioactive Decay
8.4 Half-Life
8.5 Radiation Hazards

Nuclear Energy

8.6 Units of Mass and Energy
8.7 Binding Energy
8.8 Binding Energy per Nucleon

Fission and Fusion

8.9 Nuclear Fission
8.10 How a Reactor Works
8.11 Plutonium
8.12 A Nuclear World?
8.13 Nuclear Fusion

Elementary Particles

8.14 Antiparticles
8.15 Fundamental Interactions
8.16 Leptons and Hadrons

9 The Atom

Quantum Theory of Light

9.1 Photoelectric Effect
9.2 Photons
9.3 What Is Light?
9.4 X-Rays

Matter Waves

9.5 De Broglie
9.6 Waves of What?
9.7 Uncertainty Principle

The Hydrogen Atom

9.8 Atomic Spectra
9.9 The Bohr Model
9.10 Electron Waves and Orbitals
9.11 The Laser

Quantum Theory of the Atom

9.12 Quantum Mechanics
9.13 Quantum Numbers
9.14 Exclusion Principle

10 The Periodic Law

Elements and Compounds

10.1 Chemical Change
10.2 Three Classes of Matter
10.3 The Atomic Theory

The Periodic Law

10.4 Metals and Nonmetals
10.5 Chemical Activity
10.6 Families of Elements
10.7 The Periodic Table
10.8 Groups and Periods

Atomic Structure

10.9 Shells and Subshells
10.10 Explaining the Periodic Table

Chemical Bonds

10.11 Types of Bond
10.12 Covalent Bonding
10.13 Ionic Bonding
10.14 Ionic Compounds
10.15 Atoms Groups
10.16 Naming Compounds
10.17 Chemical Equations

11 Crystals, Ions, and Solutions

Solids

11.1 Ionic and Covalent Crystals
11.2 The Metallic Bond
11.3 Molecular Crystals

Solutions

11.4 Solubility
11.5 Polar and Nonpolar Liquids
11.6 Ions in Solution
11.7 Evidence for Dissociation
11.8 Water
11.9 Water Pollution

Acids and Bases

11.10 Acids
11.11 Strong and Weak Acids
11.12 Bases
11.13 The pH Scale
11.14 Salts

12 Chemical Reactions

Quantitative Chemistry

12.1 Phlogiston
12.2 Oxygen
12.3 The Mole
12.4 Formula Units

Chemical Energy

12.5 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
12.6 Chemical Energy and Stability
12.7 Activation energy

Fuels

12.8 Liquid Fuels
12.9 Gas Fuels
12.10 Solid Fuels

Reaction Rates

12.11 Temperature
12.12 Other Factors
12.13 Chemical Equilibrium
12.14 Altering an Equilibrium

Oxidation and Reduction

12.15 Electrolysis
12.16 Electrochemical cells

13 Organic Chemistry

Carbon Compounds

13.1 Carbon Bonds
13.2 Alkanes
13.3 Petroleum Products

Structures of Organic Molecules

13.4 Structural Formulas
13.5 Isomers
13.6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
13.7 Benzene

Organic Compounds

13.8 Hydrocarbon Groups
13.9 Functional Groups
13.10 Polymers

Chemistry of Life

13.11 Carbohydrates
13.12 Photosynthesis
13.13 Lipids
13.14 Proteins
13.15 Soil Nitrogen
13.16 Nucleic Acids
13.17 Origin of Life

14 Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

The Atmosphere

14.1 Regions of the Atmosphere
14.2 Atmospheric Moisture
14.3 Clouds

Weather

14.4 Atmospheric Energy
14.5 The Seasons
14.6 Winds
14.7 General Circulation of the Atmosphere
14.8 Middle-Latitude Weather Systems

Climate

14.9 Tropical Climates
14.10 Middle- and High-Latitude Climates
14.11 Climatic Changes
14.12 Origins of Climatic Change

The Hydrosphere

14.13 Ocean Basins
14.14 Ocean Currents

15 The Rock Cycle

Rocks

15.1 Composition of the Crust
15.2 Minerals
15.3 Igneous Rocks
15.4 Sedimentary Rocks
15.5 Metamorphic Rocks

Within the Earth

15.6 Earthquakes
15.7 Structure of the Earth
15.8 The Earth's Interior
15.9 Geomagnetism

Erosion

15.10 Weathering
15.11 Stream Erosion
15.12 Glaciers
15.13 Groundwater
15.14 Sedimentation

Vulcanism

15.15 Volcanoes
15.16 Intrusive Rocks
15.17 The Rock Cycles

16 The Evolving Earth

Tectonic Movement

16.1 Types of Movement
16.2 Mountain Building
16.3 Continental Drift

Plate Tectonics

16.4 Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
16.5 The Ocean Floors
16.6 Ocean-Floor Spreading
16.7 Plate Tectonics

Methods of Historical Geology

16.8 Principles of Uniform Change
16.9 Rock Formations
16.10 Radiometric Dating
16.11 Fossils
16.12 Geologic Time

Earth History

16.13 Precambrian Time
16.14 The Paleozoic Era
16.15 Coal and Petroleum
16.16 The Mesozoic Era
16.17 The Cenozoic Era
16.18 Human History

17 The Solar System

The Family of the Sun

17.1 The Solar System
17.2 Comets
17.3 Meteors

The Inner Planets

17.4 Mercury
17.5 Venus
17.6 Mars
17.7 Is There Life On Mars?
17.8 Asteroids

The Outer Planets

17.9 Jupiter
17.10 Saturn
17.11 Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

The Moon

17.12 Phases
17.13 Eclipses
17.14 Lunar Surface and Interior
17.15 Evolution of the Lunar Landscape
17.16 Origin of the Moon

18 The Stars

Tools of Astronomy

18.1 The Telescope
18.2 The Spectrometer
18.3 Spectrum Analysis

The Sun

18.4 Properties of the Sun
18.5 The Aurora
18.6 Sunspots
18.7 Solar Energy

The Stars

18.8 Stellar Distances
18.9 Variable Stars
18.10 Stellar Motions
18.11 Stellar Properties

Life Histories of the Stars

18.12 H-R Diagrams
18.13 Stellar Evolution
18.14 Supernovas
18.15 Pulsars
18.16 Black Holes

19 The Universe

Galaxies

19.1 The Milky Way
19.2 Stellar Populations
19.3 Radio Astronomy
19.4 Galaxies
19.5 Cosmic Rays

The Expanding Universe

19.6 Red Shifts
19.7 Quasars

Evolution of the Universe

19.8 Dating the Universe
19.9 After the Big Bang
19.10 Origin of the Solar System

Extraterrestrial Life

19.11 Extrasolar Planets
19.12 Interstellar Travel
19.13 Interstellar Communication

Math Refresher

The Elements

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises



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