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Plant Biology

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131469068

ISBN10:
0131469061
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/15/2005
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
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Summary

Key Benefit:For non-majors and mixed-majors introductory botany (plant biology) courses. Plant Biologyfocuses readers on the function of plants and the role they play in our world. With evolved content and a new organization, the authors emphasize the scientific method to help readers develop the critical thinking skills they need to make sound decisions throughout life. Together, the emphasis on how plants work and the development of critical-thinking skills support the authorsrs" goal of fostering scientific literacy. Key Topics:Introduction to Plant Biology, Plants and People, Molecules and Plants, Cells, Photosynthesis and Respiration, DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis, Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis, Plant Structure, Growth, and Development, Stems, Roots, Leaves, Plant Behavior, Reproduction, Meiosis, and Life Cycles, Genetics and the Laws of Inheritance, Genetic Engineering, Biological Evolution, Naming and Organizing Microbes, Viruses, and Plants, Prokaryotes and the Origin of Life, Protists and the Origin of Eukaryotic Cells, Fungi and Lichens, Seedless Plants: Bryophytes, Lycophytes, and Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and the Origin of Seeds, Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds, Flowering Plant and Animal Coevolution: Pollination and Seed Dispersal, Principles of Ecology and the Biosphere, Arid Terrestrial Ecosystems, Moist Terrestrial Ecosystems, Aquatic Ecosystems, Human Impacts and Sustainability Market Description:For those interested in learning the basics of plant biology

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
Part 1 Introduction
Introduction to Plant Biology
2(16)
What are plants?
4(1)
Bacteria, fungi, and algae are important to plant life
5(2)
Plants and other organisms have scientific names
7(1)
Scientific methods are used to learn about nature
8(2)
Science has an error-correction capacity
9(1)
The process of science may be inductive or deductive
10(1)
Plants and associated organisms play essential roles in maintaining Earth's environment
10(5)
Plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria help maintain Earth's atmospheric chemistry and climate
10(1)
Plants benefit from close associations with other organisms
11(1)
Food webs
11(1)
Beneficial symbioses
11(3)
Coevolution
14(1)
Plants, protists, fungi, and bacteria are important in human affairs
15(3)
Essay 1.1 Devilish Dodder
4(8)
Essay 1.2 Global Warming: Too Much of a Good Thing
12(4)
Highlights
16(1)
Review Questions
17(1)
Applying Concepts
17(1)
Plants and People
18(14)
Ethnobotany and economic botany focus on human uses of plants
20(1)
The origin of agriculture was key to development of civilizations
20(6)
How can we know something about the origins of agriculture?
20(2)
When and why did agriculture originate?
22(1)
Where were plants first domesticated?
22(1)
Ecological adaptations are responsible for the useful features of cereals and legumes
23(2)
How were cereals and legumes domesticated?
25(1)
Food plant genetic resources and traditional agricultural knowledge need to be preserved
26(3)
Natural plant products are useful to humans as medicine and in other ways
29(3)
Plants are sources of medicine and dietary supplements
29(1)
Plants are sources of psychoactive drugs
29
Essay 2.1 Ethnobotany: Seeds of Culture
21(7)
Essay 2.2 Chocolate: It Does a Body---and the Ecosystem---Good!
28(3)
Highlights
31(1)
Review Questions
31(1)
Applying Concepts
31(1)
Part 2 Plant Structure and Function
Molecules of Life
32(26)
All physical matter is made up of elements composed of distinct atoms
34(2)
Plants contain and require more of some elements than others
34(1)
Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
34(1)
Every element has an atomic number and a mass number
35(1)
Several types of bonds link atoms to form molecules
36(2)
Ionic bonds form when atoms gain or lose electrons
36(1)
Acids and bases contain ionic bonds
36(1)
In covalent bonds, two or more atoms share electrons
37(1)
Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions between molecules
37(1)
Water has unique properties because it forms hydrogen bonds
38(1)
Four types of primary compounds are the molecules of life
38(14)
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and cellulose
39(2)
Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids
41(2)
Proteins are large molecules composed of amino acids
43(3)
Storage proteins are important in human nutrition
46(1)
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts
47(2)
Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides
49(3)
Plants produce a wide range of secondary compounds
52(6)
Terpenes and terpenoids repel insects
52(1)
Phenolics have antiseptic properties and flavonoids color many flowers and fruits
52(2)
Many alkaloids are widely used as medicines
54
Essay 3.1 Molecules: Keys to the Search for Extraterrestrial Life
40(16)
Highlights
56(1)
Review Questions
56(1)
Applying Concepts
56(2)
Cells
58(22)
Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells
60(1)
Microscopes are used to study cells
60(3)
Light microscopes use glass lenses and visible light to enlarge images
60(1)
Electron microscopes use magnetic lenses to focus beams of electrons
61(2)
Two major types of cells are eukaryotic cells and prokakryotic cells
63(10)
Cell membranes, cytoplasm, and ribosomes occur in all cells
63(1)
The cell membrane functions in communication and transport of materials
63(1)
Some cell-membrane proteins perceive environmental information
64(1)
Some cell-membrane proteins transport materials into or out of cells
64(1)
Selective membrane permeability is the basis for osmosis
65(1)
Some plants are adapted to salty environments
66(1)
Endocytosis and exocytosis also transport materials across cell membranes
67(1)
Eukaryotic cells share some features that prokaryotes lack
67(1)
Nuclei contain most of the eukaryotic cell's genetic information
67(1)
The endomembrane system constructs and transports cell materials
67(2)
The endoplasmic reticulum
69(1)
The Golgi apparatus
70(1)
The cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins generate cell movements
70(1)
Cytoskeletal components
71(1)
Types of motor proteins
71(1)
Flagella
71(1)
Mitochondria are major cellular sites of chemical energy transformations
72(1)
Peroxisomes contain protective enzymes
72(1)
Plant cells have the general features of eukaryotic cells and additional components
73(7)
Cellulose-rich plant cell walls provide support and protection
73(1)
Cellulose
73(1)
Noncellulose components of plant cell walls
73(1)
Primary and secondary plant cell walls
73(1)
Plant cells are connected by plasmodesmata
74(1)
Plastids are sites of photosynthesis and other functions
75(2)
Starch is formed in plastids of plants and green algae
77(1)
Chromoplasts are non-green, pigmented plastids of flowers and fruits
77(1)
Vacuoles play several important roles in plant cells
77
Essay 4.1 Plant ``Psi''chological Stress
68(10)
Essay 4.2 Heavy-Metal Plants
78(1)
Highlights
78(1)
Review Questions
79(1)
Applying Concepts
79(1)
Photosynthesis and Respiration
80(24)
Photosynthesis and respiration are the processes by which living organisms capture solar energy and release it to sustain life on Earth
82(1)
Metabolism includes many kinds of chemical reactions organized into series called pathways
82(3)
Chemical reactions may be exergonic or endergonic
83(1)
Oxidation-reduction reactions are highly important in cell metabolism
83(1)
In metabolism, chemical reactions are organized into pathways
84(1)
Photosynthesis harvests solar energy to sustain life on Earth
85(11)
Photosynthesis changed the early Earth so that multicellular life became possible
85(1)
Photosynthesis provides the food and fuel that power life on Earth
86(1)
The interaction between light and pigments is crucial to solar energy capture
86(1)
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of algae and plants
87(2)
Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy stored in sugars
89(1)
The light reactions capture solar energy
89(3)
Chemiosmosis and photophosphorylation produce ATP molecules in the chloroplast
92(1)
The carbon-fixation reactions reduce carbon dioxide to simple sugars
92(2)
Photorespiration makes the pathway inefficient
94(1)
C4 plants and CAM plants have mechanisms to reduce photorespiration
95(1)
C4 plants reduce photorespiration by preconcentrating CO2
95(1)
CAM plants reduce photorespiration by fixing CO2 at night
95(1)
Respiration and fermentation release energy for cellular metabolism
96(8)
Respiration occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells
97(1)
Glycolysis is the splitting of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate
97(1)
Fermentation extracts energy from organic compounds without oxygen
98(1)
Pyruvate is split into CO2 and an acetyl group attached to coenzyme A
98(1)
In the Krebs cycle, the acetyl group is broken into two carbon dioxide molecules
99(1)
The electron transport chain generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
100(1)
Chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation generate ATP in the mitochondrion
100
Essay 5.1 The Botany of Beer
99(3)
Highlights
102(1)
Review Questions
103(1)
Applying Concepts
103(1)
DNA and RNA
104(16)
DNA is a long molecule composed of subunits called nucleotides
106(1)
DNA contains two nucleotide strands that wind about each other in a double helix
106(2)
DNA replicates by separating its two strands and synthesizing two new complementary strands
108(1)
Stability of genetic information depends on efficient mechanisms for DNA
109(1)
Genetic information is coded in DNA as groups of three nucleotides
110(1)
Protein synthesis involves three forms of RNA in the cytoplasm
110(5)
Instructions for protein synthesis is coded in DNA are first transcribed into a coded mRNA molecule
111(1)
The coded information in mRNA is translated into a protein with the aid of ribosomes and tRNAs
112(3)
Differences in DNA account for differences among organisms and even among individuals
115(5)
Essay 6.1 Molecular Detectives: DNA Fingerprinting Solves Crimes
117(1)
Highlights
118(1)
Review Questions
118(1)
Applying Concepts
119(1)
Cell Division
120(14)
Cell division and the cell cycle
122(1)
Division in prokaryotes, mitochondria, and plastids occurs by binary fission
122(2)
Eukaryotic cells have separate processes of nuclear and cytoplasmic division
124(10)
Preparation for cell division occurs during interphase
125(1)
The G1 phase is a period of intense synthesis of molecules and structures
125(1)
DNA replication occurs during the S phase
125(1)
The G2 phase completes preparations for cell division
126(1)
Mitosis consists of four phases
126(1)
In prophase, chromosomes condense until they appear as sister chromatids
126(1)
In metaphase, chromosomes align on the equator of the mitotic spindle
127(1)
Sister chromatids separate in anaphase
128(1)
In telophase, chromosomes become indistinct
128(1)
In cytokinesis, cytoplasm is divided between daughter cells
129(1)
Essay 7.1 When to Stick and When to Split: Mechanisms of Chromosome Cohesion and Separation
130(2)
Highlights
132(1)
Review Questions
133(1)
Applying Concepts
133(1)
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
134(16)
Plant structural variation is ecologically and economically important
136(1)
Plant bodies are composed of organs, tissues, and many types of cells
136(8)
Shoots, roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds are plant organs or organ systems
136(1)
Plant organs are composed of tissues whose cells are linked by plasmodesmata
137(2)
Plants grow by production of new tissues and cell enlargement
139(1)
Primary apical meristems produce primary tissues
139(1)
Secondary meristems produce wood and bark
140(1)
Plants also grow by cell expansion
140(1)
Plant tissues are composed of one to several cell types
141(1)
Specialized cells arise by the process of differentiation
142(2)
Plants develop from single cells or small pieces
144(6)
Plants can develop from zygotes, spores, or excised pieces
144(4)
Plant bodies have polarity, radial symmetry, and indeterminate growth
148
Essay 8.1 Supermarket Botany
138(11)
Highlights
149(1)
Review Questions
149(1)
Applying Concepts
149(1)
Stems and Materials Transport
150(20)
Stems are fundamental plant organs having multiple functions
152(1)
The structure of conducting tissues helps explain their functions
152(10)
Conducting tissues in plants occur in vascular bundles
152(1)
Living phloem tissues conduct organic compounds in a watery solution
152(2)
Phloem conducts sugars from their source to the sites of utilization
154(1)
Dead xylem tissues are structured to facilitate water transport
155(1)
Water and solutes move through stems as the result of transpiration
155(2)
Wood and bark arise by the activity of secondary meristems
157(1)
The vascular cambium produces wood and inner bark
157(3)
The cork cambium produces a protective covering for older woody stems
160(1)
Some plants can grow tall without extensive wood
161(1)
Humans use stems in many ways
162(8)
Paper
162(1)
Cork
163(1)
Bamboo
164(1)
Wood
164
Essay 9.1 Weird and Wonderful Stems
156(9)
Essay 9.2 Growth Rings: Mirrors into the Past
165(4)
Highlights
169(1)
Review Questions
169(1)
Applying Concepts
169(1)
Roots and Plant Nutrition
170(20)
Roots play a variety of roles in plants
172(4)
Roots anchor plants and absorb water and minerals
172(1)
Some roots are useful as human food because they store carbohydrates
172(1)
Roots are important sites of hormone and secondary compound production in plants
172(1)
The roots of some plants help support stems
173(2)
Pneumatophores help provide oxygen to underwater roots of some mangroves
175(1)
Some plants produce other types of specialized roots
175(1)
Taproots, fibrous roots, and feeder roots are major types of underground root systems
176(1)
Root structure and function are intimately related
177(9)
External root structures include branch roots, root hairs, and the root tip
177(1)
An internal view of root tissues reveals how root cells grow and specialize
178(1)
The root apical meristem produces primary tissues
179(1)
Root cells enlarge and begin to specialize in the zone of elongation
179(1)
Specialized cells and tissues are present above the zone of maturation
179(3)
Root mineral absorption is selective and requires energy
182(1)
Root hairs and endodermal cells are sites of selective absorption
182(2)
Plant roots require organic food and oxygen and produce carbon dioxide
184(2)
Plant roots are associated with beneficial microbes
186(4)
Essay 10.1 The Root of the Matter: Human Uses of Roots
174(11)
Essay 10.2 Food for Thought: Plant Mineral Nutrition
185(2)
Highlights
187(1)
Review Questions
188(1)
Applying Concepts
189(1)
Leaves
190(20)
As photosynthetic organs, leaves occur in a vast range of forms
192(2)
Most of the variation in leaves is in the form of the blade
192(1)
Leaves are arranged in distinct patterns on stems
192(2)
The major tissues of leaves are epidermis, mesophyll, xylem, and phloem
194(5)
The epidermis provides structural support and retards water loss
195(2)
Mesophyll is the photosynthetic tissue of leaves
197(1)
Xylem and phloem are the conducting tissues of leaf veins
198(1)
Plants lose large quantities of water through transpiration
199(1)
Stomatal movements control transpiration
199(1)
Environmental factors can affect stomatal movements
199(1)
The cohesion-tension theory explains movement of water through plants
200(2)
Senescence and leaf fall are a normal part of plant development
202(1)
Autumn leaf abscission is preceded by a period of senescence
202(1)
Leaf abscission is preceded by formation of an abscission zone
202(1)
Leaves perform many functions in addition to photosynthesis
203(2)
Some leaves are specialized for water or food storage
203(1)
Leaves are modified for defense in some plants
204(1)
Leaves of some plants capture animal prey
204(1)
Humans use leaves in many ways
205(5)
Essay 11.1 Plant Leaves Track CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere
201(7)
Highlights
208(1)
Review Questions
208(1)
Applying Concepts
209(1)
Plant Behavior
210(16)
Plants sense and respond to external and internal signals
212(1)
Hormones regulate plant growth and development
213(5)
There are several types of plant hormones
213(1)
Auxins
213(1)
Cytokinins
213(2)
Ethylene
215(1)
Gibberellins
216(1)
Several plant hormones play protective roles
217(1)
Plants use pigment-containing molecules to sense their light environments
218(3)
Phytochrome controls seed and spore germination
219(1)
Phytochrome helps control the timing of flowering and dormancy
220(1)
Plant shoots can sense shading and grow into the light
221(1)
Plants respond to gravity and touch
221(2)
Plants can respond to flooding, heat, drought, and cold stress
223(1)
Plants can defend themselves against attack
223(3)
Essay 12.1 Aspen Aspirin
218(6)
Highlights
224(1)
Review Questions
225(1)
Applying Concepts
225(1)
Part 3 Plant Reproduction, Genetics, and Evolution
Reproduction, Meiosis, and Life Cycles
226(18)
Sexual and asexual reproduction confer different advantages
228(4)
Sexual reproduction accelerates adaptation
228(1)
Asexual reproduction can occur rapidly
229(1)
Many organisms that reproduce only asexually evolved from sexually reproducing ancestors
229(2)
Many organisms reproduce by both asexual and sexual means
231(1)
Meiosis is essential to sexual reproduction
232(2)
Meiosis prevents buildup of chromosomes as the result of sexual reproduction over many generations
232(2)
Meiosis contributes to genetic variability
234(1)
Meiosis resembles mitosis in some respects, but differs in important ways
234(3)
Meiosis follows DNA replication and uses a spindle apparatus, as does mitosis
234(1)
Homologous chromosome pair, then separate during meiosis I
234(3)
Chromatids are separated during meiosis II
237(1)
Life cycles link one generation to the next
237(7)
Gametic life cycles are typical of animals and some algae
237(2)
Zygotic life cycles are common among protists
239(1)
Sporic life cycles are characteristic of land plants and some algae
240
Essay 13.1 The Perfect Date
233(5)
Essay 13.2 The Guardian Spirit
238(4)
Highlights
242(1)
Review Questions
243(1)
Applying Concepts
243(1)
Genetics and the Laws of Inheritance
244(20)
Gregor Mendel's experiments with garden peas revealed the pattern of inheritance of genetic traits
246(4)
Early hypotheses assumed hereditary material blended in the offspring
246(1)
Mendel's use of garden peas had many advantages
246(1)
Mendel's experiments focused on seven distinct traits in peas
247(1)
The F1 generations revealed dominant and recessive traits
248(1)
The F2 generations had dominant and recessive forms for each trait
249(1)
Mendel's model of the pattern of inheritance
249(1)
The testcross revealed the true nature of dominant traits
250(1)
Mendel's model in terms of genes, alleles, and chromosomes
250(3)
Variations on Mendelian genetics
253(2)
In incomplete dominance, the heterozygote has an intermediate phenotype
253(1)
In pleiotropy, a single gene affects several traits
253(1)
In polygenic inheritance, several genes combine to affect a single trait
253(1)
The environment can alter the expression of the phenotype
254(1)
Genes and chromosomes
255(9)
In sweet pea, the genes for flower color and pollen shape are on the same chromosome
255(1)
Genetic maps show the order and position of genes on chromosome
255(1)
In a dihybrid cross, genes segregate independently if they are on separate chromosomes
256(1)
Two or more genes interact to produce a trait in epistasis
257(1)
In some plants, genes located on sex chromosomes determine separate male and female organisms
258
Essay 14.1 Pseudoscience and the Lysenko Affair
252(8)
Essay 14.2 Hybrid Corn and Hybrid Orchids
260(1)
Highlights
261(1)
Review Questions
262(1)
Applying Concepts
262(2)
Genetics Engineering
264(14)
What is genetic engineering?
266(1)
Genetic engineers use tools that are common in nature
266(1)
Some genetic engineering tools are derived from bacteria and viruses
266(1)
Plants contribute other molecular tools
267(1)
Plant genetic engineering resembles crop breeding but is faster and more versatile
267(3)
Humans have long altered the genetics of domesticated plants and animals
267(2)
Genetic engineering overcomes some drawbacks of traditional breeding methods
269(1)
Bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce useful materials
270(3)
Restriction enzymes are used to prepare DNA and vectors for cloning
270(1)
Foreign DNA is ``glued'' into the vector
270(2)
Modified vectors are incorporated into bacterial cells, which are then grown to large populations
272(1)
Plants can be genetically engineered
273(1)
Genetic engineering has produced valued new forms of crops
273(1)
The roots of some GM crops can more effectively obtain soil phosphate
273(1)
Plants can be genetically modified to produce new types of starch
274(1)
GM crops can produce antibody and vaccine proteins for use in human medicine
274(1)
Genetically engineered crops pose some concerns
274(4)
Will genetic engineering help solve world food sufficiency problems?
274(1)
Should foods containing genetically modified crop products be labeled?
275(1)
Might GM crops have harmful environmental effects?
275(1)
Evolution of resistance to pest control measures might offset the value of some GM crops
275(1)
GM crops might have harmful effects on nonpest species
275(1)
GM crops might poison the natural enemies of crop pests
275(1)
GM crop plants might interbreed with wild relatives to form ``superweeds''
275(1)
GM crops pose other environmental concerns
276
Essay 15.1 PCR: The Gene Copier
268(8)
Highlights
276(1)
Review Questions
277(1)
Applying Concepts
277(1)
Biological Evolution
278(20)
Pre-Darwinian science held that species were unchanging
280(1)
Some early biologists proposed that species could evolve
280(1)
During the voyage of the Beagle, Darwin made observations that revolutionized biology
280(1)
Over the next two decades, Darwin developed his theory of evolution by natural selection
281(2)
The theory of evolution by natural selection can be summarized as a series of observations and conclusions
283(1)
The synthetic theory of evolution combines Darwinism with genetics and molecular biology
283(1)
Many areas of science provide evidence for evolution
284(3)
Artificial selection demonstrates that species can be modified
284(1)
Comparative anatomy reveals many evolutionary relationships
284(1)
Changes in proteins and DNA trace evolutionary changes
285(1)
Fossils provide a record of large-scale evolutionary changes
286(1)
Evolution occurs when forces change allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population
287(4)
Mutation provides new variation to a gene pool
288(1)
Nonrandom mating alters the frequency of alleles
289(1)
In small populations, genetic drift can cause alleles to be lost
289(1)
Migration causes alleles to flow into or out of a population
289(1)
Through natural selection, allele frequencies change such that populations become better adapted to their environment
290(1)
Directional selection
290(1)
Stabilizing selection
290(1)
Disruptive selection
290(1)
New species originate through the development of reproductive isolation
291(7)
The concept of species is based on genetic isolation
291(1)
Allopatric speciation requires geographic isolation
292(1)
Sympatric speciation can occur when polyploidy arises in plants
293(1)
Microbial species can evolve in the lab
293(3)
Essay 16.1 Major Beneficial Gene Changes Can Separate Species
296(1)
Highlights
296(1)
Review Questions
297(1)
Applying Concepts
297(1)
Part 4 Diversity of Plants, Prokaryotes, Protists, and Fungi
Naming and Organizing Plants and Microbes
298(16)
Scientific names originated with Linnaeus, the father of biological taxonomy and systematics
300(3)
Each kind of organism has a unique scientific name
300(1)
Scientific names are structured to provide useful information
300(1)
There is a correct way to write scientific names
300(2)
Plant names signify subspecies, varieties, or cultivars
302(1)
Hybrids have distinctive scientific names
302(1)
Naming new plants must follow an established procedure
303(1)
Identifying and archiving plant specimens
303(4)
Plant collections can be stored as herbarium specimens
303(3)
Resources for identifying plant include identification keys
306(1)
Plants and other organisms are classified according to their relationships
307(7)
Species can be grouped into species complexes, genera, families, orders, classes, phyla, and domains
310(1)
Plant and microbe classifications change as new discoveries are made
311
Essay 17.1 Viruses---Extreme Minimalists
301(5)
Essay 17.2 Botanical Gardens: Science and Art All in One!
306(6)
Highlights
312(1)
Review Questions
312(1)
Applying Concepts
313(1)
Prokaryotes and the Origin of Life on Earth
314(20)
What is life and why does it occur on Earth?
316(3)
The Earth's position in space is important to life
318(1)
Early life changed Earth's atmospheric composition, fostering modern life
318(1)
When did the Earth form, and when did life first appear?
319(1)
A period of bombardment preceded the establishment of life
319(1)
How did life originate?
320(2)
The chemical-biological theory explains the origin of life as a series of stages
320(1)
Organic compounds can be formed from inorganic molecules
320(1)
Macromolecules can form from simple organic compounds
321(1)
Macromolecules in water can form cell-like structures
321(1)
Bacteria and Archaea are Earth's smallest, simplest life-forms
322(6)
Prokaryote bodies are smaller and simpler than those of eukaryotes
322(1)
Prokaryotic cells are relatively simple in structure
322(1)
Prokaryotic DNA
322(1)
Prokaryotic enzymes
323(1)
Other cell components
323(1)
Some prokaryotes can swim or glide
324(1)
Slimy polysaccharides often coat prokaryote surfaces
324(1)
Prokaryote cell walls differ in structure and chemistry
325(1)
Peptidoglycan forms part of bacterial cell walls
325(1)
The Gram stain is useful in describing bacteria and predicting responses to antibiotics
325(1)
Prokaryotes reproduce primarily by binary fission
326(1)
Many prokaryotes survive harsh conditions as tough spores
326(1)
Prokaryotes lack sex, but can exchange DNA
327(1)
Prokaryotic diversity is important in nature and human affairs
328(6)
Proteobacteria are related to eukaryotic mitochondria
329(1)
Cyanobacteria are related to eukaryotic plastids
329(1)
Gram-positive bacteria include important disease agents and antibiotic producers
329(1)
Prokaryotic nutrition is ecologically important
329(1)
Prokaryotes have useful applications in human affairs
330(1)
Agricultural applications
330(1)
Industrial applications
331(1)
Environmental remediation and monitoring
331
Essay 18.1 Did Life Evolve on Mars?
317(14)
Highlights
331(1)
Review Questions
332(1)
Applying Concepts
333(1)
Protists and the Origin of Eukaryotic Cells
334(24)
What are protists and where do they occur?
336(2)
How can protists be distinguished from plants, fungi, and animals?
336(1)
Microscopes must be used to observe most protists
337(1)
Protists are common and numerous in aquatic and moist habitats
337(1)
Microscopic protists move in several ways
337(1)
Protists include diverse groups whose relationships are not completely known
338(7)
Algal diversity reflects the occurrence of key evolutionary events
345(3)
Mitochondria are derived from endosymbiotic proteobacteria
346(1)
Primary plastids originated from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria
347(1)
Protist nutritional variation explains diverse ecological roles
348(1)
Structural and reproductive adaptations aid in protist survival
349(5)
Cell coverings
349(1)
Organic food storage
350(1)
Asexual reproduction
350(1)
Sexual reproduction
350(4)
Algae have useful biotechnological applications
354(4)
Industrial and food products
354(1)
Water quality improvement systems
355(1)
Laboratory model systems
355
Essay 19.1 It's Not Easy Being Non-green: Parasitic Algae
340(3)
Essay 19.2 Killer Algae
343(13)
Highlights
356(1)
Review Questions
356(1)
Applying Concepts
357(1)
Fungi and Lichens
358(18)
Fungi are eukaryotes with distinctive cell walls and bodies
360(1)
Fungal nutrition is absorptive
360(2)
Major fungal groups differ in reproduction
362(2)
Sexual spores allow fungi to colonize new habitats
364(1)
Asexual spores are used to disperse well-adapted genetic types
364(1)
Fungi live in beneficial associations with most plants
364(3)
Endophytic fungal partners provide benefits to plants
364(2)
Mycorrhizae and partnerships between fungi and plant roots
366(1)
Some heterotrophic plants obtain organic food from fungi
366(1)
Fungi are relevant to humans in many ways
367(5)
Fungi function as decomposers
367(2)
Fungi are useful as foods and in industrial production
369(1)
Some fungi are poisonous or hallucinogenic
370(2)
Lichens are partnerships between fungi and photosynthetic microbes
372(4)
Lichen evolution and diversity
372(1)
Lichen reproduction and development
372(1)
Lichen ecology
373(1)
Human uses of lichens
373
Essay 20.1 Fungal Gold: Mining Truffles
369(5)
Highlights
374(1)
Review Questions
374(1)
Applying Concepts
375(1)
Seedless Plants
376(24)
What are plants?
378(3)
Plants are multicellular autotrophs that are adapted to life on land
378(1)
Plant diversity is important in global ecology and human affairs
378(3)
DNA and fossils help trace the history of plants
381(3)
DNA data reveal relationships of modern plants
381(1)
Land plants evolved from charophycean green algae
381(1)
DNA evidence reveals the order in which the modern plant groups appeared
382(1)
Fossils reveal important events in the early evolutionary history of plants
383(1)
The origin of land-adapted plants
383(1)
The rise of vascular plants
383(1)
Early plant evolution illustrates the concept of descent with modification
384(2)
The plant sporophyte probably originated by delaying zygote meiosis
384(1)
Leaves of ferns arose from branched stem systems
384(2)
Modern seedless plant groups include bryophytes, lycophytes, and pteridophytes
386(14)
Bryophytes are the earliest-divergent modern land plants
386(1)
Bryophyte bodies are simpler than those of vascular plants
387(1)
Bryophytes reproduce by wind-dispersed spores, breakage, or asexual structures
387(3)
Mosses are diverse, ecologically significant, and economically useful
390(1)
Lycophytes and pteridophytes are modern phyla of seedless vascular plants
391(1)
Lycophytes have simple leaves
391(1)
Most pteridophytes have leaves with branched vascular systems
392(3)
Lycophyte and pteridophyte reproduction illustrates early steps toward seed evolution
395
Essay 21.1 The Plants that Changed the World
380(18)
Highlights
398(1)
Review Questions
399(1)
Applying Concepts
399(1)
Gymnosperms, the First Seed Plants
400(18)
Gymnosperms include four modern groups and diverse extinct forms
402(1)
Modern gymnosperms are classified into four major groups
402(1)
Diverse groups of extinct gymnosperms were ecologically significant in the past
402(1)
Gymnosperms produce ovules and seeds in cones, rather than within fruits
402(5)
An ovule is an integument-covered megasporangium
403(2)
Seeds develop from ovules whose egg cells have been fertilized
405(1)
Ovule evolution illustrates Darwin's concept of descent with modification
405(2)
Seeds provide ecological advantages to present and past plants
407(2)
Diversity and utility of modern gymnosperms
409(9)
Cycads are widely planted, but endangered in the wild
409(1)
Ginko biloba is the maidenhair tree
410(2)
Conifers are the most diverse living gymnosperms
412(2)
Pines illustrate the major features of conifers
414(1)
Gnetophytes are of evolutionary significance
415
Essay 22.1 Plant Survivors
411(5)
Highlights
416(1)
Review Questions
417(1)
Applying Concepts
417(1)
Angiosperm Diversity and Reproduction
418(22)
Flowering plants comprise an enormous number and diversity of species
420(1)
The parts of flowers are arranged in whorls
421(6)
Flowers vary greatly in the numbers, positions, and arrangements of parts
423(1)
Flowers have evolved many different types of inflorescence for pollination
423(4)
The angiosperm life cycle involves an alternation of generations
427(2)
Double fertilization produces a zygote and an endosperm
427(1)
Apomixis produces seeds without fertilization
428(1)
The development of the embryo and seed follows double fertilization
429(4)
Plant embryos pass through a number of developmental stages
429(3)
The mature seed is nutritionally independent of the parent plant
432(1)
A fruit is a mature ovary containing seeds
433(2)
Simple fruits are the most common type
433(2)
Complex fruits develop from multiple pistils or multiple flowers
435(1)
Seed germination and the formation of the adult plant
435(5)
Germination requirements are closely linked to the environment
435(1)
After germination, plants follow various patterns of development
436
Essay 23.1 The ABCs of Floral Organ Development
424(14)
Highlights
438(1)
Review Questions
438(1)
Applying Concepts
439(1)
Flowering Plant and Animal Coevolution
440(20)
Coevolutionary interactions between flowering plants and animals are common and important in nature and human affairs
442(1)
Flowering plant-animal coevolutionary interactions are important in agriculture
442(1)
Coevolution is important in global ecology
443(1)
Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from one flower to another of the same species
443(13)
Outbreeding provides greater genetic variability than inbreeding
444(1)
Animal pollinators offer precision, high-fidelity pollination services
445(1)
Plant food rewards to animal pollinators include nectar, pollen, and oil
446(1)
Plants attract pollinators by flower scent, color, shape, and arrangement
446(2)
Flowers control pollinator access by flower shapes and positions
448(1)
Animal pollinators can learn to recognize the features of favored flowers
449(1)
Flowers and pollinators have coordinated traits known as pollination syndromes
449(1)
Beetles and beetle-pollinated flowers
449(1)
Bees and bee-pollinated flowers
449(2)
Nectar-feeding flies, carrion flies, and fly-pollinated flowers
451(2)
Butterflies, moths, and coevolved flowers
453(1)
Birds and bird-pollinated flowers
454(2)
Bats and bat-pollinated flowers
456(1)
Plants have also coevolved with animals to accomplish seed dispersal
456(4)
Essay 24.1 Pollination by Wind and Water
445(13)
Highlights
458(1)
Review Questions
459(1)
Applying Concepts
459(1)
Part 5 Ecology and Plant Adaptations to the Environment
Principles of Ecology and the Biosphere
460(22)
Ecology focuses on populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, and the biosphere
462(1)
Populations show patterns of distribution and age structure, grow and decline, occupy specific niches, and interact with other populations
462(5)
Plants in a population may be distributed in a random, uniform, or clumped pattern
462(1)
Age distribution and survivorship curves describe the age structure of populations
462(1)
Populations show distinct patterns of growth
463(2)
The ecological niche includes the abiotic factors that determine the area the population occupies
465(1)
The ecological niche includes interactions between populations of different species
465(1)
In mutualism, two populations exchange benefits
465(1)
In parasitism, herbivory, and predation, one population benefits and the other is harmed
465(1)
In competition, individual organisms have a negative impact on each other
466(1)
Communities are composed of individuals of many different species
467(4)
Communities can be characterized by their species diversity
467(1)
Ecological succession is the change in community composition over time
468(1)
Primary succession begins on areas not previously occupied by organisms
469(2)
Secondary succession occurs on areas where a community has been removed
471(1)
Ecosystem studies focus on trophic structure and energy flow
471(2)
Organisms may be grouped into functional categories
471(1)
The flow of energy through a food chain is linear
471(1)
Only a small fraction of energy passes between trophic levels
472(1)
Global climatic patterns determine the distribution of biomes
473(3)
The distribution of biomes is determined primarily by global patterns of atmospheric circulation
473(3)
Continentality, ocean currents, and mountain ranges also affect the distribution of biomes
476(1)
Matter moves between biomes and the physical environment in large-scale biogeochemical cycles
476(6)
Water cycles through the oceans, atmosphere, lands, and organisms
476(1)
Microorganisms largely control the nitrogen cycle
477(2)
Carbon dioxide cycles between the atmosphere and the biosphere
479
Essay 25.1 Determining Past Climate and Vegetation from Pollen Data
470(10)
Highlights
480(1)
Review Questions
481(1)
Applying Concepts
481(1)
Arid Terrestrial Ecosystems
482(30)
Arid terrestrial ecosystems are diverse
484(1)
Polar deserts have the most severe climates on Earth
484(2)
Arctic herb barrens contain few species of plants
484(1)
Continental Antarctica contains only sparse populations of mosses, lichens, and algae
485(1)
In the maritime Antarctic, bryophytes and lichens are dominant
486(1)
Temperate and subtropical deserts are characterized by low annual precipitation
486(10)
Four physical factors determine the locations of temperate and subtropical deserts
487(1)
Desert plants have adapted to acquire water
488(1)
Plants using the deep-water table must put down long roots
488(1)
A great variety of desert plants use surface water
489(1)
Desert algae, mosses, and lichens are tolerant of high temperatures
489(1)
Desert annuals and herbaceous perennials grow when water is available
490(1)
Deciduous perennials maintain significant aboveground biomass
490(2)
Desert succulents have a number of adaptive features to survive aridity
492(1)
Succulents conserve water by a low surface-to-volume ratio and CAM metabolism
492(1)
Much of the volume of succulents is available for water storage
492(1)
Cacti are extremely tolerant of high temperatures
493(1)
Water uptake in desert succulents may be very rapid
493(1)
Stem succulents have cylindrical, globose, or paddle-like stems
493(1)
Leaf succulents include the agaves, aloes, and stone plants
493(2)
Human impacts on deserts include mining, depletion of aquifers, and urban sprawl
495(1)
Grasslands are temperate areas dominated by grasses
496(10)
Grasslands are ecologically, evolutionarily, and economically important
496(1)
Grasslands occupy vast areas of land and support immense populations of animals
496(1)
Grasslands store vast amounts of organic carbon in their soils
496(1)
Grasslands support the world's most productive agriculture
496(1)
Grasslands have had a major impact on the evolution of grazer animals and humans
497(1)
Climate, fire, and herbivores shape grassland environments
497(1)
Grassland climate is drier and more extreme than that of most forests
498(1)
Fire plays an important role in maintaining grasslands
498(1)
Large animal grazers also influence grassland environments
498(1)
Grassland plants are adapted to cope with environmental stresses
499(1)
Dominant grass species vary through the year and by region
499(1)
Grass plants are adapted for fast growth, high productivity, and resistance to fire and grazing
500(1)
Grass flowers and fruits are adapted for efficient reproduction
501(1)
Forbs are diverse grassland plants that are neither grasses, trees, nor shrubs
502(1)
Grassland trees and shrubs are adapted to survive fire and provide important resources for some grazers
502(1)
Grassland improvement, restoration, and preservation yield benefits for people
503(1)
Dry grasslands can degrade into deserts
504(1)
Mesic grasslands have mostly been transformed into farmlands
504(2)
Wet grasslands provide valuable ecological services
506(1)
The chaparral ecosystem has hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters
506(6)
Evergreen shrubs with sclerophyllous leaves dominate the chaparral
507(1)
Fire is a major ecological force in the chaparral
508(1)
Some shrubs require fire to establish new seedlings
508(1)
Other shrubs require an absence of fire to establish seedlings
508(1)
Trees in the chaparral are adapted to survive wildfires
508(1)
Human impact has been severe on Mediterranean scrub ecosystems
509
Essay 26.1 Building Biomes on Mars
486(13)
Essay 26.2 Restoring Prairies
499(10)
Highlights
509(1)
Review Questions
510(1)
Applying Concepts
511(1)
Moist Terrestrial Ecosystems
512(32)
Moist terrestrial ecosystems cover a wide range of climates
514(1)
Polar and alpine ecosystems have arisen since the retreat of the last glaciation
514(1)
Tundra can be characterized by the absence of trees
514(3)
Tundra plants show a number of adaptations in form and function
516(1)
Tundra plants show a number of reproductive adaptations
516(1)
Coniferous trees dominate the taiga
517(1)
Alpine tundra and montane coniferous forest are southern extensions of arctic tundra and taiga
518(2)
Alpine tundra and arctic tundra have many species in common
518(1)
Dominant conifer species differ among mountain ranges
518(1)
Mining, logging, grazing, and recreation affect polar and alpine ecosystems at local and regional scales
519(1)
Temperate deciduous forests are ecosystems with seasonality and abundant precipitation
520(9)
Eight genera of trees define the eastern temperate deciduous forest
521(1)
Plants in the temperate deciduous forest are adapted to cold winters and competition for light
522(2)
Humans have had a major impact on many features of the eastern temperate deciduous forest
524(1)
Many exotic species have invaded the temperate deciduous forest
525(1)
Plant rustling from national forests is becoming a serious problem
526(1)
Research at Hubbard Brook was undertaken to determine how temperate forest ecosystems function
527(1)
Acid rain is damaging the eastern temperate deciduous forest
528(1)
Tropical rain forests have a nonseasonal climate and abundant precipitation
529(15)
Tropical rain forests have high biotic diversity and important global climate effects
529(1)
Great age, rapid evolution, and complex structure foster high biodiversity
530(1)
Tropical rain forests store much of the Earth's carbon
531(1)
Tropical rain forests play an important role in global water cycling
531(1)
Tropical forest vegetation is distinctive
531(1)
Tropical forests are tall, evergreen, and layered
531(1)
Tropical forests are richer in tree species than other forests
531(1)
Tropical forests contain plant forms that are rare elsewhere
531(1)
Tropical rain forests are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth
532(1)
Warm, moist tropical climates favor lush plant growth
532(2)
Tropical plants compete for light
534(1)
Some tropical plants are adapted to drought
534(1)
Heavy rainfall and high winds can damage tropical plants
534(1)
Paradoxically, lush rain forests grow on poor soils
534(1)
Tropical forest soils are low in nutrients and organic materials
534(1)
Tropical forest mineral nutrients are held within tissues of living organisms
535(1)
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi help tropical rain forest plants cope with poor soils
535(1)
Early tropical forest farmers learned to cope with poor soils
535(1)
Temperate-style agriculture is often difficult to practice in the tropics
536(1)
Tropical forest plants are adapted to numerous environmental stresses
537(1)
Canopy trees are well adapted to intercept light, but are vulnerable to fire and forest fragmentation
537(1)
Tropical tree stem architecture is amazingly diverse
537(1)
Buttress roots provide structural support
537(1)
Leaves of tropical trees are surprisingly uniform in shape
538(1)
Tree reproduction is adapted to forest conditions
539(1)
Lianas' growth and reproduction reflect their clinging lifestyle
540
Essay 27.1 Native American Uses of Temperate Forest Plants
525(8)
Essay 27.2 Fascinating Orchids
533(5)
Essay 27.3 Restoring a Lost Forest
538(3)
Highlights
541(1)
Review Questions
542(1)
Applying Concepts
543(1)
Aquatic Ecosystems
544(28)
Aquatic ecosystems are essential to humans
546(1)
People and wildlife depend on freshwaters and wetlands for many services
546(1)
Lake ecosystems: seasonal changes, habitats, and primary producers
546(6)
Lakes contain three major types of habitats and communities
546(1)
Mineral nutrient availability in temperate lakes varies with seasonal temperature change
547(1)
Spring
547(1)
Summer
547(1)
Fall
547(1)
Winter
547(1)
Freshwater algae and plants are adapted to aquatic habitats
548(1)
Algae
548(1)
Floating plants
548(1)
Rooted macrophytes
548(1)
Human activities have degraded freshwaters
549(1)
Oligotrophic freshwaters are low in nutrients and productivity but high in species diversity
550(1)
Eutrophic freshwaters are high in nutrients and productivity but low in species diversity
550(1)
Phosphorous availability controls growth of freshwater plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
550(1)
Lake and stream eutrophication can be prevented or reversed
551(1)
Wetland ecosystems
552(4)
Common freshwater wetlands include riparian wetlands, deep-water swamps, marshes, acid bogs, and sedge meadows
552(1)
Wetlands play important roles in global carbon cycling
552(1)
Wetland plants are adapted in ways that help them overcome stresses of wetland habitats
553(2)
Humans have destroyed many of the world's wetlands
555(1)
Wetland delineation, invasive species, and restoration are issues in wetland protection and restoration
555(1)
Oceans are essential to humans and life on Earth
556(1)
Oceans cover most of the surface of the Earth
557(3)
Seawater and freshwater differ in the amount of dissolved substances
557(1)
Ocean basins contain a varied terrain
558(1)
Atmospheric circulation and the Coriolis force drive ocean currents
558(1)
Ocean temperatures vary with depth, season, and latitude
559(1)
The oceans can be divided into realms
560(1)
The epipelagic ecosystem contains plankton and nekton communities
560(3)
Bacterioplankton are the most important group in terms of productivity
561(1)
Phytoplankton are very diverse in form
561(1)
Diatoms
561(1)
Dinoflagellates
561(1)
Haptophytes
562(1)
The planktonic food web begins with picoplankton
562(1)
The sublittoral zone includes kelp forests, seagrass beds, and coral reefs
563(4)
Kelp forests are dominated by large photosynthetic protists
563(2)
Seagrasses stabilize soft sandy sediments and provide shelter for many marine animals
565(1)
Coral reefs are among the most beautiful and diverse ecosystems on Earth
566(1)
The littoral zone includes estuaries, salt marshes, and mangrove forests
567(5)
Estuaries have relatively few species of organisms
567(1)
Salt marshes contain herbs, grasses, and shrubs rooted in soils washed by tides
568(1)
In mangrove forests the trees grow in shallow seawater
569
Essay 28.1 Jamaican Coral Reefs: Going, Going, . . . Gone
568(2)
Highlights
570(1)
Review Questions
570(1)
Applying Concepts
571(1)
Human Impacts and Sustainability
572(17)
Sustainability is the maintenance of humans together with healthy environments
574(1)
Humans impact the global environment in many ways
574(6)
How many people can Earth sustain?
575(1)
Human population growth is correlated with environmental degradation
575(1)
Global warming is affecting every ecosystem on Earth
576(1)
Humans impact the global environment in a number of other ways
577(1)
Acid rain
577(1)
Depletion of soil fertility and erosion
577(1)
Pollution of coastal zones
577(1)
Overfishing
578(1)
Transformation of ecosystems leads to loss of biodiversity
578(2)
The concept of sustainability has many different dimensions
580(9)
Stable human populations are necessary for sustainability
580(1)
Innovative technologies may improve energy sustainability
580(1)
Sustainable agriculture reduces erosion, nutrient and organic carbon loss, and chemical use
581(1)
Sustainable use of ocean resources and restoration of coastal zones are future goals
582(1)
Sustainability requires maintaining ecosystem services and biodiversity
583(1)
Biodiversity ``hotspots'' are regions of high endemism
583(1)
Biomes differ in their vulnerability to extinction
584(1)
Everyone can contribute to global sustainability
584
Essay 29.1 Fossil Fuel-Free in Iceland
582(2)
Essay 29.2 Sustainable Use of Neotropical Forests
584(2)
Highlights
586(1)
Review Questions
586(1)
Applying Concepts
587(2)
Appendix I Metric Systems Conversions 589(2)
Appendix II Geological Time Scale 591(2)
Answers 593(30)
Glossary 623(16)
Credits 639(2)
Index 641


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