Like having a private coach at their elbows, this introduction to algebra-based physics involves readers actively in a guided learn-by-doing process-sensing when they need a very patient exposition and when they need only minimal reinforcement, when they need to focus on concepts and when they need an opportunity to practice their quantitative skills. At the heart of the volume are worked examples in a unique, two-column format that focuses on the basic strategies and step-by-step thought processes involved in problem solving-with an emphasis on the relationship between the physical concepts and their mathematical expression. Color-coded drawings help readers visualize physics problems, and companion photographs show the same principle at work in different physical contexts, or juxtapose situations in which contrasting principles are at work. Real-world physics applications abound. Covers the full spectrum of topics in Mechanics, Thermal Physics, Electromagnetism, Light and Optics, and Modern Physics. For anyone needing an introduction to, or refresher of, algebra-based physics.
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Chapter Summary, Problem Solving Summary, Conceptual Questions, and Problems. Volume 1 includes chapters 1-18, Volume 2 includes chapters 19-32.)
Applications in the Text.
Preface to the Instructor.
Preface to the Student.
Guide to Features of the Text.
2. One-Dimensional Kinematics.
Physics and the Laws of Nature. Units of Length, Mass, and Time. Dimensional Analysis. Significant Figures. Converting Units. Order-of-Magnitude Calculations. Problem Solving in Physics.
Position, Distance, and Displacement. Average Speed and Velocity. Instantaneous Velocity. Acceleration. Motion with Constant Acceleration. Applications of the Equations of Motion. Freely Falling Objects. 3. Vectors in Physics.
Scalars versus Vectors. The Components of a Vector. Adding and Subtracting Vectors. Unit Vectors. Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors. Relative Motion. 4. Two-Dimensional Kinematics.
Motion in Two Dimensions. Projectile Motion: Basic Equations. Zero Launch Angle. General Launch Angle. Projectile Motion: Key Characteristics. 5. Newton's Laws of Motion.
Force and Mass. Newton's First Law of Motion. Newton's Second Law of Motion. Newton's Third Law of Motion. The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions. Weight. Normal Forces. 6. Applications of Newton's Laws.
Frictional Forces. Strings and Springs. Translational Equilibrium. Connected Objects. Circular Motion. 7. Work and Kinetic Energy.
Work Done by a Constant Force. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem. Work Done by a Variable Force. Power. 8. Potential Energy and Conservative Forces.
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces. Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces. Conservation of Mechanical Energy. Work Done by Nonconservative Forces. Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials. 9. Linear Momentum and Collisions.
Linear Momentum. Momentum and Newton's Second Law. Impulse. Conservation of Linear Momentum. Inelastic Collisions. Elastic Collisions. Center of Mass. Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion. 10. Rotational Kinematics and Energy.
Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration. Rotational Kinematics. Connections between Linear and Rotational Quantities. Rolling Motion. Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia. Conservation of Energy. 11. Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium.
Torque. Torque and Angular Acceleration. Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium. Center of Mass and Balance. Dynamic Applications of Torque. Angular Momentum. Conservation of Angular Momentum. Rotational Work. The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion. 12. Gravity.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. Gravitation Attraction of Spherical Bodies. Kepler's Law of Orbital Motion. Gravitational Potential Energy. Energy Conservation. Tides. 13. Oscillations about Equilibrium.
Periodic Motion. Simple Harmonic Motion. Connections between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion. The Period of a Mass on a Spring. Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion. The Pendulum. Damped Oscillations. Driven Oscillations and Resonance. 14. Waves and Sound.
Types of Waves. Waves on a String. Harmonic Wave Functions. Sound Waves. Sound Intensity. The Doppler Effect. Superposition and Interference. Standing Waves. Beats. 15. Fluids.
16. Temperature and Heat.
Density. Pressure. Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth. Archimedes' Principle and Buoyancy. Applications of Archimedes' Principle. Fluid Flow and Continuity. Bernoulli's Equation. Applications of Bernoulli's Equation. Viscosity and Surface Tension.
II. THERMAL PHYSICS.
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. Temperature Scales. Thermal Expansion. Heat and Mechanical Work. Specific Heats. Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. 17. Phases and Phase Changes.
Ideal Gases. Kinetic Theory. Solids and Elastic Deformation. Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation. Latent Heats. Phase Changes and Energy Conservation. 18. The Laws of Thermodynamics.
19. Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields.
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Thermal Processes. Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle. Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps. Entropy. Order, Disorder, and Entropy. The Third Law of Thermodynamics.
Electric Charge. Insulators and Conductors. Coulomb's Law. The Electric Field. Electric Field Lines. Shielding and Charging by Induction. Electric Flux and Gauss's Law. 20. Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy.
Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential. Energy Conservation. The Electric Potential of Point Charges. Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field. Capacitors and Dielectrics. Electrical Energy Storage. 21. Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits.
Electric Current. Resistance and Ohm's Law. Energy and Power in Electric Circuits. Resistors in Series and Parallel. Kirchhoff's Rules. Circuits Containing Capacitors. RC Circuits. Ammeters and Voltmeters. 22. Magnetism.
The Magnetic Field. The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges. The Motion of Charge Particles in a Magnetic Field. The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire. Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque. Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampère's Law. Current Loops and Solenoids. 23. Magnetic Flux and Faraday's Law of Induction.
Induced EMF. Magnetic Flux. Faraday's Law of Induction. Lenz'e Law. Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy. Generators and Motors. Inductance. RL Circuits. Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field. Transformers. 24. Alternating-Current Circuits.
25. Electromagnetic Waves.
Alternating Voltages and Currents. Capacitors in AC Circuits. RC Circuits. Resonance in Electrical Circuits.
IV. LIGHT AND OPTICS.
The Production of Electromagnetic Waves. The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves. The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves. Polarization. 26. Geometrical Optics.
The Reflection of Light. Forming Images with a Plan Mirror. Spherical Mirrors. Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation. The Refraction of Light. Ray Tracing for Lenses. The Thin-Lens Equation. Dispersion and the Rainbow. 27. Optical Instruments.
The Human Eye and the Camera. Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics. The Magnifying Glass. The Compound Microscope. Telescopes. Len Aberrations. 28. Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction.
Superposition and Interference. Young's Tow-Slit Experiment. Interference in Reflected Waves. Diffraction. Resolution. Diffraction Gratings.
V. MODERN PHYSICS.
The Postulates of Special Relativity. The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation. The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction. The Relativistic Addition of Velocities. Relativistic Momentum and Mass. Relativistic Energy and E = mc2. The Relativistic Universe. General Relativity. 30. Quantum Physics.
Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis of Quantized Energy. Photons and the Photoelectric Effect. The Mass and Momentum of a Photon. Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect. The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Quantum Tunneling. 31. Atoms, Molecules, and Solids.
Early Models of the Atom. The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen. Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom. De Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model. The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom. Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table. Atomic Radiation. 32. Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation.
Appendix A: Basic Mathematical Tools.
The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei. Radioactivity. Half-life and Radioactive Dating. Nuclear Binding Energy. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear Fusion. Practical Application of Nuclear Physics. Elementary Particles. Unified Forces and Cosmology.
Mathematical Notation. Trigonometry. Algebra. Mathematical Expansions. Appendix B: Typical Values. Appendix C: Planetary Data. Appendix D: Periodic Table of the Elements. Appendix E: Properties of Selected Isotopes. Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions. Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems. Index.
To the Instructor Teaching introductory algebra-based physics can be a most challenging--and rewarding--experience. Students enter the course with a wide range of backgrounds, interests, and skills and we, the instructors, strive not only to convey the basic concepts and fundamental laws of physics, but also to give students an appreciation of its relevance and appeal. I wrote this book to help with that task. It incorporates a number of unique and innovative pedagogical features that evolved from years of teaching experience. The materials have been tested extensively in the classroom and in focus groups, and refined based on comments from students and teachers who used the first edition. The enthusiastic response I received from users of the first edition was both flattering and motivating. The second edition has been enhanced and enriched in response to this feedback. Learning Tools in the Text A key goal of this text is to help students make the connection between a conceptual understanding of physics and the various skills necessary to solve quantitative problems. One of the chief means to that end is the replacement of traditional "textbook". Examples with an integrated suite of learning tools: fully workedExamples with Solutions in Two-Column Format, Active Examples, Conceptual Checkpoints,andExercises.Each of these tools performs some of the functions of a standard Example, but each is specialized to meet the needs of students at a particular point in the development of a chapter. These needs are not always the same. Sometimes students require a detailed explanation of how to tackle a particular problem; at other times, they must be allowed to take an active role and work out the details for themselves. Sometimes it is important for them to perform calculations and concentrate on numerical precision; at other times it is more fruitful for them to explore a key idea in a conceptual context. And sometimes, all that is required is practice using a new equation or definition. A good teacher can sense when students need a patient, step-by-step exposition and when they need only minimal reinforcement; when they need to focus on concepts and when they need an opportunity to practice their quantitative skills. This text attempts to emulate the teaching style of successful instructors by providing the right tool at the right time and place. Worked Examples with Solutions in Two-Column Format Examplesmodel the most complete and detailed method of solving a particular type of problem. The Examples in this text are presented in a format that focuses on the basic strategies and thought processes involved in problem solving. The aim of this approach is to help students first visualize the situation, devise astrategyto be followed, and then implement a clearstep-by-step solutionto the problem. This focus on the intimate relationship between conceptual insights and problem-solving techniques encourages students to view the ability to solve problems as a logical outgrowth of conceptual understanding rather than a kind of parlor trick. Each Example has the same basic structure: Picture the Problem.This first step discusses how the physical situation can be represented visually and what such a representation can tell us about how to analyze and solve the problem. At this step, always accompanied by a figure, we set up a coordinate system where appropriate, label important quantities, and indicate which values are known. ThePicture the Problemsteps have been enhanced in the second edition to make them more instructive. Strategy.Closely linked with this visualization process is the formulation of aStrategyto be followed in solving the problem. The strategy addresses the commonly asked question, "How do I get started?" by providing a clear overview of the problem and helping students to