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Physiology of Behavior

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780205467242

ISBN10:
0205467245
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

The latest discoveries in the rapidly changing fields of neuroscience and physiological psychology are all incorporated in The Ninth Edition of Physiology of Behavior. This classic text continues its tradition as the most comprehensive, current, and teachable text for physiological psychology. Thoughtfully organized, this text offers scholarly, yet accessible coverage and effectively emphasizes the dynamic interaction between biology and behavior. Collaboration with a talented artist has provided beautiful, accurate, and informative full-color illustrations that further enhance the appeal to both students and professors alike. Case studies and a CD of animations bring all the concepts to life. Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System, Psychopharmacology, Methods and Strategies of Research, Vision, Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses, Control of Movement, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Reproductive Behavior, Emotion, Ingestive Behavior, Learning and Memory, Human Communication, Neurological Disorders, Schizophrenia and the Affective Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Autistic Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Stress Disorders, and Drug Abuse Physiological Psychology and Neuropsychology

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction
2(26)
Understanding Human Consciousness: A Physiological Approach
4(5)
Blindsight
5(1)
Split Brains
5(2)
Unilateral Neglect
7(2)
Interim Summary
9(1)
The Nature of Physiological Psychology
9(14)
The Goals of Research
10(1)
Biological Roots of Physiological Psychology
11(3)
Interim Summary
14(1)
Natural Selection and Evolution
14(1)
Functionalism and the Inheritance of Traits
14(3)
Evolution of the Human Species
17(2)
Evolution of Large Brains
19(3)
Interim Summary
22(1)
Ethical Issues in Research with Animals
23(1)
Careers in Neuroscience
24(2)
Interim Summary
25(1)
Strategies for Learning
26(1)
Suggested Readings
27(1)
Additional Resources
27(1)
Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System
28(40)
Cells of the Nervous System
30(12)
Neurons
30(6)
Supporting Cells
36(4)
The Blood-Brain Barrier
40(1)
Interim Summary
41(1)
Communication within a Neuron
42(11)
Neural Communication: An Overview
42(1)
Measuring Electrical Potentials of Axons
43(2)
The Membrane Potential: Balance of Two Forces
45(2)
The Action Potential
47(2)
Conduction of the Action Potential
49(3)
Interim Summary
52(1)
Communication Between Neurons
53(14)
Structure of Synapses
53(1)
Release of Neurotransmitter
54(3)
Activation of Receptors
57(3)
Postsynaptic Potentials
60(1)
Termination of Postsynaptic Potentials
61(1)
Effects of Postsynaptic Potentials: Neural Integration
62(1)
Autoreceptors
63(1)
Other Types of Synapses
63(1)
Nonsynaptic Chemical Communication
64(2)
Interim Summary
66(1)
Suggested Readings
67(1)
Additional Resources
67(1)
Structure of the Nervous System
68(34)
Basic Features of the Nervous System
69(8)
An Overview
72(1)
Meninges
72(2)
The Ventricular System and Production of CSF
74(2)
Interim Summary
76(1)
The Central Nervous System
77(19)
Development of the Central Nervous System
77(6)
The Forebrain
83(8)
The Midbrain
91(2)
The Hindbrain
93(1)
The Spinal Cord
93(2)
Interim Summary
95(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System
96(5)
Spinal Nerves
96(1)
Cranial Nerves
97(1)
The Autonomic Nervous System
98(2)
Interim Summary
100(1)
Suggested Readings
101(1)
Additional Resources
101(1)
Psychopharmacology
102(32)
Principles of Psychopharmacology
104(6)
Pharmacokinetics
104(3)
Drug Effectiveness
107(1)
Effects of Repeated Administration
108(1)
Placebo Effects
109(1)
Interim Summary
109(1)
Sites of Drug Action
110(4)
Effects on Production of Neurotransmitters
110(1)
Effects on Storage and Release of Neurotransmitters
110(1)
Effect on Receptors
111(2)
Effects on Reuptake or Destruction of Neurotransmitters
113(1)
Interim Summary
113(1)
Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators
114(18)
Acetylcholine
114(4)
The Monoamines
118(7)
Amino Acids
125(3)
Peptides
128(1)
Lipids
129(1)
Nucleosides
130(1)
Soluble Gases
131(1)
Interim Summary
131(1)
Suggested Readings
132(1)
Additional Resources
132(2)
Methods and Strategies of Research
134(34)
Experimental Ablation
135(15)
Evaluating the Behavioral Effects of Brain Damage
136(1)
Producing Brain Lesions
137(1)
Sterotaxic Surgery
138(2)
Histological Methods
140(3)
Tracing Neural Connections
143(4)
Study of the Living Human Brain
147(2)
Interim Summary
149(1)
Recording and Stimulating Neural Activity
150(10)
Recording of Neural Activity
150(3)
Recording the Brain's Metabolic and Synaptic Activity
153(2)
Measuring the Brain's Secretions
155(1)
Stimulating Neural Activity
156(2)
Behavioral Effects of Electrical Brain Stimulation
158(1)
Interim Summary
159(1)
Neurochemical Methods
160(4)
Finding Neurons That Produce Particular Neurochemicals
160(2)
Localizing Particular Receptors
162(2)
Interim Summary
164(1)
Genetic Methods
164(3)
Twin Studies
165(1)
Adoption Studies
165(1)
Targeted Mutations
166(1)
Antisense Oligonucleotides
166(1)
Interim Summary
166(1)
Suggested Readings
167(1)
Additional Resources
167(1)
Vision
168(42)
The Stimulus
170(1)
Anatomy of the Visual System
171(7)
The Eyes
171(2)
Photoreceptors
173(3)
Connections Between Eye and Brain
176(2)
Interim Summary
178(1)
Coding of Visual Information in the Retina
178(7)
Coding of Light and Dark
178(2)
Coding of Color
180(4)
Interim Summary
184(1)
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Striate Cortex
185(6)
Anatomy of the Striate Cortex
185(1)
Orientation and Movement
185(1)
Spatial Frequency
186(2)
Retinal Disparity
188(1)
Color
189(1)
Modular Organization of the Striate Cortex
189(2)
Interim Summary
191(1)
Analysis of Visual Information: Role of the Visual Association Cortex
191(17)
Two Streams of Visual Analysis
191(2)
Perception of Color
193(2)
Perception of Form
195(4)
Perception of Movement
199(4)
Perception of Spatial Location
203(3)
Interim Summary
206(2)
Suggested Readings
208(1)
Additional Resources
209(1)
Audition, the Body Senses, and the Chemical Senses
210(48)
Audition
211(20)
The Stimulus
211(1)
Anatomy of the Ear
212(2)
Auditory Hair Cells and the Transduction of Auditory Information
214(2)
The Auditory Pathway
216(3)
Perception of Pitch
219(2)
Perception of Loudness
221(1)
Perception of Timbre
222(1)
Perception of Spatial Location
223(3)
Perception of Complex Sounds
226(4)
Interim Summary
230(1)
Vestibular System
231(3)
Anatomy of the Vestibular Apparatus
232(1)
The Receptor Cells
233(1)
The Vestibular Pathway
233(1)
Interim Summary
234(1)
Somatosenses
234(12)
The Stimuli
235(1)
Anatomy of the Skin and Its Receptive Organs
235(1)
Perception of Cutaneous Stimulation
236(3)
The Somatosensory Pathways
239(1)
Perception of Pain
240(5)
Interim Summary
245(1)
Gustation
246(5)
The Stimuli
246(1)
Anatomy of the Taste Buds and Gustatory Cells
247(1)
Perception of Gustatory Information
247(2)
The Gustatory Pathway
249(2)
Interim Summary
251(1)
Olfaction
251(5)
The Stimulus
251(1)
Anatomy of the Olfactory Apparatus
252(1)
Transduction of Olfactory Information
253(1)
Perception of Specific Odors
253(3)
Interim Summary
256(1)
Suggested Readings
256(1)
Additional Resources
257(1)
Control of Movement
258(32)
Muscles
259(5)
Skeletal Muscle
259(3)
Smooth Muscle
262(1)
Cardiac Muscle
263(1)
Interim Summary
263(1)
Reflexive Control of Movement
264(4)
The Monosynaptic Stretch Reflex
264(2)
The Gamma Motor System
266(1)
Polysynaptic Reflexes
266(2)
Interim Summary
268(1)
Control of Movement by the Brain
268(21)
Organization of Motor Cortex
269(1)
Initiating, Imitating, and Comprehending Movements: Role of the Motor Association Cortex
270(5)
Cortical Control of Movement: The Descending Pathways
275(3)
Deficits of Skilled Movements: The Apraxias
278(2)
The Basal Ganglia
280(4)
The Cerebellum
284(4)
The Reticular Formation
288(1)
Interim Summary
288(1)
Suggested Readings
289(1)
Additional Resources
289(1)
Sleep and Biological Rhythms
290(38)
A Physiological and Behavioral Description of Sleep
291(5)
Stages of Sleep
292(2)
Mental Activity During Sleep
294(1)
Interim Summary
295(1)
Disorders of Sleep
296(4)
Insomnia
296(1)
Narcolepsy
297(2)
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
299(1)
Problems Associated with Slow-Wave Sleep
299(1)
Interim Summary
300(1)
Why do We Sleep?
300(6)
Functions of Slow-Wave Sleep
301(3)
Functions of REM Sleep
304(1)
Interim Summary
305(1)
Physiological Mechanisms of Sleep and Waking
306(13)
Chemical Control of Sleep
306(1)
Neural Control of Arousal
307(4)
Neural Control of Slow-Wave Sleep
311(2)
Neural Control of REM Sleep
313(5)
Interim Summary
318(1)
Biological Clocks
319(7)
Circadian Rhythms and Zeitgebers
319(1)
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
320(4)
Control of Seasonal Rhythms: The Pineal Gland and Melatonin
324(1)
Changes in Circadian Rhythms: Shift Work and Jet Lag
325(1)
Interim Summary
326(1)
Suggested Readings
326(1)
Additional Resources
327(1)
Reproductive Behavior
328(34)
Sexual Development
329(7)
Production of Gametes and Fertilization
329(1)
Development of the Sex Organs
330(3)
Sexual Maturation
333(3)
Interim Summary
336(1)
Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior
336(14)
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles
336(1)
Hormonal Control of Sexual Behavior of Laboratory Animals
337(2)
Organizational Effects of Androgens on Behavior: Masculinization and Defeminization
339(1)
Effects of Pheromones
340(2)
Human Sexual Behavior
342(2)
Sexual Orientation
344(5)
Interim Summary
349(1)
Neural Control of Sexual Behavior
350(7)
Males
350(3)
Females
353(2)
Formation of Pair Bonds
355(1)
Interim Summary
356(1)
Parental Behavior
357(4)
Maternal Behavior of Rodents
357(1)
Hormonal Control of Maternal Behavior
358(2)
Neural Control of Maternal Behavior
360(1)
Neural Control of Paternal Behavior
360(1)
Interim Summary
361(1)
Suggested Readings
361(1)
Additional Resources
361(1)
Emotion
362(32)
Emotions as Response Patterns
363(17)
Fear
364(4)
Anger, Aggression, and Impulse Control
368(7)
Hormonal Control of Aggressive Behavior
375(4)
Interim Summary
379(1)
Communication of Emotions
380(10)
Facial Expression of Emotions: Innate Responses
380(1)
Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Recognition
381(6)
Neural Basis of the Communication of Emotions: Expression
387(3)
Interim Summary
390(1)
Feelings of Emotions
390(3)
The James-Lange Theory
390(2)
Feedback from Simulated Emotions
392(1)
Interim Summary
393(1)
Suggested Readings
393(1)
Additional Resources
393(1)
Ingestive Behavior
394(36)
Physiological Regulatory Mechanisms
395(2)
Drinking
397(6)
Some Facts About Fluid Balance
397(1)
Two Types of Thirst
398(4)
Neural Mechanisms of Thirst
402(1)
Interim Summary
403(1)
Eating: Some Facts About Metabolism
403(3)
Absorption, Fasting, and the Two Nutrient Reservoirs
404(2)
Interim Summary
406(1)
What Starts a Meal?
406(4)
Signals from the Environment
407(1)
Signals from the Stomach
407(1)
Metabolic Signals
408(1)
Interim Summary
409(1)
What Stops a Meal?
410(4)
Head Factors
410(1)
Gastric Factors
410(1)
Intestinal Factors
411(1)
Liver Factors
411(1)
Insulin
412(1)
Long-Term Satity: Signals from Adipose Tissue
412(1)
Interim Summary
413(1)
Brain Mechanisms
414(6)
Brain Stem
414(1)
Hypothalamus
414(6)
Interim Summary
420(1)
Eating Disorders
420(8)
Obesity
420(6)
Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia Nervosa
426(1)
Interim Summary
427(1)
Suggested Readings
428(1)
Additional Resources
428(2)
Learning and Memory
430(50)
The Nature of Learning
431(4)
Interim Summary
434(1)
Synaptic Plasticity: Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression
435(11)
Induction of Long-Term Potentiation
435(2)
Role of NMDA Receptors
437(2)
Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity
439(5)
Long-Term Depression
444(1)
Other Forms of Long-Term Potentiation
445(1)
Interim Summary
445(1)
Perceptual Learning
446(4)
Learning to Recognize Visual Stimuli
446(2)
Perceptual Short-Term Memory
448(2)
Interim Summary
450(1)
Classical Conditioning
450(3)
Interim Summary
452(1)
Instrumental Conditioning
453(6)
Basal Ganglia
453(1)
Reinforcement
454(4)
Interim Summary
458(1)
Relational Learning
459(20)
Human Anterograde Amnesia
459(1)
Spared Learning Abilities
460(2)
Declarative and Nondeclarative Memories
462(1)
Anatomy of Anterograde Amnesia
463(3)
Role of the Hippocampal Formation in Consolidation of Declarative Memories
466(1)
Episodic and Semantic Memories
467(2)
Spatial Memory
469(1)
Confabulation: Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Evaluating the Accuracy of Memories
470(1)
Relational Learning in Laboratory Animals
471(3)
Role of the Hippocampal Formation in Memory Consolidation
474(3)
Role of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning
477(1)
Interim Summary
477(2)
Suggested Readings
479(1)
Additional Resources
479(1)
Human Communication
480(38)
Speech Production and Comprehension: Brain Mechanisms
481(23)
Lateralization
481(1)
Speech Production
482(4)
Speech Comprehension
486(12)
Aphasia in Deaf People
498(1)
The Bilingual Brain
499(1)
Prosody: Rhythm, Tone, and Emphasis in Speech
500(1)
Stuttering
501(1)
Interim Summary
502(2)
Disorders of Reading and Writing
504(13)
Relation to Aphasia
504(1)
Pure Alexia
504(3)
Toward an Understanding of Reading
507(4)
Toward an Understanding of Writing
511(3)
Developmental Dyslexias
514(1)
Interim Summary
515(2)
Suggested Readings
517(1)
Additional Resources
517(1)
Neurological Disorders
518(32)
Tumors
519(2)
Seizure Disorders
521(3)
Cerebrovascular Accidents
524(4)
Interim Summary
528(1)
Disorders of Development
528(3)
Toxic Chemicals
528(1)
Inherited Metabolic Disorders
529(1)
Down Syndrome
530(1)
Interim Summary
531(1)
Degenerative Disorders
531(16)
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
531(1)
Parkinson's Disease
532(5)
Huntington's Disease
537(2)
Alzheimer's Disease
539(4)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
543(1)
Multiple Sclerosis
544(2)
Korsakoff's Syndrome
546(1)
Interim Summary
546(1)
Disorders Caused by Infectious Diseases
547(2)
Interim Summary
549(1)
Suggested Readings
549(1)
Additional Resources
549(1)
Schizophrenia and the Affective Disorders
550(34)
Schizophrenia
552(16)
Description
552(1)
Heritability
553(1)
Pharmacology of Schizophrenia: The Dopamine Hypothesis
554(2)
Schizophrenia as a Neurological Disorder
556(11)
Interim Summary
567(1)
Major Affective Disorders
568(14)
Description
568(1)
Heritability
569(1)
Physiological Treatments
569(3)
Role of Monoamines
572(2)
Evidence for Brain Abnormalities
574(2)
Role of the 5-HT Transporter
576(2)
Role of Circadian Rhythms
578(3)
Interim Summary
581(1)
Suggested Readings
582(1)
Additional Resources
583(1)
Anxiety Disorders, Autistic Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Stress Disorders
584(30)
Anxiety Disorders
586(8)
Panic Disorder
586(2)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
588(5)
Interim Summary
593(1)
Autistic Disorder
594(4)
Description
594(2)
Possible Causes
596(2)
Interim Summary
598(1)
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
598(3)
Description
598(1)
Possible Causes
599(2)
Interim Summary
601(1)
Stress Disorders
601(11)
Physiology of the Stress Response
601(2)
Health Effects of Long-Term Stress
603(1)
Effects of Stress on the Brain
603(3)
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
606(1)
Psychoneuroimmunology
607(4)
Interim Summary
611(1)
Suggested Readings
612(1)
Additional Resources
613(1)
Drug Abuse
614(29)
Common Features of Addiction
615(9)
A Little Background
615(1)
Positive Reinforcement
616(1)
Negative Reinforcement
617(1)
Craving and Relapse
618(5)
Interim Summary
623(1)
Commonly Abused Drugs
624(12)
Opiates
624(2)
Stimulant Drugs: Cocaine and Amphetamine
626(2)
Nicotine
628(3)
Alcohol
631(2)
Cannabis
633(2)
Interim Summary
635(1)
Heredity and Drug Abuse
636(2)
Interim Summary
637(1)
Therapy for Drug Abuse
638(3)
Interim Summary
641(1)
Suggested Readings
641(1)
Additional Resources
641(2)
References 643(60)
Name Index 703(12)
Subject Index 715


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