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Physics: Principles with Applications with MasteringPhysics

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780136119715

ISBN10:
0136119719
Format:
Package
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Addison Wesley
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Summary

For algebra-based introductory physics courses taken primarily by pre-med, agricultural, technology, and architectural students. This best-selling algebra-based physics text has been widely known for its carefully crafted exposition, strong biological applications, and high degree of accuracy and precision. The Fifth Edition maintains these strengths and brings a conceptual emphasis and real-world flavor to the examples, problems, and art program. In addition, the new edition features an unparalleled suite of media and on-line resources to enhance the physics classroom.

Table of Contents

Preface xii
Notes to Student and Instructors on the Format xxii
Introduction
1(18)
Science and creativity
2(2)
Physics and its relation to other fields
4(1)
Models, theories, and laws
5(1)
Measurement and uncertainty
6(2)
Units, standards, and the SI system
8(3)
Converting units
11(1)
Order of magnitude: rapid estimating
12(3)
Mathematics in physics
15(4)
Summary
15(1)
Questions
16(1)
Problems
16(1)
General Problems
17(2)
Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension
19(29)
Reference frames and displacement
20(1)
Average velocity
21(2)
Instantaneous velocity
23(1)
Acceleration
24(2)
Motion at constant acceleration
26(3)
Solving problems
29(3)
Problems solving
29(3)
Falling objects
32(16)
Graphical analysis of linear motion
38(3)
Summary
41(1)
Questions
41(1)
Problems
42(4)
General Problems
46(2)
Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors
48(29)
Vectors and scalars
48(1)
Addition of vectors---graphical methods
49(2)
Subtraction of vectors, and multiplication of a vector by a scalar
51(1)
Adding vectors by components
52(5)
Problem solving: adding vectors
56(1)
Projectile motion
57(3)
Solving problems involving projectile motion
60(6)
Problem solving: projectile motion
60(6)
Projectile motion is parabolic
66(1)
Relative velocity
66(11)
Summary
69(1)
Questions
70(1)
Problems
70(5)
General Problems
75(2)
Motion and force: Dynamics
77(35)
Force
77(1)
Newton's first law of motion
78(2)
Mass
80(1)
Newton's second law of motion
80(3)
Newton's third law of motion
83(4)
Weight---the force of gravity; and the normal force
87(2)
Solving problems with Newton's laws: vector forces and free-body diagrams
89(7)
Problem solving: Newton's laws; Free-body diagrams
91(5)
Applications involving friction, inclines
96(6)
Problem solving---A general approach
102(10)
Problem solving: in general
102(1)
Summary
103(1)
Questions
103(1)
Problems
104(6)
General Problems
110(2)
Circular Motion; Gravitation
112(33)
Kinematics of uniform circular motion
112(3)
Dynamics of uniform circular motion
115(4)
A car rounding a curve
119(3)
Nonuniform circular motion
122(1)
Centrifugation
123(1)
Newton's law of universal gravitation
124(3)
Gravity near the Earth's surface; geophysical applications
127(2)
Statellites and ``weightlessness''
129(4)
Kepler's laws and Newton's synthesis
133(4)
Types of forces in nature
137(8)
Problem solving: uniform circular motion and gravity
137(1)
Summary
138(1)
Questions
138(1)
Problems
139(4)
General Problems
143(2)
Work and Energy
145(35)
Work done by a constant force
146(4)
Problem solving: work
149(1)
Work done by a varying force
150(1)
Kinetic energy, and the work-energy principle
150(3)
Potential energy
153(4)
Conservative and nonconservative forces
157(1)
Mechanical energy and its conservation
158(1)
Problem solving using conservation of mechanical energy
159(7)
Other forms of energy; energy transformations and the law of conservation of energy
166(1)
Energy conservation with dissipative forces: solving problems
167(2)
Problems solving: conservation of energy
169(1)
Power
169(11)
Summary
172(1)
Questions
172(2)
Problems
174(4)
General Problems
178(2)
Linear Momentum
180(29)
Momentum and its relation to force
180(2)
Conservation of momentum
182(3)
Collision and impulse
185(2)
Conservation of energy and momentum in collisions
187(1)
Elastic collisions in one dimension---solving problems using energy and momentum conservation
188(2)
Inelastic collisions
190(2)
Collisions in two or three dimensions
192(2)
Problem solving: momentum conservation and collisions
194(1)
Center of mass (CM)
194(3)
CM for the human body
197(2)
Center of mass and translationl motion
199(10)
Summary
201(1)
Questions
201(1)
Problems
202(5)
General Problems
207(2)
Rotational Motion
209(32)
Angular quantities
209(5)
Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated rotational motion
214(1)
Rolling motion
215(2)
Torque
217(3)
Rotational dynamics; torque and rotational inertia
220(2)
Solving problems in rotational dynamics
222(3)
Problem solving: rotational motion
223(2)
Rotational kinetic energy
225(3)
Angular momentum and its conservation
228(2)
Vector nature of angular quantities
230(11)
Summary
232(1)
Questions
233(1)
Problems
234(5)
General Problems
239(2)
Bodies in Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture
241(34)
Statics-the study of forces in equilibrium
241(2)
The conditions for equilibrium
243(2)
Solving statics problems
245(5)
Problem solving: statics
245(5)
Applications to muscles and joints
250(2)
Stability and balance
252(1)
Elasticity; stress and strain
253(5)
Fracture
258(3)
Spanning a space: arches and domes
261(14)
Summary
264(1)
Questions
265(1)
Problems
266(6)
General Problems
272(3)
Fluids
275(34)
Density and specific gravity
275(1)
Pressure in fluids
276(2)
Atomospheric pressure and gauge pressure
278(1)
Pascal's principle
279(1)
Measurement of pressure; gauges and the barometer
280(2)
Buoyancy and Archiemedes' principle
282(5)
Fluids in motion; flow rate and the equation of continuity
287(2)
Bernoulli's equation
289(2)
Applications of Bernoulli's principle: from Torricelli to sailboards, airfoils, and TIA
291(3)
Viscosity
294(1)
Flow in tubes: Poiseuille's equation, blood flow
295(1)
Surface tension and capillarity
296(4)
Pumps; the heart and blood pressure
300(9)
Summary
302(1)
Questions
302(2)
Problems
304(3)
General Problems
307(2)
Vibrations and Waves
309(38)
Simple harmonic motion
309(3)
Energy in the simple harmonic oscillator
312(2)
The period and sinusoidal nature of SHM
314(5)
The simple pendulum
319(1)
Damped harmonic motion
320(1)
Forced vibrations; resonance
321(1)
Wave motion
322(4)
Types of waves: transverse and longitudinal
326(3)
Energy transported by waves
329(1)
Intensity related to amplitude and frequency
330(1)
Reflection and interference of waves
331(3)
Standing waves; resonance
334(3)
Refraction and diffraction
337(10)
Summary
340(1)
Questions
341(1)
Problems
342(3)
General Problems
345(2)
Sound
347(34)
Characteristics of sound
347(3)
Intensity of sound: decibels
350(2)
Amplitude related to intensity
352(1)
The ear and its response; loudness
353(2)
Sources of sound: vibrating strings and air columns
355(6)
Quality of sound, and noise
361(1)
Interface of sound waves: beats
362(3)
Doppler effect
365(4)
Shock waves and the sonic boom
369(1)
Applications; ultrasound and medical imaging
370(11)
Summary
374(1)
Questions
375(1)
Problems
376(3)
General Problems
379(2)
Temperature and Kinetic Theory
381(36)
Atomic theory of matter
381(3)
Temperature and thermometers
384(3)
Thermal equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics
387(1)
Thermal expansion
388(2)
Anomalous behavior of water below 4C
390(1)
Thermal stresses
391(1)
The gas laws and absolute temperature
392(2)
The ideal gas law
394(2)
Problem solving with the ideal gas law
396(1)
Ideal gas law in terms of molecules: Avogadro's number
397(2)
Kinetic theory and the molecular interpretation of temperature
399(3)
Distribution of molecular speeds
402(1)
Real gases and changes of phase
403(2)
Vapor pressure and humidity
405(3)
Diffusion
408(9)
Summary
411(1)
Questions
411(1)
Problems
412(4)
General Problems
416(1)
Heat
417(26)
Heat as energy transfer
417(2)
Distinction between temperature, heat, and internal energy
419(1)
Internal energy of an ideal gas
420(1)
Specific heat
420(2)
Calorimetry---solving problems
422(2)
Latent heat
424(4)
Problem solving: calorimetry
427(1)
Heat transfer: conduction
428(3)
Heat transfer: convection
431(2)
Heat transfer: radition
433(10)
Summary
437(1)
Questions
438(1)
Problems
439(2)
General Problems
441(2)
The Laws of Thermodynamics
443(33)
The first law of thermodynamics
444(1)
First law of thermodynamics applied to some simple systems
445(4)
Human metabolism and the first law
449(1)
The second law of thermodynamics---introduction
450(1)
Heat engines
451(5)
Refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps
456(2)
Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
458(2)
Order to disorder
460(1)
Unavailability of energy; heat death
461(1)
Evolution and growth; ``Time's arrow''
462(1)
Statistical interpretation of entropy and the second law
463(1)
Energy resources: thermal pollution
464(12)
Problem solving: thermodynamics
470(1)
Summary
470(1)
Questions
471(1)
Problems
471(3)
General Problems
474(2)
Electric Charge and Electric Field
476(26)
Static electricity; electric charge and its conservation
477(1)
Electric charge in the atom
478(1)
Insulators and conductors
479(1)
Induced charge; the elctroscope
479(2)
Coulomb's law
481(2)
Solving problems involving Coulomb's law and vectors
483(3)
The electric field
486(4)
Problem solving: electrostatics
490(1)
Field lines
490(2)
Electric fields and conductors
492(1)
Electric Forces in molecular biology: DNA structure and replication
493(9)
Summary
496(1)
Questions
496(1)
Problems
497(2)
General Problems
499(3)
Electric Potential and Electric Energy; Capacitance
502(25)
Electric potential and potential difference
502(4)
Relation between electric potential and electric field
506(1)
Equipotential lines
507(1)
The electron volt, a unit of energy
508(1)
Electric potential due to point charges
509(2)
Electric dipoles
511(2)
Capacitance
513(1)
Dielectrics
514(2)
Storage of electric energy
516(2)
Cathode ray tube: TV and computer monitors, oscilloscope
518(2)
The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
520(7)
Summary
521(1)
Questions
522(1)
Problems
522(3)
General Problems
525(2)
Electric Currents
527(28)
The electric battery
528(2)
Electric current
530(2)
Ohm's law: resistance and resistors
532(2)
Resistivity
534(3)
Superconductivity
537(1)
Electric power
538(2)
Power in household circuits
540(1)
Alternating current
541(3)
Microscopic view of electric current
544(2)
The nervous system and nerve conduction
546(9)
Summary
549(1)
Questions
550(1)
Problems
551(2)
General Problems
553(2)
DC Circuits
555(33)
Resistors in series and in parallel
556(6)
EMF and terminal voltage
562(2)
Kirchhoff's rules
564(2)
Solving problems with Kirchhoff's rules
566(2)
Problem solving: Kirchhoff's rules
567(1)
EMFs in series and in parallel; charging a battery
568(1)
Circuits containing capacitors in series and in parallel
568(2)
Circuits containing a resistor and a capacitor
570(2)
Heart pacemakers
572(1)
Electric hazards; leakage currents
573(2)
DC ammeters and voltmeters
575(3)
Effects of meter resistance
578(10)
Summary
579(1)
Questions
579(2)
Problems
581(4)
General Problems
585(3)
Magnetism
588(34)
Magnets and magnetic fields
588(3)
Electric currents produce magnetism
591(1)
Force on an electric current in a magnetic field; definition of B
592(2)
Force on an electric charge moving in a magnetic field
594(3)
Magnetic field due to a straight wire
597(1)
Force between two parallel wires
597(2)
Definition of the ampere and the coulomb
599(1)
Ampere's law
599(4)
Torque on a current loop; magnetic moment
603(1)
Applications: galvanometers, motors, loudspeakers
604(2)
The Hall effect
606(1)
Mass spectrometer
607(1)
Ferromagnetism; domains
608(2)
Electromagnets and solenoids
610(1)
Magnetic fields in magnetic materials; hystersis
611(11)
Problem solving: magnetic fields
613(1)
Summary
614(1)
Questions
614(1)
Problems
615(5)
General Problems
620(2)
Electromagnetic Induction and Fraday's Law; AC Circuits
622(38)
Induced EMF
622(2)
Faraday's law of induction; Lenz's law
624(3)
EMF induced in a moving conductor
627(1)
Changing magnetic flux produces an electric field
628(1)
Electric generators
629(2)
Counter EMF and torque; eddy currents
631(2)
Transformers; transmission of power
633(4)
Applications of induction: magnetic microphone, tape recording, computer memory, and the seismograph
637(1)
Inductance
638(2)
Energy stored in a magnetic field
640(1)
LR circuit
641(1)
AC circuits and impedance
642(4)
LRC series AC circuit; problem solving
646(3)
Resonance in AC circuits; oscillators
649(1)
Impedance matching
650(10)
Summary
652(1)
Questions
652(2)
Problems
654(4)
General Problems
658(2)
Electromagnetic Waves
660(23)
Changing electric fields produce magnetic fields; Maxwell's equations
661(1)
Maxwell's fourth equation; displacement current
662(2)
Production of electromagnetic waves
664(2)
Calculation of the speed of electromagnetic waves
666(3)
Light as an electromagnetic wave and the electromagnetic spectrum
669(3)
Measuring the speed of light
672(1)
Energy in EM waves
673(3)
Radio and television
676(7)
Summary
679(1)
Questions
680(1)
Problems
680(2)
General Problems
682(1)
Light: Geometric Optics
683(40)
The ray model of light
683(1)
Reflection; image formation by a plane mirror
684(4)
Formation of images by spherical mirrors
688(8)
Problem solving: spherical mirrors
695(1)
Index of refraction
696(1)
Refraction: Snell's law
696(3)
Total internal reflection; fiber optics
699(3)
Thin lenses; ray tracing
702(4)
The lens equation
706(1)
Problem solving for lenses
707(1)
Problem solving: thin lenses
707(2)
Problem solving for combinations of lenses
709(2)
The lensmaker's equation
711(12)
Summary
715(1)
Questions
716(1)
Problems
717(4)
General Problems
721(2)
The Wave Nature of Light
723(34)
Waves versus particles; Huygens' principle and diffraction
724(1)
Huygens' principle and the law of refraction
725(2)
Interference---Young's double-slit experiment
727(4)
The visible spectrum and dispersion
731(1)
Diffraction by a single slit or disk
732(3)
Diffraction grating
735(3)
The spectrometer and spectroscopy
738(1)
Interference by thin films
739(4)
Michelson interferometer
743(1)
Polarization
744(5)
Scattering of light by the atmosphere
749(8)
Problem solving: interference
750(1)
Summary
751(1)
Questions
752(1)
Problems
752(3)
General Problems
755(2)
Optical Instruments
757(35)
The camera
757(4)
The human eye; corrective lenses
761(4)
The magnifying glass
765(2)
Telescopes
767(3)
Compound microscope
770(2)
Aberrations of lenses and mirrors
772(2)
Limits of resolution; the Rayleigh criterion
774(3)
Resolution of telescopes and microscopes
777(2)
Resolution of the human eye and useful magnification
779(1)
Specialty microscopes and contrast
779(3)
X-rays and X-ray diffraction
782(2)
X-ray imaging and computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)
784(8)
Summary
787(1)
Questions
788(1)
Problems
788(3)
General Problems
791(1)
Special Theory of Relativity
792(31)
Galilean-Newtonian relativity
793(3)
The Michelson-Morley experiment
796(3)
Postulates of the special theory of relativity
799(2)
Simultaneity
801(2)
Time dilation and the twin paradox
803(5)
Length contraction
808(2)
Four-dimensional space-time
810(1)
Momentum and mass
811(1)
The ultimate speed
812(1)
E=mc2; mass and energy
813(3)
Relativistic addition of velocities
816(1)
The impact of special relativity
817(6)
Summary
818(1)
Questions
818(1)
Problems
819(2)
General Problems
821(2)
Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom
823(36)
Discovery and properties of the electron
823(3)
Planck's quantum hypothesis
826(3)
Photon theory of light and the photoelectric effect
829(4)
Photon interactions; Compton effect and pair production
833(2)
Wave-particle duality; the principle of complementarity
835(1)
Wave nature of matter
836(2)
Electron microscopes
838(2)
Early models of the atom
840(1)
Atomic spectra: key to the structure of the atom
841(3)
The Bohr model
844(7)
de Broglie's hypothesis applied to atoms
851(8)
Summary
852(1)
Questions
853(1)
Problems
854(3)
General Problems
857(2)
Quantum Mechanics of Atoms
859(28)
Quantum mechanics---a new theory
860(1)
The wave function and its interpretation; the double-slit experiment
861(2)
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
863(4)
Philosophic implications; probability versus determinism
867(1)
Quantum-mechanical view of atoms
868(1)
Quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom; quantum numbers
869(3)
Complex atoms; the exclusion principle
872(2)
The periodic table of elements
874(1)
X-ray spectra and atomic number
875(3)
Fluorescence and phosphorescence
878(1)
Lasers
878(4)
Holography
882(5)
Summary
883(1)
Questions
884(1)
Problems
884(2)
General Problems
886(1)
Molecules and Solids
887(29)
Bonding in molecules
887(3)
Potential-energy diagrams for molecules
890(2)
Weak (van der Waals) bonds
892(3)
Molecular spectra
895(6)
Bonding in solids
901(1)
Band theory of solids
902(3)
Semiconductors and doping
905(2)
Semiconductor diodes
907(2)
Transistors and integrated circuits
909(7)
Summary
911(1)
Questions
912(1)
Problems
912(2)
General Problems
914(2)
Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
916(27)
Structure and properties of the nucleus
916(3)
Binding energy and nuclear forces
919(3)
Radioactivity
922(1)
Alpha decay
923(2)
Beta decay
925(2)
Gamma decay
927(1)
Conservation of nucleon number and other conservation laws
928(1)
Half-life and rate of decay
928(2)
Calculations involving decay rates and half-life
930(2)
Decay series
932(2)
Radioactive dating
934(2)
Stability and tunneling
936(1)
Detection of radiation
937(6)
Summary
939(1)
Questions
939(1)
Problems
940(2)
General Problems
942(1)
Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation
943(30)
Nuclear reactions and the transmutaton of elements
943(4)
Nuclear fission; nuclear reactors
947(6)
Fusion
953(5)
Passage of radiation through matter; radiation damage
958(1)
Measurement of radiation---dosimetry
959(4)
Radiation therapy
963(1)
Tracers and imaging in research and medicine
963(2)
Emission topography
965(7)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
972(1)
Summary
968(1)
Questions
969(1)
Problems
970(2)
General Problems
972(1)
Elementary Particles
973(26)
High-energy particles
974(1)
Particle accelerators
975(4)
Beginnings of elementary particle physics---the Yukawa particle
979(4)
Particles and antiparticles
983(1)
Particle interactions and conservation laws
983(1)
Particle classification
984(2)
Particle stability and resonances
986(1)
Strange particles
987(1)
Quarks
988(3)
The ``standard model'': quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the electroweak theory
991(2)
Grand unified theories
993(6)
Summary
995(1)
Questions
996(1)
Problems
996(2)
General Problems
998(1)
Astrophysics and Cosmology
999(37)
Stars and galaxies
1000(5)
Stellar evolution: the birth and death of stars
1005(7)
General relativity: gravity and the curvature of space
1012(5)
The expanding universe
1017(4)
The big bang and the cosmic microwave background
1021(2)
The standard consmological model: the early history of the universe
1023(4)
The future of the universe?
1027(9)
Summary
1031(1)
Questions
1032(1)
Problems
1033(1)
General Problems
1034(2)
APPENDIX A Mathematical Review 1036(12)
Relationships, proportionality, and equations
1036(1)
Exponents
1037(1)
Powers of 10, or exponential notation
1038(1)
Algebra
1039(4)
The binomal expansion
1043(1)
Plane geometry
1043(1)
Areas and volumes
1044(1)
Trigonometric functions and identities
1045(1)
Logarithms
1046(2)
APPENDIX B Dimensional Analysis 1048(3)
APPENDIX C Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces; Coriolis Effect 1051(4)
APPENDIX D Gauss's Law 1055(5)
APPENDIX E Galilean and Lorentz Transformations 1060(4)
APPENDIX F Selected Isotopes 1064(4)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 1068(13)
Index 1081(14)
Photo Credits 1095


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