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Plants and Society,9780072528428
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Plants and Society

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072528428

ISBN10:
0072528427
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/10/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math
List Price: $124.41
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Summary

This introductory, one-semester text takes a multidisciplinary approach to studying the relationship between plants and people. The authors strive to stimulate interest in plant science and encourage students to further their studies in botany. Also, by exposing students to society's historical connection to plants, Levetin and McMahon hope to instill a greater appreciation for the botanical world. Plants and Society covers basic principles of botany with strong emphasis on the economic aspects and social implications of plants and fungi.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
List of Boxed Readings
xviii
Plants in Our Lives
2(18)
Plants and Human Society
3(2)
The Flowering Plants
3(1)
The Non-Flowering Plants
4(1)
The Algae
5(1)
The Fungi
5(1)
Plant Sciences
5(1)
Fundamental Properties of Life
5(2)
A Closer Look 1.1---Biological Mimics
7(2)
Chemistry of Life
9(6)
Atoms
9(1)
Molecules and Bonding
9(2)
Molecules of Life
11(4)
A Closer Look: 1.2--Perfumes to Poisons: Plants as Chemical Factories
15(5)
The Plant Cell
20(12)
Early Studies of Cells
21(1)
The Cell Wall
22(1)
The Protoplast
23(2)
Membranes
23(1)
Organelles
24(1)
A Closer Look 2.1---Osmosis and Diffusion: How Things Move Into and Out of Cells
25(1)
A Closer Look 2.2---Origin of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria
26(1)
The Nucleus
27(1)
Cell Division
27(5)
The Cell Cycle
28(1)
Prophase
28(1)
Metaphase
28(1)
Anaphase
28(1)
Telophase
29(1)
Cytokinesis
29(3)
The Plant Body
32(18)
Plant Tissues
33(3)
Meristems
33(1)
Dermal Tissue
33(1)
Ground Tissue
33(2)
Vascular Tissue
35(1)
Plant Organs
36(2)
Stems
36(2)
Roots
38(1)
A Closer Look 3.1---Studying Ancient Tree Rings
38(5)
Leaves
41(2)
A Closer Look 3.2---Plants that Trap Animals
43(2)
Vegetables: Edible Plant Organs
45(1)
Carrots
45(1)
A Closer Look 3.3---Supermarket Botany
46(4)
Lettuce
47(1)
Radishes
47(1)
Asparagus
47(3)
Plant Physiology
50(23)
Plant Transport Systems
51(3)
Transpiration
51(1)
Absorption of Water from the Soil
52(1)
Water Movement in Plants
53(1)
Translocation of Sugar
53(1)
A Closer Look 4.1---Mineral Nutrition and the Green Clean
54(1)
Metabolism
55(2)
Energy
55(1)
Redox Reactions
56(1)
Phosphorylation
56(1)
A Closer Look 4.2---Sugar and Slavery
57(3)
Enzymes
59(1)
Photosynthesis
60(5)
Energy from the Sun
60(1)
Light-Absorbing Pigments
60(2)
Overview
62(1)
The Light Reactions
62(2)
The Calvin Cycle
64(1)
Variation to Carbon Fixation
65(1)
Cellular Respiration
65(8)
Glycolysis
66(1)
The Krebs Cycle
66(3)
Electron Transport System
69(1)
Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration
70(3)
Plant Life Cycle: Flowers
73(16)
The Flower
74(2)
Floral Organs
74(1)
Modified Flowers
75(1)
A Closer Look 5.1---Mad About Tulips
76(2)
Meiosis
78(4)
Stages of Meiosis
79(1)
Meiosis in Flowering Plants
80(2)
A Closer Look 5.2---Pollen Is More Than Something To Sneeze At
82(2)
Male Gametophyte Development
82(1)
Female Gametophyte Development
83(1)
Pollination and Fertilization
84(1)
Animal Pollination
84(1)
A Closer Look 5.3---Alluring Scents
84(5)
Wind Pollination
86(1)
Double Fertilization
87(2)
Plant Life Cycle: Fruits and Seeds
89(15)
Fruit Types
90(1)
Simple Fleshy Fruits
90(1)
Dry Dehiscent Fruits
90(1)
Dry Indehiscent Fruits
90(1)
Aggregate and Multiple Fruits
90(1)
Seed Structure and Germination
90(3)
Dicot Seeds
91(1)
Monocot Seeds
91(2)
Seed Germination and Development
93(1)
Representative Edible Fruits
93(3)
Tomatoes
93(2)
Apples
95(1)
A Closer Look 6.1---The Influence of Hormones on Plant Reproductive Cycles
96(8)
Oranges and Grapefruits
99(1)
Chestnuts
100(1)
Exotic Fruits
101(3)
Genetics
104(19)
Mendelian Genetics
105(4)
Gregor Mendel and the Garden Pea
105(1)
Monohybrid Cross
106(2)
Dihybrid Cross
108(1)
Beyond Mendelian Genetics
109(1)
Incomplete Dominance
109(1)
Multiple Alleles
109(1)
Polygenic Inheritance
109(1)
A Closer Look 7.1---Solving Genetics Problems
110(3)
Linkage
112(1)
Molecular Genetics
113(1)
DNA---The Genetic Material
113(1)
A Closer Look 7.2---Try These Genes on for Size
114(9)
Genes Control Proteins
116(1)
Transcription and the Genetic Code
117(2)
Translation
119(1)
Mutations
119(1)
Recombinant DNA
120(3)
Plant Systematics and Evolution
123(16)
Early History of Classification
124(2)
Carolus Linnaeus
124(2)
How Plants Are Named
126(2)
Common Names
126(1)
Scientific Names
126(2)
A Closer Look 8.1---The Language of Flowers
128(2)
Taxonomic Hierarchy
130(3)
Higher Taxa
130(2)
What Is a Species?
132(1)
The Influence of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
133(1)
Voyage of the HMS Beagle
133(1)
A Closer Look 8.2---Saving Species Through Systematics
134(2)
Natural Selection
134(2)
PhyloCode
136(3)
Diversity of Plant Life
139(19)
The Six-Kingdom System
140(1)
Survey of the Plant Kingdom
141(1)
A Closer Look 9.1---Alternation of Generations
142(9)
Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
144(2)
Fern-Allies and Ferns
146(3)
Gymnosperms
149(2)
A Closer Look 9.2---Amber: A Glimpse into the Past
151(7)
Angiosperms
154(4)
Human Nutrition
158(23)
Macronutrients
159(1)
Sugars and Complex Carbohydrates
159(1)
A Closer Look 10.1---Feast or Famine
160(7)
Fiber in the Diet
162(1)
Proteins and Essential Amino Acids
163(1)
Fats and Cholesterol
164(3)
Micronutrients
167(7)
Vitamins
167(5)
Minerals
172(2)
Dietary Guidelines
174(4)
Balancing Nutritional Requirements
174(1)
A Healthier Food Pyramid
175(1)
Meatless Alternatives
176(2)
A Closer Look 10.2---Eat Broccoli for Cancer Prevention
178(3)
Origins of Agriculture
181(10)
Foraging Societies and Their Diets
182(1)
Early Foragers
182(1)
A Closer Look 11.1---Forensic Botany
183(2)
Modern Foragers
184(1)
Agriculture: Revolution or Evolution?
185(1)
Early Sites of Agriculture
185(2)
The Near East
185(1)
The Far East
186(1)
The New World
186(1)
Characteristics of Domesticated Plants
187(1)
Centers of Plant Domestication
188(3)
The Grasses
191(20)
Characteristics of the Grass Family
192(2)
Vegetative Characteristics
192(1)
The Flower
193(1)
The Grain
193(1)
Wheat: The Staff of Life
194(2)
Origin and Evolution of Wheat
194(1)
Modern Cultivars
195(1)
Nutrition
195(1)
A Closer Look 12.1---The Rise of Bread
196(1)
Corn: Indian Maize
197(3)
An Unusual Cereal
197(1)
Types of Corn
197(2)
Hybrid Corn
199(1)
A Closer Look 12.2---Barbara McClintock and Jumping Genes in Corn
200(3)
Ancestry of Corn
201(1)
Value of Corn
202(1)
Rice: Food for Billions
203(2)
A Plant for Flooded Fields
203(2)
Varieties
205(1)
Other Important Grains
205(2)
Rye and Triticale
205(2)
Oats
207(1)
Barley
207(1)
Sorghum and Millets
207(1)
Other Grasses
207(4)
Forage Grasses
207(1)
Lawn Grasses
208(3)
Legumes
211(14)
Characteristics of the Legume Family
212(1)
Important Legume Food Crops
212(2)
Beans and Peas
213(1)
Peanuts
213(1)
A Closer Look 13.1---The Nitrogen Cycle
214(4)
Soybeans
216(2)
Other Legumes of Interest
218(1)
A Closer Look 13.2---Harvesting Oil
219(6)
A Supertree for Forestry
221(1)
Forage Crops
221(1)
Beans of the Future
222(3)
Starchy Staples
225(16)
Storage Organs
226(1)
Modified Stems
226(1)
A Closer Look 14.1---Banana Republics: The Story of the Starchy Fruit
227(1)
Storage Roots
228(1)
White Potato
228(4)
South American Origins
228(1)
The Irish Famine
229(1)
Continental Europe
230(1)
The Potato in the United States
230(1)
Solanum tuberosum
230(1)
Pathogens and Pests
231(1)
Modern Cultivars
232(1)
Sweet Potato
232(1)
Origin and Spread
232(1)
Cultivation
233(1)
Cassava
233(2)
Origin and Spread
233(1)
Botany and Cultivation
234(1)
Processing
234(1)
Other Underground Crops
235(1)
Yams
235(1)
A Closer Look 14.2---Starch: In Our Collars and in Our Colas
236(5)
Taro
237(1)
Jerusalem Artichoke
238(3)
Feeding a Hungry World
241(27)
Breeding for Crop Improvement
242(1)
The Green Revolution
243(5)
High-Yield Varieties
243(2)
Disease-Resistant Varieties
245(1)
History of the Green Revolution
245(1)
Problems with the Green Revolution: What Went Wrong?
246(1)
Solutions?
247(1)
Genetic Diversity
248(3)
Monoculture
248(1)
Sustainable Agriculture
248(1)
Germplasm
249(1)
Seed Banks
249(2)
Alternative Crops: The Search for New Foods
251(2)
Quinoa
251(1)
Amaranth
251(1)
Tarwi
252(1)
Tamarillo and Naranjilla
252(1)
Oca
253(1)
Biotechnology
253(1)
Cell and Tissue Culture
253(1)
A Closer Look 15.1---Mutiny on the HMS Bounty: The Story of Breadfruit
254(14)
Genetic Engineering and Transgenic Plants
255(1)
Herbicide Resistance
256(1)
Against the Grain
257(1)
Insect Resistance
258(1)
Bt Corn and Controversy
259(1)
The Promise of ``Golden Rice''
260(1)
Other Genetically Engineered Foods
260(1)
Disease Resistance
261(1)
Farming Pharmaceuticals
261(1)
Nonfood Crops
261(1)
Regulatory Issues
262(1)
Environmental and Safety Considerations
262(6)
Stimulating Beverages
268(16)
Physiological Effects of Caffeine
269(1)
Coffee
270(4)
An Arabian Drink
270(1)
Plantations
271(2)
From Bean to Brew
273(1)
Varieties
273(1)
Decaffeination
273(1)
Variations on a Bean
274(1)
Tea
274(1)
Oriental Origins
274(1)
Cultivation and Processing
274(1)
A Closer Look 16.1---Tea Time: Ceremonies and Customs Around the World
275(2)
The Flavor and Health Effects of Tea
276(1)
History
276(1)
Chocolate
277(1)
Food of the Gods
277(1)
Quakers and Cocoa
277(1)
A Closer Look 16.2---Candy Bars: For the Love of Chocolate
278(3)
Cultivation and Processing
279(1)
The High Price of Chocolate
280(1)
Coca-Cola: An ``All-American'' Drink
281(1)
Other Caffeine Beverages
281(3)
Herbs and Spices
284(19)
Essential Oils
285(1)
History of Spices
285(1)
Ancient Trade
285(1)
A Closer Look 17.1---Aromatherapy: The Healing Power of Scents
286(3)
Marco Polo
287(1)
Age of Exploration
287(1)
Imperialism
287(1)
New World Discoveries
288(1)
Spices
289(6)
Cinnamon: The Fragrant Bark
289(1)
Black and White Pepper
289(1)
Cloves
289(1)
Nutmeg and Mace
290(1)
Ginger and Turmeric
291(1)
Saffron
292(1)
Hot Chilies and Other Capsicum Peppers
293(1)
Vanilla
294(1)
Allspice
295(1)
Herbs
295(5)
The Aromatic Mint
295(1)
The Parsley Family
295(2)
The Mustard Family
297(2)
The Lily Family: Pungent Alliums
299(1)
A Closer Look 17.2---Herbs to Dye For
300(3)
Materials: Cloth, Paper, and Wood
303(27)
Fibers
304(1)
Types of Fiber
304(1)
A Closer Look 18.1---A Tisket, a Tasket There Are Many Types of Baskets
305(9)
King Cotton
307(3)
Linen: An Ancient Fabric
310(1)
Other Bast Fibers
311(1)
Miscellaneous Fibers
312(1)
Rayon: ``Artificial Silk''
313(1)
Bark Cloth
314(1)
Wood and Wood Products
314(2)
A Closer Look 18.2---Good Vibrations
316(7)
Hardwoods and Softwoods
318(1)
Lumber, Veneer, and Plywood
319(2)
Fuel
321(1)
Other Products from Trees
321(1)
Wood Pulp
322(1)
Paper
323(2)
Early Writing Surfaces
323(1)
The Art of Papermaking
324(1)
Alternatives to Wood Pulp
324(1)
Bamboo
325(5)
Medicinal Plants
330(20)
History of Plants in Medicine
331(3)
Early Greeks and Romans
331(1)
Age of Herbals
331(2)
Modern Prescription Drugs
333(1)
Herbal Medicine Today
333(1)
A Closer Look 19.1---Native American Medicine
334(2)
Active Principles in Plants
336(1)
Alkaloids
336(1)
Glycosides
336(1)
Medicinal Plants
336(14)
Foxglove and the Control of Heart Disease
337(1)
Aspirin: From Willow Bark to Bayer
338(2)
Malaria and the Fever Bark Tree
340(2)
Snakeroot, Schizophrenia, and Hypertension
342(1)
The Burn Plant
342(1)
Ephedrine
343(1)
Cancer Therapy
344(1)
Herbal Remedies: Promise and Problems
345(5)
Psychoactive Plants
350(19)
Psychoactive Drugs
351(1)
The Opium Poppy
352(2)
An Ancient Curse
352(1)
The Opium Wars
353(1)
Opium Alkaloids
353(1)
Heroin
353(1)
Withdrawal
354(1)
Marijuana
354(4)
Early History in China and India
355(1)
Spread to the West
356(1)
THC and Its Psychoactive Effects
356(1)
Medical Uses
357(1)
A Closer Look 20.1---The Tropane Alkaloids and Witchcraft
358(1)
Cocaine
359(3)
South American Origins
359(1)
Freud, Holmes, and Coca-Cola
360(1)
Coke and Crack
360(1)
Medical Uses
361(1)
A Deadly Drug
361(1)
Tobacco
362(2)
A New World Habit
362(1)
Cultivation Practices
362(1)
Health Risks
362(2)
Peyote
364(2)
Mescal Buttons
365(1)
Native American Church
365(1)
Kava: The Drug of Choice in the Pacific
366(1)
Preparation of the Beverage
366(1)
Active Components in Kava
366(1)
Lesser Known Psychoactive Plants
366(3)
Poisonous and Allergy Plants
369(21)
Notable Poisonous Plants
370(3)
Poisonous Plants in the Wild
370(2)
Poisonous Plants in the Backyard
372(1)
A Closer Look 21.1---Allelopathy: Chemical Warfare in Plants
373(3)
Poisonous Plants in the Home
375(1)
Plants Poisonous to Livestock
375(1)
Plants That Cause Mechanical Injury
376(1)
Insecticides from Plants
376(2)
Allergy Plants
378(12)
Allergy and the Immune System
379(1)
Respiratory Allergies
380(1)
Hay Fever Plants
381(2)
Allergy Control
383(1)
Contact Dermatitis
384(1)
Food Allergies
384(2)
Latex Allergy
386(4)
The Algae
390(18)
Characteristics of the Algae
391(1)
Classification of the Algae
391(7)
Cyanobacteria
391(1)
Dinoflagellates
392(1)
Diatoms
393(1)
Euglenoids
394(1)
Green Algae
395(1)
Red Algae
395(2)
Brown Algae
397(1)
Algae in Our Diet
398(2)
Seaweeds
399(1)
Other Economic Uses of Algae
400(1)
Toxic and Harmful Algae
400(1)
Toxic Cyanobacteria
400(1)
A Closer Look 22.1---Drugs from the Sea
401(3)
Red Tides
402(1)
Pfiesteria
402(1)
Other Toxic Algae
402(2)
A Closer Look 22.2---Killer Alga: Story of a Deadly Invader
404(4)
Fungi in the Natural Environment
408(26)
Characteristics of Fungi
409(1)
Classification of Fungi
410(11)
Kingdom Protista
411(2)
Kingdom Fungi
413(8)
Role of Fungi in the Environment
421(1)
Decomposers---Nature's Recyclers
421(1)
Mycorrhizae: Root-Fungus Partnership
421(1)
A Closer Look 23.1---Lichens Algal-Fungal Partnership
422(1)
Plant Diseases with Major Impact on Humans
423(1)
A Closer Look 23.2---Dry Rot and Other Wood Decay Fungi
424(10)
Late Blight of Potato
425(2)
Rusts---Threat to the World's Breadbasket
427(1)
Corn Smut---Blight or Delight
428(1)
Dutch Elm Disease---Destruction in the Urban Landscape
429(2)
Sudden Oak Death---Destruction in the Forest
431(3)
Beverages and Foods from Fungi
434(20)
Making Wine
435(3)
The Wine Grape
436(1)
Harvest
437(1)
Red or White
437(1)
Fermentation
437(1)
A Closer Look 24.1---Disaster in the French Vineyards
438(4)
Clarification
440(1)
Aging and Bottling
440(1)
``Drinking Stars''
440(1)
Fortified and Dessert Wines
441(1)
The Brewing of Beer
442(2)
Barley Malt
442(1)
Mash, Hops, and Wort
442(1)
Fermentation and Lagering
442(2)
Sake, A Rice ``Beer''
444(1)
Distillation
444(2)
The Still
444(1)
Distilled Spirits
445(1)
The Whiskey Rebellion
445(1)
A Victorian Drink Revisited
446(2)
Absinthe
446(1)
The Green Hour
446(1)
Active Principles
447(1)
Absinthism
447(1)
A Closer Look 24.2---Alcohol and Health
448(2)
Fungi as Food
450(4)
Edible Mushrooms
450(1)
Fermented Foods
451(1)
Quorn Mycoprotein
452(2)
Fungi That Affect Human Health
454(18)
Antibiotics and Other Wonder Drugs
455(1)
Fleming's Discovery of Penicillin
455(1)
A Closer Look 25.1---The New Wonder Drugs
456(2)
Manufacture of Penicillin
457(1)
Other Antibiotics and Antifungals
458(1)
Fungal Poisons and Toxins
458(7)
Mycotoxins
458(2)
Ergot of Rye and Ergotism
460(2)
The Destroying Angel and Toadstools
462(1)
Soma and Hallucinogenic Fungi
463(2)
Human Pathogens and Allergies
465(7)
Dermatophytes
465(1)
Systemic Mycoses
466(1)
Allergies
467(1)
Indoor Fungi and Toxic Molds
468(4)
Plant Ecology
472(24)
The Ecosystem
473(5)
Ecological Niche
473(1)
Food Chains and Food Webs
474(1)
Energy Flow and Ecological Pyramids
475(2)
Biological Magnification
477(1)
Biogeochemical Cycling
478(1)
The Carbon Cycle
478(1)
Source or Sink
478(4)
The Greenhouse Effect
479(2)
Species Shift
481(1)
Global Warming Pact
482(1)
Ecological Succession
482(1)
The Green World: Biomes
483(7)
Deserts
483(2)
Crops from the Desert
485(2)
Chaparral
487(1)
Grasslands
487(1)
Forests
488(2)
A Closer Look 26.1---Buying Time for the Rain Forest
490(6)
Harvesting Trees
492(4)
Appendix A Metric System 496(1)
Appendix B Classification of Plants 497(1)
Glossary 498(11)
Credits 509(2)
Index 511


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