Preface 

xii  
Notes to Student and Instructors on the Format 

xxii  


1  (18) 


2  (2) 

Physics and its relation to other fields 


4  (1) 

Models, theories, and laws 


5  (1) 

Measurement and uncertainty 


6  (2) 

Units, standards, and the SI system 


8  (3) 


11  (1) 

Order of magnitude: rapid estimating 


12  (3) 


15  (4) 


15  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (1) 


17  (2) 

Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension 


19  (29) 

Reference frames and displacement 


20  (1) 


21  (2) 


23  (1) 


24  (2) 

Motion at constant acceleration 


26  (3) 


29  (3) 


29  (3) 


32  (16) 

Graphical analysis of linear motion 


38  (3) 


41  (1) 


41  (1) 


42  (4) 


46  (2) 

Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors 


48  (29) 


48  (1) 

Addition of vectorsgraphical methods 


49  (2) 

Subtraction of vectors, and multiplication of a vector by a scalar 


51  (1) 

Adding vectors by components 


52  (5) 

Problem solving: adding vectors 


56  (1) 


57  (3) 

Solving problems involving projectile motion 


60  (6) 

Problem solving: projectile motion 


60  (6) 

Projectile motion is parabolic 


66  (1) 


66  (11) 


69  (1) 


70  (1) 


70  (5) 


75  (2) 

Motion and force: Dynamics 


77  (35) 


77  (1) 

Newton's first law of motion 


78  (2) 


80  (1) 

Newton's second law of motion 


80  (3) 

Newton's third law of motion 


83  (4) 

Weightthe force of gravity; and the normal force 


87  (2) 

Solving problems with Newton's laws: vector forces and freebody diagrams 


89  (7) 

Problem solving: Newton's laws; Freebody diagrams 


91  (5) 

Applications involving friction, inclines 


96  (6) 

Problem solvingA general approach 


102  (10) 

Problem solving: in general 


102  (1) 


103  (1) 


103  (1) 


104  (6) 


110  (2) 

Circular Motion; Gravitation 


112  (33) 

Kinematics of uniform circular motion 


112  (3) 

Dynamics of uniform circular motion 


115  (4) 


119  (3) 

Nonuniform circular motion 


122  (1) 


123  (1) 

Newton's law of universal gravitation 


124  (3) 

Gravity near the Earth's surface; geophysical applications 


127  (2) 

Statellites and ``weightlessness'' 


129  (4) 

Kepler's laws and Newton's synthesis 


133  (4) 

Types of forces in nature 


137  (8) 

Problem solving: uniform circular motion and gravity 


137  (1) 


138  (1) 


138  (1) 


139  (4) 


143  (2) 


145  (35) 

Work done by a constant force 


146  (4) 


149  (1) 

Work done by a varying force 


150  (1) 

Kinetic energy, and the workenergy principle 


150  (3) 


153  (4) 

Conservative and nonconservative forces 


157  (1) 

Mechanical energy and its conservation 


158  (1) 

Problem solving using conservation of mechanical energy 


159  (7) 

Other forms of energy; energy transformations and the law of conservation of energy 


166  (1) 

Energy conservation with dissipative forces: solving problems 


167  (2) 

Problems solving: conservation of energy 


169  (1) 


169  (11) 


172  (1) 


172  (2) 


174  (4) 


178  (2) 


180  (29) 

Momentum and its relation to force 


180  (2) 


182  (3) 


185  (2) 

Conservation of energy and momentum in collisions 


187  (1) 

Elastic collisions in one dimensionsolving problems using energy and momentum conservation 


188  (2) 


190  (2) 

Collisions in two or three dimensions 


192  (2) 

Problem solving: momentum conservation and collisions 


194  (1) 


194  (3) 


197  (2) 

Center of mass and translationl motion 


199  (10) 


201  (1) 


201  (1) 


202  (5) 


207  (2) 


209  (32) 


209  (5) 

Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated rotational motion 


214  (1) 


215  (2) 


217  (3) 

Rotational dynamics; torque and rotational inertia 


220  (2) 

Solving problems in rotational dynamics 


222  (3) 

Problem solving: rotational motion 


223  (2) 

Rotational kinetic energy 


225  (3) 

Angular momentum and its conservation 


228  (2) 

Vector nature of angular quantities 


230  (11) 


232  (1) 


233  (1) 


234  (5) 


239  (2) 

Bodies in Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture 


241  (34) 

Staticsthe study of forces in equilibrium 


241  (2) 

The conditions for equilibrium 


243  (2) 


245  (5) 


245  (5) 

Applications to muscles and joints 


250  (2) 


252  (1) 

Elasticity; stress and strain 


253  (5) 


258  (3) 

Spanning a space: arches and domes 


261  (14) 


264  (1) 


265  (1) 


266  (6) 


272  (3) 


275  (34) 

Density and specific gravity 


275  (1) 


276  (2) 

Atomospheric pressure and gauge pressure 


278  (1) 


279  (1) 

Measurement of pressure; gauges and the barometer 


280  (2) 

Buoyancy and Archiemedes' principle 


282  (5) 

Fluids in motion; flow rate and the equation of continuity 


287  (2) 


289  (2) 

Applications of Bernoulli's principle: from Torricelli to sailboards, airfoils, and TIA 


291  (3) 


294  (1) 

Flow in tubes: Poiseuille's equation, blood flow 


295  (1) 

Surface tension and capillarity 


296  (4) 

Pumps; the heart and blood pressure 


300  (9) 


302  (1) 


302  (2) 


304  (3) 


307  (2) 


309  (38) 


309  (3) 

Energy in the simple harmonic oscillator 


312  (2) 

The period and sinusoidal nature of SHM 


314  (5) 


319  (1) 


320  (1) 

Forced vibrations; resonance 


321  (1) 


322  (4) 

Types of waves: transverse and longitudinal 


326  (3) 

Energy transported by waves 


329  (1) 

Intensity related to amplitude and frequency 


330  (1) 

Reflection and interference of waves 


331  (3) 

Standing waves; resonance 


334  (3) 

Refraction and diffraction 


337  (10) 


340  (1) 


341  (1) 


342  (3) 


345  (2) 


347  (34) 


347  (3) 

Intensity of sound: decibels 


350  (2) 

Amplitude related to intensity 


352  (1) 

The ear and its response; loudness 


353  (2) 

Sources of sound: vibrating strings and air columns 


355  (6) 

Quality of sound, and noise 


361  (1) 

Interface of sound waves: beats 


362  (3) 


365  (4) 

Shock waves and the sonic boom 


369  (1) 

Applications; ultrasound and medical imaging 


370  (11) 


374  (1) 


375  (1) 


376  (3) 


379  (2) 

Temperature and Kinetic Theory 


381  (36) 


381  (3) 

Temperature and thermometers 


384  (3) 

Thermal equilibrium and the zeroth law of thermodynamics 


387  (1) 


388  (2) 

Anomalous behavior of water below 4C 


390  (1) 


391  (1) 

The gas laws and absolute temperature 


392  (2) 


394  (2) 

Problem solving with the ideal gas law 


396  (1) 

Ideal gas law in terms of molecules: Avogadro's number 


397  (2) 

Kinetic theory and the molecular interpretation of temperature 


399  (3) 

Distribution of molecular speeds 


402  (1) 

Real gases and changes of phase 


403  (2) 

Vapor pressure and humidity 


405  (3) 


408  (9) 


411  (1) 


411  (1) 


412  (4) 


416  (1) 


417  (26) 


417  (2) 

Distinction between temperature, heat, and internal energy 


419  (1) 

Internal energy of an ideal gas 


420  (1) 


420  (2) 

Calorimetrysolving problems 


422  (2) 


424  (4) 

Problem solving: calorimetry 


427  (1) 

Heat transfer: conduction 


428  (3) 

Heat transfer: convection 


431  (2) 


433  (10) 


437  (1) 


438  (1) 


439  (2) 


441  (2) 

The Laws of Thermodynamics 


443  (33) 

The first law of thermodynamics 


444  (1) 

First law of thermodynamics applied to some simple systems 


445  (4) 

Human metabolism and the first law 


449  (1) 

The second law of thermodynamicsintroduction 


450  (1) 


451  (5) 

Refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps 


456  (2) 

Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics 


458  (2) 


460  (1) 

Unavailability of energy; heat death 


461  (1) 

Evolution and growth; ``Time's arrow'' 


462  (1) 

Statistical interpretation of entropy and the second law 


463  (1) 

Energy resources: thermal pollution 


464  (12) 

Problem solving: thermodynamics 


470  (1) 


470  (1) 


471  (1) 


471  (3) 


474  (2) 

Electric Charge and Electric Field 


476  (26) 

Static electricity; electric charge and its conservation 


477  (1) 

Electric charge in the atom 


478  (1) 

Insulators and conductors 


479  (1) 

Induced charge; the elctroscope 


479  (2) 


481  (2) 

Solving problems involving Coulomb's law and vectors 


483  (3) 


486  (4) 

Problem solving: electrostatics 


490  (1) 


490  (2) 

Electric fields and conductors 


492  (1) 

Electric Forces in molecular biology: DNA structure and replication 


493  (9) 


496  (1) 


496  (1) 


497  (2) 


499  (3) 

Electric Potential and Electric Energy; Capacitance 


502  (25) 

Electric potential and potential difference 


502  (4) 

Relation between electric potential and electric field 


506  (1) 


507  (1) 

The electron volt, a unit of energy 


508  (1) 

Electric potential due to point charges 


509  (2) 


511  (2) 


513  (1) 


514  (2) 

Storage of electric energy 


516  (2) 

Cathode ray tube: TV and computer monitors, oscilloscope 


518  (2) 

The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) 


520  (7) 


521  (1) 


522  (1) 


522  (3) 


525  (2) 


527  (28) 


528  (2) 


530  (2) 

Ohm's law: resistance and resistors 


532  (2) 


534  (3) 


537  (1) 


538  (2) 

Power in household circuits 


540  (1) 


541  (3) 

Microscopic view of electric current 


544  (2) 

The nervous system and nerve conduction 


546  (9) 


549  (1) 


550  (1) 


551  (2) 


553  (2) 


555  (33) 

Resistors in series and in parallel 


556  (6) 


562  (2) 


564  (2) 

Solving problems with Kirchhoff's rules 


566  (2) 

Problem solving: Kirchhoff's rules 


567  (1) 

EMFs in series and in parallel; charging a battery 


568  (1) 

Circuits containing capacitors in series and in parallel 


568  (2) 

Circuits containing a resistor and a capacitor 


570  (2) 


572  (1) 

Electric hazards; leakage currents 


573  (2) 

DC ammeters and voltmeters 


575  (3) 

Effects of meter resistance 


578  (10) 


579  (1) 


579  (2) 


581  (4) 


585  (3) 


588  (34) 

Magnets and magnetic fields 


588  (3) 

Electric currents produce magnetism 


591  (1) 

Force on an electric current in a magnetic field; definition of B 


592  (2) 

Force on an electric charge moving in a magnetic field 


594  (3) 

Magnetic field due to a straight wire 


597  (1) 

Force between two parallel wires 


597  (2) 

Definition of the ampere and the coulomb 


599  (1) 


599  (4) 

Torque on a current loop; magnetic moment 


603  (1) 

Applications: galvanometers, motors, loudspeakers 


604  (2) 


606  (1) 


607  (1) 


608  (2) 

Electromagnets and solenoids 


610  (1) 

Magnetic fields in magnetic materials; hystersis 


611  (11) 

Problem solving: magnetic fields 


613  (1) 


614  (1) 


614  (1) 


615  (5) 


620  (2) 

Electromagnetic Induction and Fraday's Law; AC Circuits 


622  (38) 


622  (2) 

Faraday's law of induction; Lenz's law 


624  (3) 

EMF induced in a moving conductor 


627  (1) 

Changing magnetic flux produces an electric field 


628  (1) 


629  (2) 

Counter EMF and torque; eddy currents 


631  (2) 

Transformers; transmission of power 


633  (4) 

Applications of induction: magnetic microphone, tape recording, computer memory, and the seismograph 


637  (1) 


638  (2) 

Energy stored in a magnetic field 


640  (1) 


641  (1) 

AC circuits and impedance 


642  (4) 

LRC series AC circuit; problem solving 


646  (3) 

Resonance in AC circuits; oscillators 


649  (1) 


650  (10) 


652  (1) 


652  (2) 


654  (4) 


658  (2) 


660  (23) 

Changing electric fields produce magnetic fields; Maxwell's equations 


661  (1) 

Maxwell's fourth equation; displacement current 


662  (2) 

Production of electromagnetic waves 


664  (2) 

Calculation of the speed of electromagnetic waves 


666  (3) 

Light as an electromagnetic wave and the electromagnetic spectrum 


669  (3) 

Measuring the speed of light 


672  (1) 


673  (3) 


676  (7) 


679  (1) 


680  (1) 


680  (2) 


682  (1) 


683  (40) 


683  (1) 

Reflection; image formation by a plane mirror 


684  (4) 

Formation of images by spherical mirrors 


688  (8) 

Problem solving: spherical mirrors 


695  (1) 


696  (1) 


696  (3) 

Total internal reflection; fiber optics 


699  (3) 


702  (4) 


706  (1) 

Problem solving for lenses 


707  (1) 

Problem solving: thin lenses 


707  (2) 

Problem solving for combinations of lenses 


709  (2) 


711  (12) 


715  (1) 


716  (1) 


717  (4) 


721  (2) 


723  (34) 

Waves versus particles; Huygens' principle and diffraction 


724  (1) 

Huygens' principle and the law of refraction 


725  (2) 

InterferenceYoung's doubleslit experiment 


727  (4) 

The visible spectrum and dispersion 


731  (1) 

Diffraction by a single slit or disk 


732  (3) 


735  (3) 

The spectrometer and spectroscopy 


738  (1) 

Interference by thin films 


739  (4) 


743  (1) 


744  (5) 

Scattering of light by the atmosphere 


749  (8) 

Problem solving: interference 


750  (1) 


751  (1) 


752  (1) 


752  (3) 


755  (2) 


757  (35) 


757  (4) 

The human eye; corrective lenses 


761  (4) 


765  (2) 


767  (3) 


770  (2) 

Aberrations of lenses and mirrors 


772  (2) 

Limits of resolution; the Rayleigh criterion 


774  (3) 

Resolution of telescopes and microscopes 


777  (2) 

Resolution of the human eye and useful magnification 


779  (1) 

Specialty microscopes and contrast 


779  (3) 

Xrays and Xray diffraction 


782  (2) 

Xray imaging and computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) 


784  (8) 


787  (1) 


788  (1) 


788  (3) 


791  (1) 

Special Theory of Relativity 


792  (31) 

GalileanNewtonian relativity 


793  (3) 

The MichelsonMorley experiment 


796  (3) 

Postulates of the special theory of relativity 


799  (2) 


801  (2) 

Time dilation and the twin paradox 


803  (5) 


808  (2) 

Fourdimensional spacetime 


810  (1) 


811  (1) 


812  (1) 


813  (3) 

Relativistic addition of velocities 


816  (1) 

The impact of special relativity 


817  (6) 


818  (1) 


818  (1) 


819  (2) 


821  (2) 

Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom 


823  (36) 

Discovery and properties of the electron 


823  (3) 

Planck's quantum hypothesis 


826  (3) 

Photon theory of light and the photoelectric effect 


829  (4) 

Photon interactions; Compton effect and pair production 


833  (2) 

Waveparticle duality; the principle of complementarity 


835  (1) 


836  (2) 


838  (2) 


840  (1) 

Atomic spectra: key to the structure of the atom 


841  (3) 


844  (7) 

de Broglie's hypothesis applied to atoms 


851  (8) 


852  (1) 


853  (1) 


854  (3) 


857  (2) 

Quantum Mechanics of Atoms 


859  (28) 

Quantum mechanicsa new theory 


860  (1) 

The wave function and its interpretation; the doubleslit experiment 


861  (2) 

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle 


863  (4) 

Philosophic implications; probability versus determinism 


867  (1) 

Quantummechanical view of atoms 


868  (1) 

Quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom; quantum numbers 


869  (3) 

Complex atoms; the exclusion principle 


872  (2) 

The periodic table of elements 


874  (1) 

Xray spectra and atomic number 


875  (3) 

Fluorescence and phosphorescence 


878  (1) 


878  (4) 


882  (5) 


883  (1) 


884  (1) 


884  (2) 


886  (1) 


887  (29) 


887  (3) 

Potentialenergy diagrams for molecules 


890  (2) 

Weak (van der Waals) bonds 


892  (3) 


895  (6) 


901  (1) 


902  (3) 

Semiconductors and doping 


905  (2) 


907  (2) 

Transistors and integrated circuits 


909  (7) 


911  (1) 


912  (1) 


912  (2) 


914  (2) 

Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 


916  (27) 

Structure and properties of the nucleus 


916  (3) 

Binding energy and nuclear forces 


919  (3) 


922  (1) 


923  (2) 


925  (2) 


927  (1) 

Conservation of nucleon number and other conservation laws 


928  (1) 

Halflife and rate of decay 


928  (2) 

Calculations involving decay rates and halflife 


930  (2) 


932  (2) 


934  (2) 


936  (1) 


937  (6) 


939  (1) 


939  (1) 


940  (2) 


942  (1) 

Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation 


943  (30) 

Nuclear reactions and the transmutaton of elements 


943  (4) 

Nuclear fission; nuclear reactors 


947  (6) 


953  (5) 

Passage of radiation through matter; radiation damage 


958  (1) 

Measurement of radiationdosimetry 


959  (4) 


963  (1) 

Tracers and imaging in research and medicine 


963  (2) 


965  (7) 

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 


972  (1) 


968  (1) 


969  (1) 


970  (2) 


972  (1) 


973  (26) 


974  (1) 


975  (4) 

Beginnings of elementary particle physicsthe Yukawa particle 


979  (4) 

Particles and antiparticles 


983  (1) 

Particle interactions and conservation laws 


983  (1) 


984  (2) 

Particle stability and resonances 


986  (1) 


987  (1) 


988  (3) 

The ``standard model'': quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the electroweak theory 


991  (2) 


993  (6) 


995  (1) 


996  (1) 


996  (2) 


998  (1) 

Astrophysics and Cosmology 


999  (37) 


1000  (5) 

Stellar evolution: the birth and death of stars 


1005  (7) 

General relativity: gravity and the curvature of space 


1012  (5) 


1017  (4) 

The big bang and the cosmic microwave background 


1021  (2) 

The standard consmological model: the early history of the universe 


1023  (4) 

The future of the universe? 


1027  (9) 


1031  (1) 


1032  (1) 


1033  (1) 


1034  (2) 
APPENDIX A Mathematical Review 

1036  (12) 

Relationships, proportionality, and equations 


1036  (1) 


1037  (1) 

Powers of 10, or exponential notation 


1038  (1) 


1039  (4) 


1043  (1) 


1043  (1) 


1044  (1) 

Trigonometric functions and identities 


1045  (1) 


1046  (2) 
APPENDIX B Dimensional Analysis 

1048  (3) 
APPENDIX C Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces; Coriolis Effect 

1051  (4) 
APPENDIX D Gauss's Law 

1055  (5) 
APPENDIX E Galilean and Lorentz Transformations 

1060  (4) 
APPENDIX F Selected Isotopes 

1064  (4) 
Answers to OddNumbered Problems 

1068  (13) 
Index 

1081  (14) 
Photo Credits 

1095  