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Physics

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131536319

ISBN10:
0131536311
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
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Summary

Walker uses an integrated "suite" of tools, worked Examples, Active Examples, and Conceptual Checkpoints, to make conceptual understanding an integral part of solving quantitative problems. The pedagogy and approach are based on over 20 years of teaching and reflect the results of physics education research.

Table of Contents

Applications in the Text xxiii
Preface: To the Instructor xxvii
Preface: To the Student xli
Guide to Features of the Text xlii
Introduction to Physics
1(16)
Physics and the Laws of Nature
2(1)
Units of Length, Mass, and Time
2(2)
Dimensional Analysis
4(1)
Significant Figures
5(3)
Converting Units
8(2)
Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
10(1)
Scalars and Vectors
11(1)
Problem Solving in Physics
11(6)
Chapter Summary
13(1)
Conceptual Questions
14(1)
Conceptual Exercises
14(1)
Problems
14(3)
PART I MECHANICS
One-Dimensional Kinematics
17(38)
Position, Distance, and Displacement
18(1)
Average Speed and Velocity
19(4)
Instantaneous Velocity
23(2)
Acceleration
25(4)
Motion with Constant Acceleration
29(6)
Applications of the Equations of Motion
35(2)
Freely Falling Objects
37(18)
Chapter Summary
43(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
45(1)
Conceptual Questions
46(1)
Conceptual Exercises
46(1)
Problems
47(8)
Vectors in Physics
55(24)
Scalars Versus Vectors
56(1)
The Components of a Vector
56(5)
Adding and Subtracting Vectors
61(3)
Unit Vectors
64(1)
Position, Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
65(4)
Relative Motion
69(10)
Chapter Summary
72(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
73(1)
Conceptual Questions
73(1)
Conceptual Exercises
74(1)
Problems
74(5)
Two-Dimensional Kinematics
79(28)
Motion in Two Dimensions
80(3)
Projectile Motion: Basic Equations
83(1)
Zero Launch Angle
84(5)
General Launch Angle
89(4)
Projectile Motion: Key Characteristics
93(14)
Chapter Summary
97(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
99(1)
Conceptual Questions
99(1)
Conceptual Exercises
100(1)
Problems
101(6)
Newton's Laws of Motion
107(34)
Force and Mass
108(1)
Newton's First Law of Motion
108(2)
Newton's Second Law of Motion
110(8)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
118(3)
The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions
121(3)
Weight
124(4)
Normal Forces
128(13)
Chapter Summary
132(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
133(1)
Conceptual Questions
133(2)
Conceptual Exercises
135(1)
Problems
136(5)
Applications of Newton's Laws
141(38)
Frictional Forces
142(8)
Strings and Springs
150(4)
Translational Equilibrium
154(4)
Connected Objects
158(4)
Circular Motion
162(17)
Chapter Summary
167(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
168(1)
Conceptual Questions
168(1)
Conceptual Exercises
169(1)
Problems
170(9)
Work and Kinetic Energy
179(25)
Work Done by a Constant Force
180(6)
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem
186(4)
Work Done by a Variable Force
190(5)
Power
195(9)
Chapter Summary
197(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
198(1)
Conceptual Questions
199(1)
Conceptual Exercises
199(1)
Problems
200(4)
Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
204(36)
Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
205(3)
Potential Energy and the Work Done by Conservative Forces
208(6)
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
214(8)
Work Done by Nonconservative Forces
222(5)
Potential Energy Curves and Equipotentials
227(13)
Chapter Summary
230(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
231(1)
Conceptual Questions
231(1)
Conceptual Exercises
232(1)
Problems
233(7)
Linear Momentum and Collisions
240(41)
Linear Momentum
241(2)
Momentum and Newton's Second Law
243(1)
Impulse
244(4)
Conservation of Linear Momentum
248(5)
Inelastic Collisions
253(6)
Elastic Collisions
259(5)
Center of Mass
264(5)
Systems with Changing Mass: Rocket Propulsion
269(12)
Chapter Summary
271(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
273(1)
Conceptual Questions
273(1)
Conceptual Exercises
274(1)
Problems
275(6)
Rotational Kinematics and Energy
281(34)
Angular Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
282(4)
Rotational Kinematics
286(3)
Connections Between Linear and Rotational Quantities
289(5)
Rolling Motion
294(1)
Rotational Kinetic Energy and the Moment of Inertia
295(4)
Conservation of Energy
299(16)
Chapter Summary
304(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
306(1)
Conceptual Questions
307(1)
Conceptual Exercises
307(1)
Problems
308(7)
Rotational Dynamics and Static Equilibrium
315(43)
Torque
316(3)
Torque and Angular Acceleration
319(4)
Zero Torque and Static Equilibrium
323(7)
Center of Mass and Balance
330(3)
Dynamic Applications of Torque
333(2)
Angular Momentum
335(3)
Conservation of Angular Momentum
338(5)
Rotational Work and Power
343(1)
The Vector Nature of Rotational Motion
344(14)
Chapter Summary
346(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
348(1)
Conceptual Questions
348(1)
Conceptual Exercises
348(2)
Problems
350(8)
Gravity
358(36)
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
359(3)
Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies
362(5)
Kepler's Laws of Orbital Motion
367(7)
Gravitational Potential Energy
374(3)
Energy Conservation
377(7)
Tides
384(10)
Chapter Summary
386(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
388(1)
Conceptual Questions
388(1)
Conceptual Exercises
388(1)
Problems
389(5)
Oscillations About Equilibrium
394(36)
Periodic Motion
395(1)
Simple Harmonic Motion
396(3)
Connections Between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion
399(6)
The Period of a Mass on a Spring
405(4)
Energy Conservation in Oscillatory Motion
409(3)
The Pendulum
412(6)
Damped Oscillations
418(1)
Driven Oscillations and Resonance
419(11)
Chapter Summary
421(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
423(1)
Conceptual Questions
423(1)
Conceptual Exercises
424(1)
Problems
425(5)
Waves and Sound
430(46)
Types of Waves
431(2)
Waves on a String
433(3)
Harmonic Wave Functions
436(1)
Sound Waves
437(4)
Sound Intensity
441(5)
The Doppler Effect
446(6)
Superposition and Interference
452(3)
Standing Waves
455(8)
Beats
463(13)
Chapter Summary
465(3)
Problem-Solving Summary
468(1)
Conceptual Questions
468(1)
Conceptual Exercises
468(1)
Problems
469(7)
Fluids
476(38)
Density
477(1)
Pressure
477(4)
Static Equilibrium in Fluids: Pressure and Depth
481(5)
Archimedes' Principle and Buoyancy
486(2)
Applications of Archimedes' Principle
488(5)
Fluid Flow and Continuity
493(2)
Bernoulli's Equation
495(3)
Applications of Bernoulli's Equation
498(3)
Viscosity and Surface Tension
501(13)
Chapter Summary
504(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
506(1)
Conceptual Questions
506(1)
Conceptual Exercises
507(1)
Problems
508(6)
PART II THERMAL PHYSICS
Temperature and Heat
514(34)
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
515(1)
Temperature Scales
516(4)
Thermal Expansion
520(6)
Heat and Mechanical Work
526(2)
Specific Heats
528(3)
Conduction, Convection, and Radiation
531(17)
Chapter Summary
539(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
541(1)
Conceptual Questions
541(1)
Conceptual Exercises
542(1)
Problems
543(5)
Phases and Phase Changes
548(37)
Ideal Gases
549(6)
Kinetic Theory
555(5)
Solids and Elastic Deformation
560(5)
Phase Equilibrium and Evaporation
565(6)
Latent Heats
571(3)
Phase Changes and Energy Conservation
574(11)
Chapter Summary
576(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
578(1)
Conceptual Questions
578(1)
Conceptual Exercises
579(1)
Problems
579(6)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
585(40)
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
586(1)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
586(2)
Thermal Processes
588(8)
Specific Heats for an Ideal Gas: Constant Pressure, Constant Volume
596(4)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
600(1)
Heat Engines and the Carnot Cycle
600(4)
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
604(4)
Entropy
608(4)
Order, Disorder, and Entropy
612(2)
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
614(11)
Chapter Summary
615(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
617(1)
Conceptual Questions
617(1)
Conceptual Exercises
618(1)
Problems
619(6)
PART III ELECTROMAGNETISM
Electric Charges, Forces, and Fields
625(37)
Electric Charge
626(3)
Insulators and Conductors
629(1)
Coulomb's Law
630(7)
The Electric Field
637(6)
Electric Field Lines
643(3)
Shielding and Charging by Induction
646(3)
Electric Flux and Gauss's Law
649(13)
Chapter Summary
653(1)
Problem-Solving Summary
654(1)
Conceptual Questions
655(1)
Conceptual Exercises
655(2)
Problems
657(5)
Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy
662(33)
Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential
663(3)
Energy Conservation
666(3)
The Electric Potential of Point Charges
669(4)
Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field
673(4)
Capacitors and Dielectrics
677(6)
Electrical Energy Storage
683(12)
Chapter Summary
685(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
687(1)
Conceptual Questions
687(1)
Conceptual Exercises
688(1)
Problems
689(6)
Electric Current and Direct-Current Circuits
695(37)
Electric Current
696(3)
Resistance and Ohm's Law
699(3)
Energy and Power in Electric Circuits
702(3)
Resistors in Series and Parallel
705(6)
Kirchhoff's Rules
711(3)
Circuits Containing Capacitors
714(3)
RC Circuits
717(3)
Ammeters and Voltmeters
720(12)
Chapter Summary
721(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
723(1)
Conceptual Questions
724(1)
Conceptual Exercises
724(2)
Problems
726(6)
Magnetism
732(36)
The Magnetic Field
733(2)
The Magnetic Force on Moving Charges
735(4)
The Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field
739(5)
The Magnetic Force Exerted on a Current-Carrying Wire
744(2)
Loops of Current and Magnetic Torque
746(2)
Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, and Ampere's Law
748(4)
Current Loops and Solenoids
752(3)
Magnetism in Matter
755(13)
Chapter Summary
757(3)
Problem-Solving Summary
760(1)
Conceptual Questions
760(1)
Conceptual Exercises
760(2)
Problems
762(6)
Magnetic Flux and Faraday's Law of Induction
768(35)
Induced Electromotive Force
769(1)
Magnetic Flux
770(2)
Faraday's Law of Induction
772(3)
Lenz's Law
775(3)
Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy
778(3)
Generators and Motors
781(3)
Inductance
784(3)
RL Circuits
787(1)
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
788(2)
Transformers
790(13)
Chapter Summary
793(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
795(1)
Conceptual Questions
795(1)
Conceptual Exercises
796(1)
Problems
797(6)
Alternating-Current Circuits
803(34)
Alternating Voltages and Currents
804(5)
Capacitors in AC Circuits
809(3)
RC Circuits
812(5)
Inductors in AC Circuits
817(3)
RLC Circuits
820(4)
Resonance in Electrical Circuits
824(13)
Chapter Summary
829(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
831(1)
Conceptual Questions
831(1)
Conceptual Exercises
831(1)
Problems
832(5)
PART IV LIGHT AND OPTICS
Electromagnetic Waves
837(33)
The Production of Electromagnetic Waves
838(3)
The Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves
841(4)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
845(4)
Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Waves
849(4)
Polarization
853(17)
Chapter Summary
860(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
862(1)
Conceptual Questions
863(1)
Conceptual Exercises
863(1)
Problems
864(6)
Geometrical Optics
870(39)
The Reflection of Light
871(1)
Forming Images with a Plane Mirror
872(3)
Spherical Mirrors
875(2)
Ray Tracing and the Mirror Equation
877(7)
The Refraction of Light
884(7)
Ray Tracing for Lenses
891(3)
The Thin-Lens Equation
894(2)
Dispersion and the Rainbow
896(13)
Chapter Summary
898(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
900(1)
Conceptual Questions
900(1)
Conceptual Exercises
901(1)
Problems
902(7)
Optical Instruments
909(28)
The Human Eye and the Camera
910(3)
Lenses in Combination and Corrective Optics
913(6)
The Magnifying Glass
919(4)
The Compound Microscope
923(1)
Telescopes
924(3)
Lens Aberrations
927(10)
Chapter Summary
928(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
930(1)
Conceptual Questions
930(1)
Conceptual Exercises
930(1)
Problems
931(6)
Physical Optics: Interference and Diffraction
937(33)
Superposition and Interference
938(2)
Young's Two-Slit Experiment
940(4)
Interference in Reflected Waves
944(6)
Diffraction
950(4)
Resolution
954(3)
Diffraction Gratings
957(13)
Chapter Summary
961(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
963(1)
Conceptual Questions
963(1)
Conceptual Exercises
964(1)
Problems
964(6)
PART V MODERN PHYSICS
Relativity
970(33)
The Postulates of Special Relativity
971(1)
The Relativity of Time and Time Dilation
972(6)
The Relativity of Length and Length Contraction
978(3)
The Relativistic Addition of Velocities
981(2)
Relativistic Momentum
983(3)
Relativistic Energy and E = mc2
986(5)
The Relativistic Universe
991(1)
General Relativity
991(12)
Chapter Summary
995(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
997(1)
Conceptual Questions
998(1)
Conceptual Exercises
998(1)
Problems
998(5)
Quantum Physics
1003(31)
Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesis of Quantized Energy
1004(3)
Photons and the Photoelectric Effect
1007(6)
The Mass and Momentum of a Photon
1013(1)
Photon Scattering and the Compton Effect
1014(3)
The de Broglie Hypothesis and Wave-Particle Duality
1017(4)
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
1021(4)
Quantum Tunneling
1025(9)
Chapter Summary
1026(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
1028(1)
Conceptual Questions
1028(1)
Conceptual Exercises
1029(1)
Problems
1030(4)
Atomic Physics
1034(37)
Early Models of the Atom
1035(1)
The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen
1036(3)
Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom
1039(7)
de Broglie Waves and the Bohr Model
1046(1)
The Quantum Mechanical Hydrogen Atom
1047(3)
Multielectron Atoms and the Periodic Table
1050(5)
Atomic Radiation
1055(16)
Chapter Summary
1064(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
1066(1)
Conceptual Questions
1067(1)
Conceptual Exercises
1067(1)
Problems
1067(4)
Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Radiation
1071
The Constituents and Structure of Nuclei
1072(4)
Radioactivity
1076(7)
Half-Life and Radioactive Dating
1083(6)
Nuclear Binding Energy
1089(1)
Nuclear Fission
1090(3)
Nuclear Fusion
1093(2)
Practical Applications of Nuclear Physics
1095(4)
Elementary Particles
1099(3)
Unified Forces and Cosmology
1102
Chapter Summary
1103(2)
Problem-Solving Summary
1105(1)
Conceptual Questions
1106(1)
Conceptual Exercises
1106(1)
Problems
1107
Appendices
Ap pendix A. Basic Mathematical Tools
1(10)
Appendix B. Typical Values
11(1)
Appendix C. Planetary Data
12(1)
Appendix D. Elements of Electrical Circuits
13(1)
Appendix E. Periodic Table of the Elements
14(1)
Appendix F. Properties of Selected Isotopes
15
Answers to Your Turn Problems 1(4)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Questions 5(8)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Conceptual Exercises 13(10)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 23
Photo Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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