9780072392661

Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780072392661

  • ISBN10:

    0072392665

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/9/2002
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Summary

The fifth edition of Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers is a major revision of the popular fourth edition. There are new chapters on process synthesis, computer-aided design, and design of chemical reactors. A traditionally strong feature of the text, economic analysis, has been revamped and updated. Another strength, equipment sizing and cost estimation, is updated and expanded as well. These improvements also reflect changes in equipment availability. The numerous real examples throughout the book include computer or hand solutions, and often both. There is a new increased emphasis on computer use in design, economic evaluation, and optimization. Concepts, strategies, and approaches to computer use are featured. These concepts are not tied to particular software programs and therefore apply to wide a range of applications software, of both current and future release. This widely used text is now more useful than ever, providing a '¬Sone-stop'¬¯ basic guide to chemical process design and evaluation.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Prologue xix
Introduction
1(14)
Chemical Engineering Plant Design
1(1)
General Overall Design Considerations
2(9)
Process Design Development
2(3)
Flowsheet Development
5(1)
Computer-Aided Design
6(1)
Cost Estimation
6(1)
Profitability Analysis of Investments
7(1)
Optimum Design
8(3)
Practical Considerations in Design
11(2)
The Design Approach
12(1)
Engineering Ethics in Design
13(2)
General Design Considerations
15(52)
Health and Safety Hazards
15(14)
Sources of Exposure
16(2)
Exposure Evaluation
18(2)
Control of Exposure Hazards
20(2)
Fire and Explosion Hazards
22(5)
Personnel Safety
27(1)
Safety Regulations
27(2)
Loss Prevention
29(11)
HAZOP Study
29(6)
Fault-tree Analysis
35(1)
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
36(1)
Safety Indexes
36(1)
Safety Audits
36(4)
Environmental Protection
40(12)
Environmental Regulations
41(1)
Development of a Pollution Control System
42(1)
Air Pollution Abatement
42(5)
Water Pollution Abatement
47(3)
Solid Waste Disposal
50(1)
Thermal Pollution Control
51(1)
Noise Control
52(1)
Plant Location
52(4)
Factors Involved
53(3)
Selection of the Plant Site
56(1)
Plant Layout
56(1)
Preparation of the Layout
57(1)
Plant Operation and Control
57(5)
Instrumentation
57(1)
Maintenance
58(1)
Utilities
59(1)
Structural Design
60(1)
Storage
60(1)
Materials Handling
61(1)
Patent Considerations
62(1)
Problems
62(5)
Process Design Development
67(58)
Development of Design Database
67(2)
Literature Survey
68(1)
Patent Search
69(1)
Process Creation
69(3)
Batch Versus Continuous Operation
70(1)
Raw Materials and Product Specifications
70(1)
Process Synthesis Steps
71(1)
Process Design
72(5)
Types of Process Designs
74(3)
Process Flow Diagrams
77(2)
Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams
79(1)
Vessel and Piping Layout Isometrics
80(1)
Equipment Design and Specifications
81(6)
Scale-up of Equipment in Design
81(1)
Safety Factors
81(3)
Equipment Specifications
84(2)
Materials of Construction
86(1)
The Preliminary Design---A Specific Example
87(33)
Problem Statement
87(1)
Literature Survey
87(1)
Process Creation
88(2)
Development of Conventional Base-Case Design
90(20)
Economic Assessment of Base-Case Design
110(3)
Assessment of Proposed Base-Case Design Modification
113(7)
Summary
120(1)
Problems
121(4)
Flowsheet Synthesis and Development
125(71)
Flowsheet Synthesis and Development
126(4)
General Procedure
126(4)
Process Information
130(5)
Background Information
130(1)
Molecular Path Synthesis
131(1)
Selecting a Process Pathway
132(1)
Production Mode
132(1)
Recording Decisions
133(2)
Input/Output Structure
135(2)
Functions Diagram
137(6)
Preprocessing
138(1)
Reactions
139(1)
Recycle
139(1)
By-products, Intermediates, and Wastes
139(1)
Separations
140(3)
Operations Diagram
143(6)
Preprocessing
143(1)
Reactors
143(1)
Separations Methods
144(1)
Heating and Cooling
145(1)
Minimization of Processing
145(4)
Process Flowsheet
149(9)
Reactors
149(1)
Mass and Energy Balances
149(1)
Separation Trains
149(1)
Heat Exchange
150(8)
Algorithmic Flowsheet Generation
158(31)
Fundamentals of Algorithmic Process-Network Synthesis
159(6)
Application of Algorithmic Process-Network Synthesis
165(24)
Comparison of Hierarchical and Algorithmic Results
189(1)
Genetic Algorithms
189(1)
Future Approaches to Flowsheet Synthesis and Development
190(1)
Software Use in Flowsheet Synthesis
190(1)
Analysis and Evaluation of Flowsheets
190(2)
Criteria for Evaluating Designs
190(2)
Summary
192(1)
Nomenclature
192(1)
Greek Symbol
193(1)
Problems
193(3)
Software Use in Process Design
196(30)
Software Structure
198(6)
Chemical Property Estimation
198(3)
Process Equipment Models
201(1)
Process Equipment Cost Estimation
202(1)
Process Economic Evaluation
203(1)
Heat Integration
203(1)
Process Control
203(1)
Process Optimization
204(1)
Software Capabilities
204(4)
General-Type Software
205(3)
Software for Process Design
208(8)
Molecular Reaction Databases and Simulators
208(1)
Chemical Cost Databases
209(1)
Flowsheeting Software
209(2)
Unit Operations Simulators
211(3)
Piping System Design
214(1)
Plant Layout
214(1)
Economic Evaluation
215(1)
Software Selection
216(1)
Software Use
216(4)
Physical Property Estimation Guidelines
217(1)
Process Simulation Guidelines
217(3)
Avoiding Pitfalls in Software Use
220(4)
Graphic Interface and Ease of Use
221(1)
Thermodynamic Property Packages
222(1)
Simulation Realism
222(2)
Evaluation of Software Results
224(2)
Analysis of Cost Estimation
226(53)
Cash Flow for Industrial Operations
226(4)
Cash Flow
226(2)
Cumulative Cash Position
228(2)
Factors Affecting Investment and Production Costs
230(2)
Sources of Equipment
230(1)
Price Fluctuations
230(1)
Company Policies
230(1)
Operating Time and Rate of Production
231(1)
Government Policies
232(1)
Capital Investment
232(1)
Fixed-Capital Investment
233(1)
Working Capital
233(1)
Estimation of Capital Investment
233(3)
Types of Capital Cost Estimates
235(1)
Cost Indexes
236(3)
Cost Components in Capital Investment
239(10)
Purchased Equipment
241(1)
Estimating Equipment Costs by Scaling
242(2)
Purchased-Equipment Delivery
244(1)
Purchased-Equipment Installation
244(1)
Instrumentation and Controls
245(1)
Piping
245(1)
Electrical Systems
246(1)
Buildings
246(1)
Yard Improvements
246(1)
Service Facilities
246(1)
Health, Safety, and Environmental Functions
247(1)
Land
248(1)
Engineering and Supervision
248(1)
Legal Expenses
248(1)
Construction Expenses
248(1)
Contractor's Fee
249(1)
Contingencies
249(1)
Methods for Estimating Capital Investment
249(9)
Estimation of Revenue
258(1)
Estimation of Total Product Cost
259(12)
Manufacturing Costs
262(1)
Variable Production Costs
262(8)
Plant Overhead Costs
270(1)
General Expenses
270(1)
Gross Profit, Net Profit, and Cash Flow
271(1)
Contingencies
272(1)
Summary
272(2)
Nomenclature
274(1)
Greek Symbol
275(1)
Problems
275(4)
Interest, Time Value of Money, Taxes, and Fixed Charges
279(40)
Interest
279(6)
Simple Interest
280(1)
Compound Interest
280(1)
Nominal and Effective Interest Rates
281(2)
Continuous Interest
283(2)
Cost of Capital
285(5)
Income Tax Effects
286(1)
Loan Payments
287(3)
Time Value of Money
290(2)
Cash Flow Patterns
292(5)
Discrete Cash Flows
292(2)
Continuous Cash Flows
294(3)
Compounding and Discounting Factors
297(6)
Income Taxes
303(4)
Federal Income Taxes
304(1)
Taxable Income
304(1)
Capital Gains Tax
305(1)
Losses
306(1)
Other Federal Taxes
306(1)
State Taxes
306(1)
Nonincome Taxes
306(1)
Fixed Charges
307(8)
Depreciation
307(1)
Depreciation and Income Tax
308(1)
Depreciable Investments
309(1)
Current Value
309(1)
Salvage Value
309(1)
Recovery Period
309(1)
Methods for Calculating Depreciation
310(3)
Insurance
313(1)
Self-insurance
314(1)
Nomenclature
315(1)
Greek Symbol
316(1)
Problems
316(3)
Profitability, Alternative Investments, and Replacements
319(39)
Profitability Standards
320(2)
Cost of Capital
320(1)
Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return
321(1)
Methods for Calculating Profitability
322(18)
Methods That Do Not Consider the Time Value of Money
322(5)
Methods That Consider the Time Value of Money
327(3)
Selecting a Profitability Method
330(5)
Effect of Inflation on Profitability Analysis
335(5)
Start-up Costs
340(1)
Spreadsheet for Economic Evaluation Calculations
340(1)
Alternative Investments
340(8)
Alternatives When an Investment Must Be Made
342(4)
Analysis with Small Investment Increments
346(2)
Replacements
348(4)
Methods of Profitability Evaluation for Replacements
349(1)
Typical Example of Replacement Policy
349(1)
Book Values and Unamortized Values
350(1)
Investment on Which the Replacement Comparison Is Based
350(2)
Practical Factors in Alternative-Investment and Replacement Analysis
352(1)
Nomenclature
352(1)
Greek Symbol
353(1)
Problems
353(5)
Optimum Design and Design Strategy
358(82)
Defining the Optimization Problem
359(2)
Selecting an Objective Function
361(2)
Structural Optimization
361(1)
Parametric Optimization
362(1)
Variable Screening and Selection
363(1)
Suboptimization
363(1)
Practical and Intangible Considerations
364(1)
Programming Optimization Problems
364(15)
Linear Programming
367(3)
Generalization of Strategy for Linear Programming
370(2)
Simultaneous Equations
372(1)
Nonlinear Programming
373(4)
Dynamic Programming
377(2)
Optimization Solution Methodologies
379(11)
Procedure with One Variable
380(1)
Procedure with Two or More Variables
381(3)
Breakeven Chart for Optimum Analysis of Production
384(1)
Experimental Design and Analysis of Process Simulations
384(2)
Algorithm Solutions to Optimization Problems
386(4)
Optimization Applications
390(43)
Optimization Application: Optimum Production Rates in Plant Operation
390(4)
Optimization Application: Cyclic Operations
394(7)
Optimization Application: Economic Pipe Diameter
401(5)
Optimization Application: Cooling Water Flow Rate
406(3)
Optimization Application: Distillation Reflux Ratio
409(5)
Optimization Application: Pinch Technology Analysis
414(19)
Nomenclature
433(2)
Greek Symbols
435(1)
Problems
435(5)
Materials and Fabrication Selection
440(29)
Factors Contributing to Corrosion
440(3)
Combating Corrosion
443(1)
Properties of Materials
444(13)
Ferrous Metals and Alloys
444(6)
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
450(1)
Inorganic Nonmetals
451(1)
Organic Nonmetals
452(3)
Low- and High-Temperature Materials
455(2)
Gasket Materials
457(1)
Tabulated Data for Selecting Materials of Construction
457(1)
Selection of Materials
457(8)
Economics Involved in Selection
464(1)
Fabrication of Equipment
465(2)
Methods of Fabrication
466(1)
Problems
467(2)
Written and Oral Design Reports
469(16)
Written Reports
470(11)
Organization of a Written Report
470(3)
Preparing the Report
473(1)
Presenting the Results
474(6)
Comments on Common Errors
480(1)
Checklist for the Final Report
481(1)
Oral Reports
481(3)
Organization and Presentation of an Oral Design Report
482(2)
Problems
484(1)
Materials-Handling Equipment---Design and Costs
485(107)
Basic Concepts of Fluid Transport
485(12)
Newtonian Fluids
486(2)
Non-Newtonian and Bingham Fluids
488(1)
Vacuum Flow
489(2)
Frictional Losses Encountered in Pipelines
491(1)
Power Requirements for Transport of Liquids and Gases
492(5)
Piping in Fluid Transport Processes
497(11)
Selection of Piping Materials
497(2)
Design of Piping Systems
499(3)
Costs for Piping and Piping System Auxiliaries
502(6)
Pumping of Fluids
508(12)
Selection of Pumps
508(7)
Design Procedures for Pumps
515(1)
Costs for Pumps and Motors
516(4)
Compression and Expansion of Fluids
520(16)
Selection of Compressors
520(3)
Selection of Fans and Blowers
523(1)
Selection of Vacuum System Equipment
524(1)
Selection of Turbines, Expanders, and Other Drivers
525(2)
Design Procedures for Compressors
527(2)
Design Procedures for Turbines and Expanders
529(2)
Costs for Compressors, Fans, Blowers, and Expanders
531(5)
Agitation and Mixing of Fluids
536(13)
Selection of Agitators and Mixers
536(3)
Design Procedures for Agitators and Mixers
539(5)
Costs for Agitators and Mixers
544(5)
Flow Measurement of Fluids
549(3)
Storage and Containment of Fluids
552(8)
Design Procedures for Pressure Vessels
553(1)
Costs for Tanks, Pressure Vessels, and Storage Equipment
553(7)
Transport of Solids
560(12)
Selection of Solids Transport Equipment
561(4)
General Design Procedures for Solids Transport Equipment
565(7)
Costs for Solids Transport Equipment
572(1)
Handling of Solids
572(15)
Selection of Solids-Handling Equipment
577(3)
General Design Procedures for Solids-Handling Equipment
580(2)
Costs for Solids-Handling Equipment
582(5)
Nomenclature
587(2)
Greek Symbols
589(1)
Problems
589(3)
Reactor Equipment---Design and Costs
592(50)
Reactor Principles
594(11)
Reactor Types
596(1)
Space Velocity and Space Time
597(1)
Batch Reactors
597(1)
Tubular Plug-Flow Reactors
598(1)
Back-Mix Reactors
599(1)
Nonideality of Reactors
599(1)
Accounting for Reactor Nonideality
600(1)
Residence Time Distribution
600(1)
Nonideal Reactor Emulation Using Ideal Reactor Combinations
601(1)
Recycle Reactors
602(3)
Development of Chemical Reaction Rate Expressions
605(8)
Types of Reactions
606(7)
Reaction and Reactor Performance
613(3)
Parallel Reactions
613(1)
Series Reactions
614(1)
Systems of Identical Multiple Reactors
614(2)
Reactor and Catalyst Equipment
616(18)
Selection of Catalyst
616(1)
Types of Reactors
617(4)
Selection of Reactors
621(1)
Design of Reactor Systems
622(4)
Reactor Design Procedure
626(1)
Software
626(1)
Costs for Reactor Equipment
627(7)
Summary
634(1)
Nomenclature
635(2)
Greek Symbols
636(1)
Problems
637(5)
Heat-Transfer Equipment---Design and Costs
642(112)
Basic Theory of Heat Transfer in Exchangers
643(13)
Steady-State Heat-Transfer Considerations
644(8)
Alternative Approaches to Heat Exchanger Performance
652(4)
Determination of Heat-Transfer Coefficients
656(8)
Film Coefficients for Fluids Flowing Inside of Pipes and Tubes (No Phase Change)
657(2)
Film Coefficients for Fluids Flowing Outside of Pipes and Tubes (No Phase Change)
659(2)
Film Coefficients and Overall Coefficients for Various Heat-Transfer Situations
661(3)
Determination of Pressure Drop in Heat Exchangers
664(5)
Tube-Side Pressure Drop
664(1)
Shell-Side Pressure Drop
665(4)
Selection of Heat Exchanger Type
669(25)
Key Heat Exchanger Types Available
670(6)
Preliminary Selection of Heat Exchanger Types
676(1)
Costs of Heat Exchangers
676(18)
Design of Key Heat Exchanger Types
694(44)
Double-Pipe and Multiple Double-Pipe Exchangers
696(6)
Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
702(22)
Plate Exchangers
724(5)
Compact Exchangers
729(4)
Air-Cooled Exchangers
733(1)
Condensers
734(3)
Evaporators
737(1)
Optimum Design of Heat Exchangers
738(6)
General Case
739(5)
General Methods for Design of Heat Exchangers
744(1)
Nomenclature
745(4)
Greek Symbols
748(1)
Problems
749(5)
Separation Equipment---Design and Costs
754(123)
Selection of Suitable Separation Processes
755(14)
Guidelines for the Separation Process Selection
757(12)
Equipment Design and Costs for Separating Homogeneous Mixtures
769(1)
Separation by Distillation
769(28)
Distillation Design Procedures for Columns with Sieve Trays
769(14)
Distillation Design Procedures for Columns with Random Packing
783(4)
Distillation Design Procedures for Columns with Structured Packing
787(1)
Rating of Distillation Equipment
788(1)
Rigorous Design Methods for Multicomponent Distillation
788(1)
Design Procedures for Other Distillation Processes
789(3)
Equipment Costs for Tray and Packed Columns
792(5)
Separation by Absorption and Stripping
797(7)
Design Procedures for Trayed Columns Separating Dilute Solutes
799(3)
Design Procedures for Packed Columns Separating Dilute Solutes
802(1)
Design Procedures for Packed Columns Separating Concentrated Solutes
803(1)
Separation by Extraction
804(10)
Equipment Selection for Liquid/Liquid Extraction
804(2)
Design Procedures for Liquid/Liquid Extraction
806(8)
Equipment Costs for Liquid/Liquid Extraction Equipment
814(1)
Separation Using Membranes
814(10)
Selection of Membrane Types
814(1)
General Design Concepts for Membrane Separation
815(5)
General Design Procedures for Membrane Separation
820(4)
Range of Costs for Several Membrane Systems
824(1)
Separation by Adsorption
824(13)
Selection of Sorbent for Separation by Adsorption
825(2)
Basic Adsorption Cycles
827(2)
Selection of Appropriate Adsorption Cycle
829(1)
General Design Concepts for Separation by Adsorption
830(7)
Costs for Adsorption Equipment
837(1)
Equipment Design and Costs for Separating Heterogeneous Mixtures
837(2)
Separation by Drying
839(12)
Equipment Selection for Drying Solids
839(3)
General Design Procedures for Drying
842(3)
Costs for Typical Dryers
845(6)
Separation by Filtration
851(18)
Selection of Filtration Equipment
851(3)
General Design Procedures for Separation by Filtration
854(9)
Costs for Filtration and Other Solids Separation Equipment
863(6)
Nomenclature
869(4)
Greek Symbols
872(1)
Problems
873(4)
Appendix A: The International System (SI) of Units 877(13)
Appendix B: Auxiliary, Utility, and Instrumentation Cost Data 890(9)
Appendix C: Design Problems 899(48)
Appendix D: Tables of Physical Properties and Constants 947(19)
Appendix E: Heuristics for Process Equipment Design 966(8)
Appendix F: Software Useful for Design 974(2)
Author Index 976(3)
Subject Index 979

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