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Plant Pathology

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780120445653

ISBN10:
0120445654
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/27/2004
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science
List Price: $96.95

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Summary

This would be the Fifth Edition of Agrios' classic and comprehensive text providing exhaustive pedagogical coverage of fungal, viral, bacterial, nematode and other plant diseases, and their associated epidemiology. It also covers the genetics of resistance and modern management of plant disease. This book continues to be the most exhaustive textbook and the complete resource that students, faculty, and professionals turn to when in need of well-organized, essential information regarding the pathology of plants. The chapters will be revised to cover the explosive growth of knowledge in plant pathology that continues to accumulate. This Fifth Edition of Plant Pathology is certain to remain the book of choice when faculty in plant pathology, botany, forestry, crop science, and other agricultural departments teach the subject. In its English editions or in its translations in several languages, Agrios' Plant Pathology, Fifth Edition is the worldwide standard for teaching plant pathology. * The latest information on molecular techniques and biological control in plant diseases* Comprehensive in coverage * Numerous excellent diagrams and photographs * A large variety of disease examples for instructors to choose for their course

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Photo credits xxi
About the Author xxiii
part one GENERAL ASPECTS
Introduction
Prologue: The Issues
4(1)
Plants and Disease
4(4)
The Concept of Disease in Plants
5(2)
Types of Plant Diseases
7(1)
History of Plant Pathology and Early Significant Plant Diseases
8(21)
Introduction
8(1)
Plant Diseases as the Wrath of Gods --- Theophrastus
9(5)
Mistletoe Recognized as the First Plant Pathogen
14(2)
Plant Diseases as the Result of Spontaneous Generation
16(1)
Biology and Plant Pathology in Early Renaissance
16(3)
Potato Blight --- Deadly Mix of Ignorance and Politics
19(2)
The Expanding Role of Fungi as Causes of Plant Disease
21(2)
The Discovery of the Other Causes of Infectious Diseases
23(1)
Nematodes --- Protozoan Myxomycetes --- Bacteria --- Viruses. Protozoa --- Mollicutes --- Viroids --- Serious Plant Diseases of Unknown Etiology
23(3)
Koch's Postulates
26(1)
Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
27(2)
Losses Caused by Plant Diseases
29(16)
Plant diseases reduce the quantity and quality of plant produce
29(1)
White, Downey, and Dry Vineyards --- Bring on the Bordeaux!
30(2)
Plant diseases may limit the kinds of plants and industries in an area
32(1)
Chestnuts, Elms, and Coconut Palm Trees --- Where have they gone?
32(5)
Plant diseases may make plants poisonous to humans and animals
37(1)
Ergot, Ergotism, and LSD: a Bad Combination
37(2)
Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses
39(2)
Plant diseases may cause financial losses
41(1)
The Insect --- Pathogen Connection: Multifaceted and Important
42(3)
Plant Pathology in the 20th Century
45(9)
Early Developments
45(1)
The Descriptive Phase
45(1)
The Experimental Phase
46(1)
The Etiological Phase
46(1)
The Search for Control of Plant Diseases
46(1)
The Main Areas of Progress
47(1)
Chemical Control of Plant Diseases
47(1)
Appearance of Pathogen Races Resistant to Bactericides and Fungicides
48(1)
Public Concern about Chemical Pesticides
48(1)
Alternative Controls for Plant Diseases
49(1)
Interest in the Mechanisms by Which Pathogens Cause Disease
50(2)
The Concept of Genetic Inheritance of Resistance and Pathogenicity
52(1)
Epidemiology of Plant Disease Comes of Age
53(1)
Plant Pathology Today and Future Directions
54(2)
Molecular Plant Pathology
54(2)
Aspects of Applied Plant Pathology
56(4)
Plant Biotechnology --- The Promise and the Objections
56(2)
Food Safety
58(1)
Bioterrorism, Agroterrorism, Biological Warfare, etc. Who, What, Why
59(1)
Worldwide Development of Plant Pathology as a Profession
60(5)
International Centers for Agricultural Research
60(1)
Trends in Teaching and Training
61(1)
Plant Disease Clinics
62(1)
The Practice and Practitioners of Plant Pathology
63(1)
Certification of Professional Plant Pathologists
63(1)
Plant Pathology as a Part of Plant Medicine; the Doctor of Plant Medicine Program
64(1)
Plant Pathologists' Contributin to Crops and Society
65(6)
Some Historical and Present Examples of Losses Caused by Plant Diseases
65(1)
Plant Diseases and World Crop Production
65(1)
Crop Losses to Diseases, Insects and Weeds
66(3)
Pesticides and Plant Diseases
69(2)
Basic Procedures in the Diagnosis of Plant Diseases
71(6)
Pathogen or Environment
71(1)
Infectious Diseases
72(1)
Parasitic Higher Plants --- Nematodes --- Fungi and Bacteria: Fungi --- Bacteria and Mollicutes
72(1)
Viruses and Viroids --- More than One Pathogen
73(1)
Noninfectious Diseases
73(1)
Identification of a Preciously Unknown Disease: Koch's Postulates
74(3)
Parasitism and Disease Development
Parasitism and Pathogenicity
77(1)
Host Range of Pathogens
78(1)
Development of Disease in Plants
79(1)
Stages in the Development of Disease: The Disease Cycle
80(22)
Inoculation
80(1)
Inoculation, Types of Inoculum, Sources of Inoculum, Landing or Arrival of Inoculum
80(2)
Prepenetration Phenomena
82(1)
Attachment of Pathogen to Host, Spore Germination and Perception of the Host Surface, Appressorium Formation and Maturation, Recognition between Host and Pathogen, Germination of Spores and Seeds, Hatching of Nematode Eggs
82(5)
Penetration
87(1)
Direct Penetration through Intact Plant Surfaces, Penetration through Wounds, Penetration through Natural Openings
87(2)
Infection
89(1)
Infection, Invasion, Growth and Reproduction of the Pathogen (Colonization)
89(7)
Dissemination of the Pathogen
96(1)
Dissemination by Air, Dissemination by Water, Dissemination by Insects, Mites, Nematodes, and Other Vectors, Dissemination by Pollen, Seed, Transplants, Budwood, and Nursery Stock, Dissemination by Humans
96(4)
Overwintering and/or Oversummering of Pathogens
100(2)
Relationships between Disease Cycles and Epidemics
102(4)
Effects of Pathogens on Plant Physiological Functions
Effects of Pathogens on Photosynthesis
106(1)
Effect of Pathogens on Translocation of Water and Nutrients in the Host Plant
106(7)
Interference with Upward Translocation of Water and Inorganic Nutrients
106(2)
Effect on Absorption of Water by Roots
108(1)
Effect on Translocation of Water through the Xylem
108(1)
Effect on Transpiration
108(5)
Interference with the Translocation of Organic Nutrients through the Phloem
113(2)
Effect of Pathogens on Host Plant Respiration
115(3)
Respiration of Diseased Plants
117(1)
Effect of Pathogens on Permeability of Cell Membranes
118(1)
Effects of Pathogens on Transcription and Translation
118(1)
Effect on Transcription
119(1)
Effect on Translation
119(1)
Effect of Pathogens on Plant Growth
119(2)
Effect of Pathogens on Plant Reproduction
121(4)
Genetics of Plant Disease
Introduction
125(14)
Genes and Disease --- Variability in Organisms --- Mechanisms of Variability
126(3)
General Mechanisms: Mutation --- Recombination --- Gene and Genotype Flow among Plant Pathogens --- Population Genetics, Genetic Drift, and Selection --- Life Cycles --- Reproduction --- Mating Systems --- Out-crossing --- Pathogen Fitness
129(2)
Specialized Mechanisms of Variability in Pathogens: Sexual-like Processes in Fungi Heterokaryosis --- Parasexualism --- Vegetative Incompatibility --- Heteroploidy
131(1)
Sexual-like Processes in Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer
132(1)
Genetic Recombination in Viruses
133(1)
Loss of Pathogen Virulence in Culture
133(1)
Stages of Variation in Pathogens
134(1)
Types of Plant Resistance to Pathogens
134(2)
True Resistance: Partial, Quantitative, Polygenic, or Horizontal Resistance --- R-Gene Resistance, Monogenic, or Vertical Resistance
136(1)
Disease Escape --- Tolerance to Disease
137(2)
Genetics of Virulence in Pathogens and of Resistance in Host Plants
139(26)
The Nature of Resistance to Disease --- Pathogenicity Genes in Plant Pathogens
142(1)
Genes Involved in Pathogenesis and Virulence by Pathogens
142(2)
Pathogenicity Genes of Fungi controlling: Production of Infection Structures --- Degradation of Cuticle and Cell Wall --- Secondary Metabolites --- Fungal Toxins --- Pathogenicity Signaling Systems
144(2)
Pathogenicity Genes in Plant Pathogenic Bacteria controlling: Adhesion to Plant Surfaces --- Secretion Systems --- Enzymes that Degrade Cell Walls --- Bacterial Toxins as Pathogenicity Factors --- Extracellular Polysaccharides as Pathogenicity Factors --- Bacterial Regulatory Systems and Networks --- Sensing Plant Signaling Components --- Other Bacterial Pathogenicity Factors
146(3)
Pathogenicity Genes in Plant Viruses: --- Functions Associated with the Coat Protein --- Viral Pathogenicity Genes
149(1)
Nematode Pathogenicity Genes
150(1)
Genetics of Resistance through the Hypersensitive Response
151(1)
Pathogen-Derived Elicitors of Defense Responses in Plants
151(3)
Avirulence (avr) Genes: One of the Elicitors of Plant Defense Responses Characteristics of avr Gene-Coded Proteins: --- Their Structure and Function Role of avr Genes in Pathogenicity and Virulence
154(1)
hrp Genes and the Type III Secretion System
155(1)
Resistance (R) Genes of Plants: Examples of R Genes --- How Do R Genes Confer Resistance? --- Evolution of R Genes --- Other Plant Genes for Resistance to Disease
155(5)
Signal Transduction between Pathogenicity Genes and Resistance Genes: --- Signaling and Regulation of Programmed Cell Death --- Genes and Signaling in Systemic Acquired Resistance
160(1)
Examples of Molecular Genetics of Selected Plant Diseases: --- The Powdery Mildew Disease --- Magnaporthe grisea, the Cause of Rice Blast --- Fusarium, the Soilborne Plant Pathogen --- Ustilago maydis and Corn Smut
161(4)
Breeding of Resistant Varieties
165(1)
Natural Variability in Plants --- Breeding and Variability in Plants --- Breeding for Disease Resistance Sources of Genes for Resistance --- Techniques Used in Classical Breeding for Resistance --- Seed, Pedigree, and Recurrent Selection --- Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering Techniques
165(12)
Genetic Transformation of Plant Cells for Disease Resistance
169(1)
Advantages and Problems in Breeding for Vertical or Horizontal Resistance
169(1)
Vulnerability of Genetically Uniform Crops to Plant Disease Epidemics
170(7)
How Pathogens Attack Plants
Mechanical Forces Exerted By Pathogens on Host Tissues
177(2)
Chemical Weapons of Pathogens
179(29)
Enzymes in Plant Disease
180(1)
Enzymatic Degradation of Cell Wall Substances
180(1)
Cuticular Wax --- Cutin --- Pectic Substances --- Cellulose --- Cross-Linking Glycans (Hemicelluloses) --- Suberin --- Lignin --- Cell Wall Flavonoids --- Cell Wall Structural Proteins
180(9)
Enzymatic Degradation of Substances Contained in Plant Cells
189(1)
Proteins --- Starch --- Lipids
189(1)
Microbial Toxins in Plant Disease
190(1)
Toxins That Affect a Wide Range of Host Plants
190(1)
Tabtoxin --- Phaseolotoxin --- Tentoxin --- Cercosporin --- Other Non-Host-Specific Toxins
191(2)
Host-Specific or Host-Selective Toxins
193(1)
Victorin, HV Toxin --- T-Toxin |Cochliobolus (Helminthosporium) heterostrophus Race T-Toxin| --- C-Toxin --- Alternaria alternata Toxins --- Other Host-Specific Toxins
194(2)
Growth Regulators in Plant Disease
196(5)
Detoxification of Low-Molecular Weight Antimicrobial Molecules
201(1)
Promotion of Bacterial Virulence By avr Genes
202(1)
Role of Type III Secretion in Bacterial Pathogenesis
202(1)
Pathogenicity and Virulence Factors in Viruses and Viroids
202(6)
How Plants Defend Themselves Against Pathogens
Whatever the Plant Defense or Resistance, It Is Controlled by Its Genes
208(2)
Non-host Resistance --- Partial, Polygenic, Quantitative, or Horizontal Resistance --- Monogenic, R Gene, or Vertical Resistance
208(2)
Preexisting Structural and Chemical Defenses
210(2)
Preexisting Defense Structures
210(1)
Preexisting Chemical Defenses
211(1)
Inhibitors Released by the Plant in Its Environment --- Inhibitors Present in Plant Cells before Infection
211(1)
Defense through Lack of Essential Factors
212(1)
Lack of Recognition between Host and Pathogen: Lack of Host Receptors and Sensitive Sites for Toxins --- Lack of Essential Substances for the Pathogen
212(1)
Induced Structural and Biochemical Defenses
213(1)
Recognition of the Pathogen by the Host Plant
213(1)
Transmission of the Alarm Signal to Host Defense Providers: Signal Transduction
214(1)
Induced Structural Defenses: Cytoplasmic Defense Reaction --- Cell Wall Defense Structures
214(3)
Histological Defense Structures: Formation of Cork Layers --- Abscission Layers --- Tyloses --- Deposition of Gums
215(2)
Necrotic Structural Defense Reaction: Defense through the Hypersensitive Response
217(1)
Induced Biochemical Defenses in: Non-Host Resistance --- In Partial, Quantitative (Polygenic, General, or Horizontal) Resistance: Function of Gene Products in Quantitative Resistance --- The Mechanisms of Quantitative Resistance --- Effect of Temperature on Quantitative Resistance
217(4)
Induced Biochemical Defenses in the Hypersensitive Response (R Gene) Resistance
221(15)
The Hypersensitive Response: Genes Induced During Early Infection --- Functional Analysis of Plant Defense Genes --- Classes of R Gene Proteins --- Recognition of Avr Proteins of Pathogens by the Host Plant --- How Do R and Avr Gene Products Activate Plant Responses? --- Some Examples of Plant Defense through R Genes and Their Matching Avr Genes: --- The Rice Pi-ta Gene. The Tomato Cf Genes. The Tomato Bs2 Gene. The Arabidopsis RPM1 Gene --- The Co-function of Two or More Genes
221(8)
Defense Involving Bacterial Type III Effector Proteins
229(2)
Production of Active Oxygen Species, Lipoxygenases, and Disruption of Cell Membranes --- Reinforcement of Host Cell Walls with Strengthening Molecules
231(1)
Production of Antimicrobial Substances in Attacked Host Cells --- Pathogenesis-Related (PR) Proteins
232(1)
Defense through Production of Secondary Metabolites --- Phenolics: --- Simple Phenolic Compounds --- Toxic Phenolics from Nontoxic Phenolic Glycosides --- Role of Phenol-Oxidizing Enzymes in Disease Resistance --- Phytoalexins
233(3)
Detoxification of Pathogen Toxins by Plants --- Immunization of Plants against Pathogens: Defense through Plantibodies
236(1)
Resistance through prior Exposure to Mutants of Reduced Pathogenicity
237(1)
Systemic Acquired Resistance: --- Induction by Artificial Inoculation with Microbes or by Treatment with Chemicals
237(5)
Defense through Genetically Engineering Disease-Resistant Plants
242(1)
With Plant-Derived Genes --- With Pathogen-Derived Genes
242(1)
Defense through RNA Silencing by Pathogen-Derived Genes
242(9)
Environmental Effects on the Development of Infectious Plant Disease
Introduction
251(2)
Effect of Temperature
253(4)
Effect of Moisture
257(1)
Effect of Wind
257(1)
Effect of Light
257(1)
Effect of Soil pH and Soil Structure
257(1)
Effect of Host-Plant Nutrition
257(5)
Effect of Herbicides
262(1)
Effect of Air Pollutants
262(4)
Plant Disease Epidemiology
The Elements of an Epidemic
266(1)
Host Factors That Affect the Development of Epidemics
267(2)
Levels of Genetic Resistance or Susceptibility of the Host --- Degree of Genetic Uniformity of Host Plants --- Type of Crop --- Age of Host Plants
267(2)
Pathogen Factors That Affect Development of Epidemics
269(2)
Levels of Virulence --- Quantity of Inoculum Near Hosts --- Type of Reproduction of the Pathogen --- Ecology of the Pathogen --- Mode of Spread of the Pathogen
269(2)
Environmental Factors That Affect Development of Epidemics
271(1)
Moisture --- Temperature
271(1)
Effect of Human Cultural Practices and Control Measures
272(1)
Site Selection and Preparation --- Selection of Propagative Material --- Cultural Practices --- Disease Control Measures --- Introduction of New Pathogens
272(1)
Measurement of Plant Disease and of Yield Loss
273(1)
Patterns of Epidemics --- Comparison of Epidemics --- Development of Epidemics --- Modeling of Plant Disease Epidemics --- Computer Simulation of Epidemics
274(7)
Forecasting Plant Disease Epidemics
281(2)
Evaluation of Epidemic Thresholds --- Evaluation of Economic Damage Threshold --- Assessment of Initial Inoculum and of Disease --- Monitoring Weather Factors That Affect Disease Development
281(2)
New Tools in Epidemiology
283(2)
Molecular Tools. GIS. Remote Sensing. Image Analysis. Information Technology
283(2)
Examples of Plant Disease Forecast Systems
285(4)
Forecasts Based on Amount of Initial Inoculum --- On Weather Conditions Favoring Development of Secondary Inoculum --- On Amounts of Initial and Secondary Inoculum
285(4)
Disease-Warning Systems --- Development and Use of Expert Systems in Plant Pathology --- Decision Support Systems
289(6)
Control of Plant Diseases
Control Methods that Exclude the Pathogen from the Host
295(3)
Quarantines and Inspections --- Crop Certification --- Evasion or Avoidance of Pathogen --- Use of Pathogen-Free Propagating Material --- Pathogen-Free Seed --- Pathogen-Free Vegetative Propagating Materials --- Exclusion of Pathogens from Plant Surfaces by Epidermal Coatings
295(3)
Control Methods that Eradicate or Reduce Pathogen Inoculum
298(24)
Cultural Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum: --- Host Eradication --- Crop Rotation --- Sanitation --- Creating Conditions Unfavorable to the Pathogen --- Polyethylene Traps and Mulches
300(3)
Biological Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum: --- Suppressive Soils
303(2)
Reducing Amount of Pathogen Inoculum through Antagonistic Microorganisms Soilborne Pathogens --- Aerial Pathogens --- Mechanisms of Action --- Control through Trap Plants --- Control through Antagonistic Plants
305(5)
Physical Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum --- Control by Heat Treatment --- Soil Sterilization by Heat --- Soil Solarization Hot-Water Treatment of Propagative Organs --- Hot-Air Treatment of Storage Organs Control by Eliminating Certain Light Wavelengths --- Drying Stored Grains and Fruit --- Disease Control by Radiation --- Trench Barriers against Root-transmitted Tree Diseases
310(2)
Chemical Methods that Eradicate or Reduce the Inoculum --- Soil Treatment with Chemicals --- Fumigation --- Disinfestation of Warehouses --- Control of Insect Vectors
312(2)
Cross Protection --- Induced Resistance: Systemic Acquired Resistance --- Plant Defense Activators --- Improving the Growing Conditions of Plants --- Use of Resistant Varieties
314(5)
Control through Use of Transgenic Plants Transformed for Disease Resistance Transgenic Plants that Tolerate Abiotic Stresses --- Transgenic Plants Transformed with: Specific Plant Genes for Resistance --- with Genes Coding for Anti-pathogen Compounds --- with Nucleic Acids that Lead to Resistance and to Pathogen Gene Silencing --- with Combinations of Resistance Genes --- Producing Antibodies against the Pathogen --- Transgenic Biocontrol Microorganisms
319(3)
Direct Protection of Plants from Pathogens
322(6)
By Biological Controls: --- Fungal Antagonists: Heterobasidion (Fomes) annosum by Phleviopsis (Peniophora) gigantea --- Chestnut Blight with Hypovirulent Strains of the Pathogen --- Soilborne Diseases --- Diseases of Aerial Plant Parts with Fungi. --- Postharvest Diseases Bacterial Antagonists: Soilborne Diseases --- Diseases of Aerial Plant Parts with Bacteria --- Postharvest Diseases --- with Bacteria of Bacteria-Mediated Frost Injury
328(1)
Viral Parasites of Plant Pathogens
328(1)
Biological Control of Weeds
328(1)
Direct Protection by Chemicals
329(19)
Methods of Application of Chemicals for Plant Disease Control --- Foliage Sprays and Dusts --- Seed Treatment --- Soil Treatment --- Treatment of Tree Wounds --- Control of Postharvest Diseases
332(6)
Types of Chemicals Used for Plant Disease Control
338(1)
Inorganic --- Inorganic Sulfur Compounds --- Carbonate Compounds --- Phosphate and Phosphonate Compounds --- Film-Forming Compounds
338(1)
Organic Chemicals: Contact Protective Fungicides --- Organic Sulfur Compounds: Ditihiocarbamates
339(1)
Systemic Fungicides: --- Heterocyclic Compounds --- Acylalanines --- Benzimidazoles --- Oxanthiins --- Organophosphate Fungicides --- Pyrimidines --- Trizoles --- Strobilurins or Qol Fungicides --- Miscellaneous Systemics
340(3)
Miscellaneous Organic Fungicides --- Antibiotics --- Petroleum Oils and Plant Oils --- Electrolyed Oxidizing Water --- Growth Regulators --- Nematicides: --- Hologenated Hydrocarbons --- Organophosphate Nematicides --- Isothiocoyanates --- Carbamates --- Miscellaneous Nematicides
343(2)
Mechanisms of Action of Chemicals Used to Control Plant Diseases --- Resistance of Pathogens to Chemicals --- Restrictions on Chemical Control of Plant Diseases
345(3)
Integrated Control of Plant Diseases: --- In a Perennial Crop --- In an Annual Crop
348(10)
part two SPECIFIC PLANT DISEASES
Environmental Factors That Cause Plant Diseases
Introduction: General Characteristics --- Diagnosis --- Control
358(1)
Temperature Effects: High-Temperature Effects --- Low-Temperature Effects --- Low-Temperature Effects on Indoor Plants
358(7)
Moisture Effects: Low Soil Moisture Effects --- Low Relative Humidity --- High Soil Moisture Effects
365(2)
Inadequate Oxygen
367(1)
Light
368(1)
Air Pollution
368
Air Pollutants and Kinds of Injury to Plants --- Main Sources of Air Pollutants --- How Air Pollutants Affect Plants --- Acid Rain
Nutritional Deficiencies in Plants
372(1)
Soil Minerals Toxic to Plants
372(6)
Herbicide Injury
378(3)
Other Improper Agricultural Practices
381(2)
The Often Confused Etiology of Stress Diseases
383(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by Fungi
Introduction
383(4)
Some Interesting Facts about Fungi (Box)
387(1)
Characteristics of plant pathogenic fungi
388(2)
Morphology --- Reproduction --- Ecology --- Dissemination
388(2)
Classification of Plant Pathogenic Fungi
390(7)
Fungallike Organisms --- The True Fungi
391(6)
Identification: Symptoms Caused by Fungi on Plants
397(1)
Isolation of fungi (and Bacteria)
398(4)
Preparing for Isolation --- Isolating the Pathogen
398(4)
Life Cycles of Fungi
402(1)
Control of Fungal Diseases of Plants
403(1)
Diseases Caused by Fungallike Organisms
404(1)
Diseases Caused by Myxomycota (Myxomycetes)
404(1)
Diseases Caused by Plasmodiophoromycetes
405(4)
Clubroot of Crucifers
407(2)
Diseases Caused by Oomycetes
409(24)
Pythium Seed Rot, Damping-off, Root Rot, and Soft Rot
410(4)
Phytophthora Diseases
414(1)
Phytophthora Root and Stem Rots --- Phytophthoras Declare War on Cultivated Plants and on Native Tree Species (Box)
414(7)
Late Blight of Potatoes
421(6)
The Downy Mildews
427(1)
Introduction --- Downy Mildew of Grape
428(5)
Diseases Caused by True Fungi
433(1)
Diseases Caused by Chytridiomycetes
433(1)
Diseases Caused by Zygomycetes
434(5)
Diseases Caused by Ascomycetes and Mitosporic Fungi
439(13)
Sooty molds --- Taphrina leaf Curl Diseases --- Powdery Mildews
440(12)
Foliar Diseases Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
452(21)
Alternaria Diseases --- Cladosporium Diseases --- Needle Casts and Blights of Conifers
452(6)
Mycosphaerella Diseases: Banana Leaf Spot or Sigatoka Disease
458(2)
Septoria Diseases --- Cercospora Diseases --- Rice Blast Disease
460(6)
Cochliobolus, Pyrenophora and Setosphaeria Diseases of Cereals and Grasses
466(1)
Diseases of Corn: --- Southern Corn Leaf Blight --- Northern Corn Leaf Blight --- Northern Corn Leaf Spot
466(2)
Diseases of Rice --- Brown Spot Disease of Rice
468(1)
Cochlioholus Diseases of Wheat, Barley, and Other Grasses
469(1)
Crown Rot and Common Root Rot --- Spot Blotch of Barley and Wheat
469(1)
Pyrenophora Diseases of Wheat, Barley and Oats
469(1)
Net Blotch of Barley --- Barley Stripe --- Tan Spot of Wheat
469(4)
Stem and Twig Cankers Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
473(10)
Black Knot of Plum and Cherry --- Chestnut Blight --- Nectria Canker --- Leucostoma Canker
476(5)
Cankers of Forest Trees: --- Hypoxylon Canker --- Pitch Canker --- Butternut Canker --- Phomopsis Blight --- Seiridium Canker
481(2)
Anthracnose Diseases Caused by Ascomycetes and Deureromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
483(18)
Black Spot of Rose
485(1)
Elsinoe Anthracnose and Scab Diseases: --- Grape Anthracnose or Bird's-eye Rot --- Raspherry Anthracnose --- Citrus Scab Diseases --- Avocado Scab
486(1)
Colletotrichum Diseases: Colletotrichum Anthracnose Diseases of Annual Plants
487(3)
Anthracnose of Beans --- Anthracnose of Cucurbits --- Anthracnose or Ripe Rot of Tomato --- Onion Anthracnose or Smudge --- Strawberry Anthracnose --- Anthracnose of Cereals and Grasses
490(1)
Colletotrichum Anthracnoses: A Menace To Tropical Crops (Box) Colletotrichum
491(3)
Bitter Rot of Apple --- Ripe Rot of Grape
494(4)
Gnomonia Anthracnose and Leaf Spot Diseases
498(3)
Dogwood Anthracnose
501(1)
Fruit and General Diseases Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
501(21)
Ergot of Cereals and Grasses --- Apple Scab --- Brown Rot of Stone Fruits --- Monoliophthora Pod Rot of Cacao --- Botrytis Diseases --- Black Rot of Grape --- Cucurbit Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot --- Diaporthe, Phomopsis, and Phoma Diseases --- Stem Canker of Soybeans --- Melanose Disease of Citrus --- Phomopsis Diseases --- Black Rot of Apple
501(21)
Vascular Wilts Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
522(12)
Fusarium Wilts: Of Tomato --- Fusarium or Panama Wilt of Banana
523(3)
Verticillium Wilts
526(2)
Ophiostoma Wilt of Elm Trees: Dutch Elm Disease
528(4)
Ceratocystis Wilts --- Oak wilt --- Ceratocystis Wilt of Eucalyptus
532(2)
Root and Stem Rots Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes (Mitosporic Fungi)
534(19)
Gibberella Diseases --- Gibberella Stalk and Ear Rot, and Seedling Blight of Corn
535(1)
Fusarium (Gibberella) Head Blight (FHB) or Scab of Small Grains
535(3)
Fusarium Root and Stem Rots of Non-Grain Crops
538(2)
Take-All of Wheat --- Thielavopsis Black Root Rot --- Monosporascus Root Rot and Vine Decline of Melons
540(6)
Sclerotinia Diseases: Sclerotinia Diseases of Vegetables and Flowers --- Phymatotrichum Root Rot
546(7)
Postharvest Diseases of Plant Products Caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes
553(9)
Postharvest Decays of Fruits and Vegetables
556(1)
Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor --- Alternaria --- Botrytis --- Fusarium --- Geotrichum --- Penicillium --- Sclerotinia
556(1)
Control of Postharvest Decays of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
557(1)
Postharvest Decays of Grain and Legume Seeds
558(1)
Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses
559(1)
Aspergillus Toxins --- Aflatoxins
559(1)
Fusarium Toxins --- Other Aspergillus Toxins and Penicillium Toxins
559(1)
Control of Postharvest Grain Decays
560(2)
Diseases Caused by Basidiomycetes
562(1)
The Rusts --- The Smuts --- Root and Stem Rots --- Wood Rots and Decays --- Witches' Broom
562(1)
The Rusts
562(20)
Cereal Rusts --- Stem Rust of Wheat and Other Cereals
565(6)
Rusts of Legumes --- Bean Rust --- Soybean Rust --- A Major Threat to a Major Crop (Box)
571(3)
Cedar-Apple Rust --- Coffee Rust
574(3)
Rusts of Forest Trees: --- White Pine Blister Rust --- Fusiform Rust
577(5)
The Smuts
582(11)
Corn Smut --- Loose Smut of Cereals --- Covered Smut, or Bunt, of Wheat
588(4)
Karnal Bunt of Small Grains-Legitimate Concerns and Political Predicaments (Box)
592(1)
Root and Stem Rots Caused by Basidiomycetes
593(23)
Root and Stem Rot Diseases Caused by the ``Sterile Fungi'' Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium
593(1)
Rhizoctonia Diseases --- Sclerotium Diseases
594(8)
Root Rots of Trees
602(1)
Armillaria Root Rot of Fruit and Forest Trees
602(2)
Wood Rots and Decays Caused by Basidiomycetes
604(7)
Witches' Broom of Cacao
611(5)
Plant Diseases Caused by Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Mollicutes
Introduction
616(2)
Plant Diseases Caused by Bacteria
618(9)
Characteristics of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria
618(1)
Morphology --- Reproduction --- Ecology and Spread --- Identification of Bacteria --- Symptoms Caused by Bacteria --- Control of Bacterial Diseases of Plants
618(9)
Bacterial Spots and Blights
627(11)
Introduction --- Wildfire of Tobacco --- Bacterial Blights of Bean --- Angular Leaf Spot of Cucumber --- Angular Leaf Spot or Bacterial Blight of Cotton --- Bacterial Leaf Spots and Blights of Cereals and Grasses --- Bacterial Spot of Tomato and Pepper --- Bacterial Speck of Tomato --- Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon --- Cassava Bacterial Blight --- Bacterial Spot of Stone Fruits
627(11)
Bacterial Vascular Wilts
638(18)
Bacterial Wilt of Cucurbits --- Fire Blight of Pear and Apple --- Southern Bacterial Wilt of Solanaceous Plants --- Bacterial Wilt or Moko Disease of Banana --- Ring Rot of Potato
639(12)
Bacterial Canker and Wilt of Tomato --- Bacterial Wilt (Black Rot) of Crucifers --- Stewart's Wilt of Corn
651(5)
Bacterial Soft Rots
656(6)
Bacterial Soft Rots of Vegetables
656(4)
The Incalculable Postharvest Losses from Bacterial (and Fungal) Soft Rots (Box)
660(2)
Bacterial Galls
662(5)
Crown Gall
662(2)
The Crown Gall Bacterium --- The Natural Genetic Engineer (Box)
664(3)
Bacterial Cankers
667(7)
Bacterial Canker and Gummosis of Stone Fruit Trees --- Citrus Canker
667(7)
Bacterial Scabs
674(1)
Common Scab of Potato
667(8)
Root Nodules of Legumes
675(3)
Xylem-Inhabiting Fastidious Bacteria
678(9)
Pierce's Disease of Grape --- Citrus Variegated Chlorosis --- Ratoon Stunting of Sugarcane
679(4)
Phloem-Inhabiting Fastidious Bacteria
683(1)
Yellow Vine Disease of Cucurbits --- Citrus Greening Disease --- Papaya Bunchy Top Disease
684(3)
Plant Diseases Caused By Mollicutes: Phytoplasmas and Spiroplasmas
687(4)
Properties of True Mycoplasmas --- Phytoplasmas --- Spiroplasmas
688(3)
Examples of Plant Diseases Caused by Mollicutes
691(8)
Aster Yellows --- Lethal Yellowing of Coconut Palms --- Apple Proliferation --- European Stone Fruit Yellows --- Ash Yellows --- Elm Yellows (Phloem Necrosis) --- Peach X-Disease --- Pear Decline
691(8)
Spiroplasma Diseases
699
Citrus Stubborn Disease --- Corn Stunt Disease
691(14)
Plant Diseases Caused by Parasitic Higher Plants, Invasive Climbing Plants, and Parasitic Green Algae
Introduction --- Parasitic Higher Plants
705(11)
Dodder --- Witchweed --- Broomrapes --- Dwarf Mistletoes of Conifers --- True or Leafy Mistletoes
706(10)
Invasive Climbing Plants
716(3)
Old World Climbing Fern --- Kudzu Vine
717(2)
Parasitic Green Algae: Cephaleuros
719(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by Algae
719(5)
Plant Diseases Caused by Viruses
Introduction
724(1)
Characteristics of Plant Viruses
724(7)
Detection --- Morphology --- Composition and Structure: Of Viral Protein --- Of Viral Nucleic Acid
725(6)
Satellite Viruses and Satellite RNAs
731(1)
The Biological Function of Viral Components: Coding
731(1)
Virus Infection and Virus Synthesis
731(2)
Translocation and Distribution of Viruses in Plants
733(1)
Symptoms Caused by Plant Viruses
734(3)
Physiology of Virus-Infected Plants
737(1)
Transmission of Plant Viruses By: Vegetative Propagation --- Sap --- Seed --- Pollen --- Insects --- Mites --- Nematodes --- Fungi --- Dodder
737(6)
Epidemiology of Plant Viruses and Viroids
743(1)
Purification of Plant Viruses --- Serology of Plant Viruses
743(4)
Nomenclature and Classification of Plant Viruses
747(4)
Detection and Identification of Plant Viruses
751(1)
Economic Importance of Plant Viruses
752(1)
Control of Plant Viruses
753(4)
Diseases Caused by Rigid Rod-Shaped Viruses
757(5)
Diseases Caused by Tobamoviruses: --- Tobacco Mosaic
757(1)
The Contribution of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Biology and Medicine (Box)
757(1)
Diseases Caused by Tobraviruses: --- Tobacco Rattle by Furoviruses --- by Hordeiviruses --- by Pecluviruses --- by Pomoviruses --- by Benyviruses
758(4)
Diseases Caused by Filamentous Viruses
762(2)
Diseases Caused by Potexviruses --- by Carlaviruses --- by Capilloviruses and Trichoviruses --- by Allexiviruses, Foveaviruses, and Vitiviruses
762(2)
Diseases Caused by Potyviridae
764(10)
Diseases Caused by Potyviruses
764(3)
Bean Common Mosaic and Bean Yellow Mosaic --- Lettuce Mosaic --- Plum Pox --- Papaya Ringspot --- Potato Virus Y --- Sugarcane Mosaic --- Tobacco Etch --- Turnip Mosaic --- Watermelon Mosaic --- Zucchini Yellow Mosaic
767(6)
Diseases Caused by Ipomoviruses, Macluraviruses, Rymoviruses, and Tritimoviruses --- by Bymoviruses
773(1)
Diseases Caused by Closteroviridae
774(5)
Diseases Caused by Closteroviruses: --- Citrus Tristeza --- Beet Yellows Diseases Caused by Criniviruses: --- Lettuce Infectious Yellows
774(5)
Diseases Caused by Isometric Single-Stranded RNA Viruses
779(1)
Diseases Caused by Sequiviridae, Genus Waikavirus
779(2)
Rice TungroDiseases Caused by Tombusviridae
779(2)
Diseases Caused by Luteoviridae
781(2)
Barley Yellow Dwarf --- Potato Leafroll --- Beet Western Yellows
781(2)
Diseases Caused by Monopartite Isometric (+)ssRNA Viruses of Genera Not Yet Assigned to Families
783(1)
Diseases Caused by Comoviridae
784(3)
Diseases Caused by Comoviruses
784(1)
Diseases Caused by Nepoviruses
784(1)
Tomato Ring Spot --- Grapevine Fanleaf --- Raspberry Ring Spot
785(2)
Diseases Caused by Bromoviridae
787(1)
Diseases Caused by Cucumoviruses
787(3)
Cucumber Mosaic
788(2)
Diseases Caused by Ilarviruses: Prunus Necrotic Ring Spot
790(2)
Diseases Caused by Isometric Double-Stranded RNA Viruses
792(2)
Diseases Caused by Reoviridae
792(2)
Diseases Caused by Negative RNA [(--)ssRNA] Viruses
794(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by Rhabdoviruses
794(7)
Plant Diseases Caused by Tospoviruses
795(4)
Plant Diseases Caused by Tenuiviruses
799(2)
Diseases Caused by Double-Stranded DNA Viruses
801(1)
Diseases Caused by Caulimoviruses and Other Isometric Caulimoviridae
801(4)
Diseases Caused by Badnaviruses
803(2)
Diseases Caused by Single-Stranded DNA Viruses
805(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by Geminiviridae
805(8)
Beet Curly Top --- Maize Streak --- African Cassava Mosaic --- Bean Golden Mosaic --- Squash Leaf Curl --- Tomato Mottle --- Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl
809(4)
Plant Diseases Caused by Isometric Single-Stranded
813(1)
DNA Viruses: The Circoviridae
813(13)
Banana Bunchy Top
814(1)
Coconut Foliar Decay
815(1)
Viroids
816(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by Viroids
816(1)
Taxonomy (Grouping) of Viroids
816(4)
Potato Spindle Tuber --- Citrus Exocortis --- Coconut Cadang-Cadang
820(6)
Plant Diseases Caused by Nematodes
Introduction
826(1)
Characteristics of Plant Pathogenic Nematodes
827(4)
Morphology --- Anatomy --- Life Cycles --- Ecology and Spread --- Classification
827(4)
Isolation of Nematodes
831(1)
Isolation of Nematodes from Soil
831(1)
Isolation of Nematodes from Plant Material
832(1)
Symptoms Caused by Nematodes
832(1)
How Nematodes Affect Plants
833(2)
Interrelationships between Nematodes and Other Plant Pathogens
835(1)
Control of Nematodes
836(2)
Important Nematodes and Diseases
838(1)
Root-Knot Nematodes: Meloidogyne
838(4)
Cyst Nematodes: Heterodera and Globodera
842(6)
Soybean Cyst Nematode: Heterodera glycines
843(3)
Sugar Beet Nematode: Heterodera schachtii
846(1)
Potato Cyst Nematode: Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida
847(1)
The Citrus Nematode: Tylenchulus Semipenetrans
848(1)
Lesion Nematodes: Pratylenchus
849(4)
The Burrowing Nematode: Radopholus
853(5)
The Added Significance of Plant Nematodes in the Tropics and Subtropics (Box)
858(1)
Stem and Bulb Nematode: Ditylenchus
858(2)
Sting Nematode: Belonolaimus
860(3)
Stubby-Root Nematodes: Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus
863(2)
Seed-Gall Nematodes: Anguina
865(2)
Foliar Nematodes: Aphelenchoides
867(3)
Pine Wilt and Palm Red Ring Diseases: Bursaphelenchus
870(5)
Pine Wilt Nematode: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
870(2)
Red Ring Nematode: Bursaphelenchus cocophilus
872(3)
Plant Diseases Caused by Flagellate Protozoa
Introduction
875(3)
Nomenclature of Plant Trypanosomatids --- Taxonomy --- Pathogenicity --- Epidemiology and Control of Plant Trypanosomatids
877(1)
Plant Diseases Caused by
878(9)
Phloem-Restricted Trypanosomatids
878(1)
Phloem Necrosis of Coffee --- Hartrot of Coconut Palms --- Sudden Wilt (Marchitez Sopresiva) of Oil Palm --- Wilt and Decay of Red Ginger
878(4)
Laticifer-Restricted trypanosomatids
882(1)
Empty Root of Cassava
882(1)
Fruit-and Seed-Infecting Trypanosomatids
882(1)
Fruit Trypanosomatids
882(5)
Glossary 887(16)
Index 903


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