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The Physics of Sound,9780131457898
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The Physics of Sound

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131457898

ISBN10:
0131457896
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/17/2004
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
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  • Outlines and Highlights for Physics of Sound by Richard E Berg, Isbn : 9780131457898
    Outlines and Highlights for Physics of Sound by Richard E Berg, Isbn : 9780131457898




Summary

This book incorporates the developments in digital audio technology, including consumer products, into a firm foundation of the physics of sound. No knowledge of physics, mathematics, or music is required.Includes updated information on musical synthesizers. Provides recent information on the ear, including new advances in cochlear implant technology. Updates material for modern technology, particularly MP3. Features abundant examples, including discussion of demonstration experiments. Includes historical discussion of musical temperaments and instruments. Offers videotapes of musical demonstrations on topics discussed in the book, available from author.A useful reference for musicians or anyone interested in learning more about the physics of music.

Author Biography

Professor Richard E. Berg received his B.S. degree in music from Manchester College (Indiana), with emphasis on piano and clarinet, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Michigan State University. After completing his Ph.D. thesis in the area of cyclotron design, be began work on the construction of the cyclotron at the University of Maryland. This work included design and construction of the external beam transport system, design of solid state radiation detectors, and support for research in nuclear physics using the cyclotron. In 1972 he became the director of the University of Maryland Physics Lecture-Demonstration Facility, which has since developed one of the largest and most diverse collections of physics demonstrations in the world. He has initiated courses in Physics of Music laboratory, and an honors course, Nuclear Physics and Society, involving applications of nuclear physics and radiation to contemporary society. Professor Berg has sung and played renaissance wind instruments with University of Maryland Collegium Musicum for over 20 years. He has also played harpsichord and recorder in a smaller group known as the Go for Baroque Ensemble. Professor Berg has been active in physics outreach programs, annually presenting a series of public demonstration programs called Physics is Phun, which has been attended by more than 100,000 people since 1982. Over his career he has presented more than 500 traveling demonstration programs to area school groups and more than 300 smaller programs at the University of Maryland for visiting groups. In the photograph Professor Berg is shown demonstrating the twelve-harmonic variable frequency digital Fourier synthesizer designed and constructed at the University of Maryland.

David G. Stork is Chief Scientist of Ricoh Innovations, Inc., and Consulting Professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. He received his B.S. degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from the University of Maryland. Dr. Stork is an accomplished orchestral and chamber timpanist/percussionist, has performed in major concert halls throughout the United States, and performed on more than a dozen compact disks, including four world premier recordings. His principal research interests are in pattern classification, machine learning, and novel uses of the internet. He is an award-winning teacher (Ralph D. Myers Teaching Award, University of Maryland) and publishes and lectures widely on his research and scholarly topics as diverse as Renaissance painting and the relation of science fiction to science fact. His other books include Pattern Classification (2nd ed., Wiley 2000, W R. Duda and P Hart), Speechreading by Humans and Machines (Springer, 1996, W M. Hennecke), Seeing the Light (Whey, 1986, W D. Falk and D. Brill), and HAL's Legacy: 2001's Computer as Dream and Reality (MIT 1997), the latter serving as the source for his PBS television documentary "2001: HAL's Legacy." Dr. Stork sits on the editorial boards of four international journals and is a member of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), OSA (Optical Society of America), INNS (International Neural Network Society), and the Sigma XI Honorary Research Society.

Table of Contents

About the Authors xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvi
Simple Harmonic Motion and Applications
1(22)
Fundamental Definitions
1(3)
Simple Harmonic Motion
4(4)
Application to Sound
8(3)
Damped and Driven Oscillations
11(3)
Combinations of Simple Harmonic Oscillations
14(9)
Summary
18(1)
Questions
18(3)
Problems
21(1)
References
21(2)
Waves and Sound
23(45)
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves
23(6)
Fundamental Properties of Waves
29(5)
General Behavior of Waves
34(13)
Addition of Waves
47(3)
Beats
50(1)
The Doppler Effect
51(7)
Shock Waves and Sonic Booms
58(1)
Ultrasonics
59(4)
Infrasonics
63(5)
Summary
64(1)
Questions
65(1)
Problems
66(1)
References
67(1)
Standing Waves and the Overtone Series
68(24)
Transverse Standing Waves
68(3)
Resonance and the Overtone Series
71(6)
Mersenne's Laws
77(2)
Longitudinal Standing Waves
79(7)
Other Standing Waves and Applications
86(6)
Summary
89(1)
Questions
89(2)
Problems
91(1)
References
91(1)
Analysis and Synthesis of Complex Waves
92(28)
Synthesis of Complex Waves
92(6)
Fourier Analysis and Fourier Spectra
98(6)
Analysis of Tone Quality
104(3)
Resonance Curves and Musical Sound Production
107(13)
Summary
115(1)
Questions
116(1)
Problems
117(1)
References
118(2)
Electronic Music and Synthesizers
120(25)
Combination of Waves and Modulation
120(7)
Analog Synthesizers and Synthesis of Musical Sounds
127(6)
Digital Synthesizers and Keyboards
133(3)
MIDI, Computers, and Contemporary Electronic Music
136(9)
Summary
141(1)
Questions
141(2)
Problems
143(1)
References
143(2)
The Human Ear and Voice
145(37)
Peripheral Auditory System
145(3)
Place Theory of Hearing
148(3)
Amplitude Response of the Ear
151(2)
Logarithms and Sound-Intensity Scales
153(3)
Periodicity Pitch and Fundamental Tracking
156(1)
Aural Harmonics and Combination Tones
157(2)
Ohm's Law of Hearing
159(1)
Masking
160(1)
Binaural Effects
161(2)
Hearing Loss
163(2)
Cochlear Implants
165(1)
Anatomy of the Vocal Tract
166(1)
Vocal Formants
167(4)
Analysis of Vocal Sounds
171(11)
Summary
177(1)
Questions
178(2)
Problems
180(1)
References
180(2)
Sound Recording and Reproduction
182(34)
Electrical Circuits and Ohm's Law
182(3)
Reproduction and Amplification Systems
185(3)
Microphones
188(3)
Loudspeakers
191(5)
Preamplifiers
196(2)
Power Amplifiers
198(1)
AM-FM Tuners
198(1)
Tape Recorders
199(3)
Digital Sound Reproduction and the Compact Disc
202(8)
Compression and MP3
210(6)
Summary
212(1)
Questions
213(1)
Problems
214(1)
References
215(1)
Room and Auditorium Acoustics
216(21)
Criteria in Acoustical Design
216(5)
Problems in Acoustical Design
221(4)
Control of Reverberation Time
225(2)
Design of Auditoriums
227(4)
Home Listening Rooms
231(6)
Summary
233(1)
Questions
234(1)
Problems
235(1)
References
236(1)
Musical Temperament and Pitch
237(23)
Background and Historical Perspective
237(5)
Historical Development of Pitch Level
242(2)
Pythagorean Temperament
244(3)
Just Temperament
247(2)
Mean-Tone Temperament
249(1)
Closed Unequal Temperaments
250(2)
Equal Temperament
252(3)
Recent Innovations in Tuning and Temperament
255(5)
Summary
256(1)
Questions
257(1)
Problems
258(1)
References
259(1)
Woodwind Instruments
260(37)
History of Woodwind Instruments
260(4)
Woodwind Tone Quality
264(8)
Recorders
272(4)
Flutes
276(4)
Clarinets
280(2)
Saxophones
282(3)
Oboes
285(1)
Bassoons
286(2)
Pipe Organs
288(9)
Summary
292(1)
Questions
293(1)
Problems
294(1)
References
295(2)
Brass Instruments
297(21)
History of Brass Instruments
297(6)
Sound Production in Brass Instruments
303(5)
Trumpets
308(2)
Trombones
310(2)
French Horns
312(1)
Other Contemporary Brass Instruments
313(5)
Summary
314(1)
Questions
315(1)
Problems
316(1)
References
317(1)
Stringed Instruments
318(17)
History of Stringed Instruments
318(4)
Theory of Bowed Instruments
322(3)
The Violin Family
325(5)
Plucked Stringed Instruments
330(5)
Summary
332(1)
Questions
333(1)
Problems
334(1)
References
334(1)
The Piano
335(16)
History of the Piano
335(3)
Construction and Action of the Piano
338(3)
Piano Strings and Sound Production
341(4)
Recent Innovations for the Piano
345(6)
Summary
348(1)
Questions
348(1)
Problems
349(1)
References
350(1)
Percussion Instruments
351(16)
Bar Instruments
351(5)
Chimes and Triangles
356(1)
Membranophones
357(5)
Gongs, Tam-Tams, Cymbals, and Bells
362(5)
Summary
363(1)
Questions
364(2)
Problems
366(1)
References
366(1)
Appendix A Elementary Music Theory 367(4)
Appendix B Terms and Units 371(1)
Appendix C Prefixes with Common Units 372(1)
Glossary 373(13)
Index 386

Excerpts

The Physics of Soundwas written for an introductory course in acoustics for nonscientists. A background in neither physics nor mathematics above high school algebra is required. Traditionally, such courses have been tailored to music majors; nonmusicians either do not enroll or do not fully appreciate the physical principles because they are applied almost exclusively to musical topics. We have tried to avoid this limitation by dividing the text into three main sections.Chapters 1-4 present the basic physics essential for virtually all topics in the text: simple harmonic motion, wave principles, resonance, standing waves, the overtone series, Fourier synthesis, and spectrum analysis. No previous musical knowledge is required to appreciate these chapters, and a brief summary of the basic musical notation used in these chapters is provided in Appendix A. Applications and illustrations come from a variety of musical and nonmusical areas. We have revised Chapter 1 with additional discussion of SHM and apply these concepts to debunking psychokinetic myths. Our discussion of wave properties of sound in Chapter 2 has been revised to include a discussion of modern applications such as noise cancellation technology, highway noise barriers, and ultramodern sonogram technology.Chapters 5-8 illustrate the principles outlined in Chapters 1-4 and are of general interest to the musician and the nonmusician alike. The use of musical concepts and notation has been minimized so as to retain the broadest base of appeal, but the more important musical aspects of each topic are still included. For example, Chapter 7 on sound reproduction and Chapter 8 on room acoustics illustrate the principles presented in earlier chapters and are of substantial interest because of the part they play in our daily lives. We use the discussion of analog synthesizers in Chapter 5 as an opportunity to investigate the differences between sounds by studying how these sounds are created in a synthesizer. Our treatment of digital synthesizers has been updated to include use of computers as an integral part of the synthesizer system. The material on MIDI systems includes further discussion of how these systems are used to compose music and to aid musical performance using contemporary computer programs such as Sibelius. We have also added a section on physics and synthesizers in contemporary electroacoustic music composition. Chapter 6 discusses the principles of the ear and the voice at an elementary level, but has been updated with a section on cochlear implants, which have literally dated a revolution in education of hearing disabled children. We have also included 4 section on the use of audio spectrograms in teaching language to the hearing disabled. Chapter 7 has been thoroughly revised from the second edition to include a discussion of MP3 using the concepts of spectral analysis and masking covered previously. Chapter 8 has been updated with a discussion of visual and musical features for a new auditorium at the University of Maryland. The first eight chapters contain the core material for a one-semester course in the physics of sound and music.Chapters 9-14 are more specialized. Each of these chapters independently treats a different aspect ofmusicalacoustics and is best (though not exclusively) understood by those with some musical experience. Photographs of families of contemporary instruments have been added to the chapters on woodwinds and brasses. Any of the final six chapters could be studied in class or could naturally be assigned to students on an individual basis.Unlike most authors of elementary acoustics texts, we have treated the historical development of instruments, paying particular attention to acoustical developments. We have also tried to relate the physical principles of contemporary instruments to performance technique; the knowledge ofhowandwhyan instrument works and its limitations an


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